Stakeholder consultation on seabed mining
Integrated Maritime Policy
Public authorities, citizens, companies and organisations concerned with seabed mining are welcome to contribute to this consultation.
Period of consultation
From 17.03.2014 to 20.06.2014
Due to difficulties encountered by some stakeholders the deadline has been extended to 20 June
Why this consultation?
- Rapid expansion in the capabilities of underwater technology
- Concerns about a sustainable supply of raw materials for industry
- Existing extraction activities from seas and oceans, largely in shallow water, could increase
- Mining activities in deeper water could begin
Objective of this consultation
This consultation aims to gather opinions concerning these developments in order to help the EU develop its position.
About seabed mining
Today commercial scale seabed mining operations are limited to shallow water.
- Most of this concerns the extraction of aggregates – sand and gravel – for the construction industry and for nourishing beaches.
- Other material extracted from shallow water down to about 500 metres depth includes tin, phosphates, iron ore and diamonds.
The technologies involved include dredging, vacuum pumps and Remotely Operated Vehicles.
Deep seabed mining has been arousing interest since the 1960s but no commercial mining activity has yet begun. However, in the last decade interest has increased. Operations would be controlled from a floating platform at the sea surface and target one of four broad classes of deposits:
- polymetallic nodules;
- polymetallic sulphides;
- cobalt-rich crusts
- rare earth element-rich deep-sea sediments
The regulations governing such activities depend on whether they take place inside or outside the jurisdictional waters of a sovereign state.
According to the UN Law of the Sea a country enjoys exclusive sovereign rights to explore its continental shelf and exploit the natural resources, including mineral resources from it. Mining activities in this area are subject to the country's internal legislation. For EU countries, this legislation may include obligations agreed at EU level, such as the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive.
Deep-sea mining operations can also be carried out in the international seabed (the "Area” which is the sea-bed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction [article 1 UNCLOS]), for which a licence needs to be obtained from the International Seabed Authority, an intergovernmental body established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea with the mandate to organise and control activities of the Area, particularly with a view to administering the resources of the Area, to regulate seabed mining and to ensure the protection of the marine environment in the Area in relation to such activities.
How to submit your contribution
Please use the consultation form.
The consultation is available in Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, German, Estonian, Greek, Spanish, French, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Croatian, Hungarian, Maltese, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovakian, Slovenian, Finnish and Swedish. Change language by using the language selection menu (top right).
The consultation distinguishes the following classes of extraction:
- shallow water aggregates mining;
- shallow water mining of higher value materials (gold, diamonds, heavy minerals, iron ore);
- deep sea mining (high value metals and minerals).
We recognise that there are some questions that you might not be familiar with or which might not be relevant to you. In this case, tick the “no opinion” options and proceed to the next question. The questions are mostly multiple-choice but allow you to provide further explanations if you wish. Indeed, the more explanations you can provide, the more useful it will be.
It is important to read the privacy statement [82 KB] for information on how your personal data and contribution will be dealt with.
More information can be found on the following pages:
European Commission, Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Unit C1, Maritime policy Atlantic, outermost regions and Arctic
Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Unit C1, Maritime policy Atlantic, outermost regions and Arctic
Number of responses received to this consultation
Not yet available
View the contributions
In the interests of transparency, organisations have been invited to provide the public with relevant information about themselves by registering in the Transparency Register and subscribing to its Code of Conduct.
Results of consultation and next steps
The Commission services will publish a complete set of replies to the consultation as well as an analysis of them. The names and contact details of respondents, whether replying individually, or on behalf of an organisation, will not be divulged.
Specific privacy statement [82 KB]