Joint Research Centre - European Commission

JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE
The European Commission's in-house science service
European Commission

Reference Reports

JRC Reference Reports represent a JRC-wide view on a subject for which the JRC is noted as expert. They provide a reference for political decision-makers, the research community, stakeholders and an informed but non-specialist audience. JRC Reference Reports are authoritative documents that establish the current state of knowledge in specific areas of scientific investigations or in policy assessments. These areas are directly linked to S&T needs related to current or emerging issues focusing policy making.

 

Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU)

Requirements on measurements for the implementation of the European Commission definition of the term This report presents an in-depth review of methods available to measure the size of nanoparticles. Following the adoption of the definition of the term 'nanomaterial' in October 2011, it identifies relevant measurement methods and key challenges for measuring nanoparticle size in the regulatory context. It underlines that no single measurement method can be used for all materials to determine if each of them falls within the regulatory definition and therefore different methods will be required depending on the material under investigation.

Published: September 2012

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Mapping of Nuclear Education Possibilities and Nuclear Stakeholders in the EU-27

Mapping of Nuclear Education Possibilities and Nuclear Stakeholders in the EU-27 The declining support for nuclear energy has affected education in the nuclear field, especially at the higher educational level. Enrolment of less students in courses related to nuclear energy has led to reduced supply of human resources to the nuclear industry. One of the aims of this report is to inform students about the higher educational opportunities in the nuclear field available to them across Europe, so that they can make an educated choice of a field to study and consider working in the nuclear sector. This report also provides a mapping of the state of play in the educational and research institutions in the nuclear field in the EU-27. Its objective is to help academia and industry to strengthen exchange of information and co-operation. Much of the work to produce the report was carried out before the accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011

Published: September 2012

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Requirements on measurements for the implementation of the European Commission definition of the term "nanomaterial"

Requirements on measurements for the implementation of the European Commission definition of the term This report presents an in-depth review of methods available to measure the size of nanoparticles. Following the adoption of the definition of the term 'nanomaterial' in October 2011, it identifies relevant measurement methods and key challenges for measuring nanoparticle size in the regulatory context. It underlines that no single measurement method can be used for all materials to determine if each of them falls within the regulatory definition and therefore different methods will be required depending on the material under investigation.

Published: September 2012

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The International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook - Towards more sustainable production and consumption for a resource-efficient Europe

The International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook - Towards more sustainable production and consumption for a resource-efficient Europe - cover Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are the scientific approaches behind modern environmental policies and business practices related to Sustainable Consumption and Production and a resource-efficient society. The International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook provides governments and businesses with a basis for assuring quality and consistency of life cycle data, methods and assessments.

Published: May 2012

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A Conceptual Model for Developing Interoperability Specifications in Spatial Data Infrastructures

cover of the report The report describes a platform for the exchange and harmonisation of geographic and environmental data across the EU-27, aimed to better address water management, disaster mitigation, public health, agriculture and nature protection. This will translate into reducing costs of public administration and into clear benefits for the citizen, ranging from improved emergency services to a healthier everyday environment. It shows how spatial information from data from 27 countries – in 23 languages across 34 thematic fields – maintained by hundreds of different organisations, can become interoperable for use in today's information society. The participative approach described in the report can be a reference to other countries and regions of the world.

Published: April 2012

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Guidelines for conducting a cost-benefit analysis of Smart Grid projects

Guidelines for conducting a cost-benefit analysis of Smart Grid projects - cover Following the inventory of Smart Grid projects carried out by the JRC in 2011, this report provides guidance and advice for conducting cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid projects. The authors presente step by step assessment framework is based on the work performed by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) on cost-benefit analysis and provide methodological guidelines and best practices. Modifications to fit the European context have been proposed wherever necessary. This work draws on the existing collaboration between the European Commission (EC) and the US Department of Energy in the framework of the EU-US Energy Council.

Published: April 2012

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Technical Assessment of the Renewable Energy Action Plans

Technical Assessment of the Renewable Energy Action Plans - cover A report published by the JRC shows that Member States intend to achieve the EU 2020 target of 20% energy coming from renewable sources. The report shows that, according to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs), Member States plan to reach an overall share of 20.7% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. The JRC report is a technical assessment of the plans which Member States have submitted to the European Commission to provide detail on their national targets in renewable energy production and how they intend to reach them. The JRC's assessment shows that almost half of the Member States are planning to exceed their own targets and will therefore be able to provide surpluses for other Member States.

Published: February 2012

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The State of Soil in Europe - A contribution of the JRC to the European Environment Agency's Environment State and Outlook Report - SOER 2010

Deterring Illegal Activities in the Fisheries Sector - cover This report published by the JRC and the European Environment Agency provides a comprehensive overview of soil resources and degradation processes. The core of this report was prepared for the Assessment on Soil, which forms part of the 'The European Environment - state and outlook 2010 Report' (SOER) 20102, coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA). This Reference Report uses data from the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC), managed on behalf of EU institutions by the JRC.

Published: February 2012

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Prioritisation of Research and Development for modelling the safe production, storage, delivery and use of hydrogen

Cover page: Prioritisation of Research and Development for modelling the safe production, storage, delivery and use of hydrogenIn the report the critical issues and gaps in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of hydrogen related accidents are identified and prioritized. Hydrogen safety issues must be addressed in order to ensure that the wide spread deployment and use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies can occur with the same or lower level of hazards and associated risk compared to the conventional fossil fuel technologies. Identifying the modelling gaps is a first necessary step for making decisions on the next steps to carry out the full and safe utilization of hydrogen. The document aims to become a reference document for researchers/scientists and technical experts working in the area and for all funding bodies/organizations that must make decisions on research programmes and on the selection/choice of projects to be financially supported pursuing the safe use of hydrogen.

Published: 2011

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Deterring Illegal Activities in the Fisheries Sector - Genetics, Genomics, Chemistry and Forensics to Fight IUU Fishing and in Support of Fish Product Traceability

Deterring Illegal Activities in the Fisheries Sector - coverThis JRC report describes available molecular techniques and technologies and discusses how these can be used for traceability and in support of fisheries control and enforcement. The report provides examples of cases where molecular techniques were employed to reveal fisheries fraud and to generate evidence in court cases. These examples clearly demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of the techniques in real-world contexts. Furthermore, the report explores possibilities for translating forensic genetics and chemistry into a European fisheries control and enforcement framework, within the context of the current EU policies and legislation.

Published: May 2011

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Regulating Air Emissions from Ships - The State of the Art on Methodologies, Technologies and Policy Options

Regulating Air Emissions from Ships - coverThis report provides the first comprehensive overview of methodologies for estimating air emissions from shipping, describes technological solutions and proposes policy options for reducing carbon emissions and air pollution in this sector. Maritime transport causes about 4% of global man-made CO2 emissions, which makes its carbon footprint approximately as high as Germany's.

Published: November 2010

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Compendium of reference methods for GMO analysis

Compendium of reference methods for GMO analysis  - coverThis report lists 79 reference methods for GMO analysis which have been validated according to international standards. The compendium, developed jointly by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EURL-GMFF) and the European Network of GMO Laboratories (ENGL), presents the technical state of the art in GMO detection methods. Each method is described in a user-friendly way, facilitating the implementation of GMO legislation by official control bodies.

Published: November 2010

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Background Guide for the Calculation of Land Carbon Stocks in the Biofuels Sustainability Scheme

Background Guide for the Calculation of Land Carbon Stocks in the Biofuels Sustainability Scheme - coverDrawing on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
This Guide covers the calculation of carbon-stock changes in soil and above- and below-ground vegetation due to land use conversion in support of Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, particularly for assessing carbon-stock changes due to land conversion for biofuel production.

Published: September 2010

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Impacts of the EU biofuel target on agricultural markets and land use: a comparative modelling assessment

Impacts of the EU biofuel target on agricultural markets and land use: a comparative modelling assessment - coverThe Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) requires that 20% of the EU's energy needs should come from renewable sources by 2020, and includes a target for the transport sector of 10% from biofuels. This report analyses and discusses the global impacts of this biofuel target on agricultural production, markets and land use, as simulated by three agricultural sector models, AGLINK-COSIMO, ESIM and CAPRI.

Published: July 2010

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Considerations on a definition of nanomaterial for regulatory purposes

Considerations on a Definition of Nanomaterial for Regulatory Purposes - coverThe aim of this report is to review and discuss issues and challenges related to a definition of ‘nanomaterial’, and to provide practical guidance for a definition for regulatory purposes.

Published: July 2010

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R&D Investment in the priority technologies of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan

report cover The report constitutes a benchmark of current expenditures on industrial and public R&D in low-carbon energy technologies that have been identified as a priority for the EU in the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan.

Published: October 2009

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Geological disposal of radioactive waste: moving towards implementation

report cover The report analyses the state-of-the-art of science, technology and procedures needed to implement the desired end point in (high-level) radioactive waste management: deep geological disposal.

Published: October 2009

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Risk management and agricultural insurance schemes in Europe

report cover The report reviews the agricultural risk management systems in the European Union, providing a comprehensive state of the art of the agricultural insurance schemes and public intervention in risk management in the different countries.

Published: September 2009

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Liquefied Natural Gas for Europe – some important issues for consideration

report cover The report looks at the likely impact of increased reliance on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and more shipments of LNG to the European Union.

Published: July 2009

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Future fossil fuel electricity generation in Europe, options and consequences

report cover The report assesses the role that fossil fuel technologies will play in the future EU power system.

Published: July 2009

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Mapping R&D investment by the European ICT business sector

report cover The report provides European business and policy decision-makers with the first comprehensive overview of available data on European ICT industry R&D spending.

Published: November 2008

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Scientific and technical contribution to the development of an overall health strategy in the area of GMOs

report coverThe study is intended to contribute to an open debate with a broad range of stakeholders on the potential health impact associated with the consumption of GMOs by providing up-to-date opinions of experts in this field. For this purpose, the JRC has collaborated with international experts and, particularly for Annex I and II, it has closely worked with the European Food Safety Authority.

Published: November 2008

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Impacts of Europe's changing climate

report coverThe report 'Impacts of Europe’s changing climate', based on 40 key indicators, stresses the consequences of both observed and projected changes, including an increased risk of floods and droughts, losses of biodiversity, threats to human health and damage to economic sectors such as energy, transport, forestry, agriculture, and tourism.

Published: September 2008

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Global Climate Policy Scenarios for 2030 and beyond

Report cover Global Climate Policy Scenarios for 2030 and beyondThe European Union is committed to limiting the global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius by the year 2100. In 2007, the European Commission published a Communication on 'Limiting Global Climate Change to 2 degrees Celsius: the way ahead for 2020 and beyond', which explores ways for meeting this target. The Communication drew on scenarios developed by the Joint Research Centre IPTS. These scenarios and the underlying model toolbox are presented in this report.

Published: December 2007

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A pan-European river and catchment database

report coverDigital data on river networks, lakes and drainage basins (catchments) are an important pre-requisite for modelling hydrological processes, including the analysis of pressures and their impact on water resources. The Catchment Characterisation and Modelling (CCM) activity of the JRC has developed advanced methodologies to derive adequate layers from digital elevation data and ancillary information. This report details the background for developing this database, describes the methodology implemented, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the approach.

Published: November 2007

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Consequences, opportunities and challenges of modern biotechnology for Europe

Cover Reference Report 2007/01Modern biotechnology products and processes are an integral part of the EU economy, mainly in manufacturing, including pharmaceuticals, agro-food and healthcare. While some products are not recognizable to the broader public (e.g. the use of genetic markers in livestock breeding), others are used on a daily basis (detergents with enzymes, recombinant insulin) or have become subject of public discussion (e.g. genetically modified crops). Modern biotechnology contributes significantly to the achievement of major EU policy objectives.

Published: April 2007

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