Freedom of expression is one of the essential foundations of the European Union. But freedom of expression can only be exercised in a free and pluralistic media environment, including through independent media governance.
The European Union's commitment to respect freedom and pluralism of the media, as well as the right to information and freedom of expression is enshrined in Article 11 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, similar to the provision of Article 10 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
On 26 November 2013, the Council of the European Union and the representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, adopted conclusions on media freedom and pluralism in the digital environment.
In those conclusions, the Council invites the Commission to:
Two public consultations on the independence of the audiovisual regulatory bodies (report) and on the Independent Report from the High Level Group on Media Freedom and Pluralism (report) were conducted in 2013.
An independent study on indicators for media pluralism in the EU Member States was commissioned to define and test concrete and objective indicators for assessing media pluralism in the EU Member States. The results, including the Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM), were published in 2009.