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Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

 In the last decade, the EU has made major steps towards building a truly comprehensive migration policy, based on common political principles and solidarity. The Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM) is, since 2005, the overarching framework of the EU external migration and asylum policy. The framework defines how the EU conducts its policy dialogues and cooperation with non-EU countries, based on clearly defined priorities and embedded in the EU’s overall external action, including development cooperation.

Main priorities

The GAMM is an example of international cooperation at its best – taking account of the interests and objectives of all involved: EU, partner countries and migrants themselves. The agenda is balanced and comprehensive, aimed at four equally important objectives:

  • better organising legal migration, and fostering well-managed mobility
  • preventing and combatting irregular migration, and eradicating trafficking in human beings
  • maximising the development impact of migration and mobility
  • promoting international protection, and enhancing the external dimension of asylum

The respect of human rights is a cross-cutting priority for  this policy framework.

The GAMM is implemented through several political instruments (bilateral and regional policy dialogues and action plans), legal instruments (such as visa facilitation and readmission agreements), operational support and capacity building as well as programme and project support made available to third countries and other stakeholders, e.g. civil society and international organisations.

In the period 2004-2013, the European Commission has committed more than EUR 1 billion to more than 400 migration-related projects. Southern Mediterranean and sub-Saharan African countries have been leading beneficiaries of this funding.

The Communication ‘Maximising the Development Impact of Migration’ of 21 May 2013 identified proposals on how the EU can adopt a more ambitious approach in this area under both the GAMM and the EU’s development policy, the Agenda for Change. It proposed a broadened approach, which gives greater attention to South-South flows, effective integration of migration into national development and poverty reduction plans as well as the inclusion of refugees and other displaced persons in long-term development planning. The main orientations of the Communication were endorsed through Council Conclusions adopted on 23 September 2013.

Geographic balance

The framework and methodology of the GAMM are being applied globally with relevant non-EU countries. This allows sufficient flexibility to develop appropriate priorities as the need arises, and to tailor the EU engagement with partner countries appropriately in accordance with existing foreign policy as well as asylum and migration priorities.

Priority is given to the immediate southern and eastern neighbourhood, while migratory routes and countries of origin and transit of strategic interest to the EU are also given special focus.

As regards the regional dialogue processes, priority is given to:

Cooperation frameworks

The most elaborated bilateral cooperation frameworks under the GAMM are the Mobility Partnerships (MP) and the Common Agendas for Migration and Mobility (CAMM). They both offer a political framework for comprehensive, enhanced and tailor-made dialogue and cooperation with partner countries (covering all four GAMM objectives), including a set of targets and commitments as well as a package of specific support measures offered by the EU and interested Member States. Both address mobility issues, including where appropriate visa issues, as well as the need to facilitate return and readmission of irregular migrants. However, there are two particular differences: (1) establishing a MP would include the negotiation of visa facilitation and readmission agreements, whereas a CAMM would not, and (2) an MP is mainly used vis-à-vis neighbourhood countries, whereas a CAMM should mainly be used for other third countries.

Seven Mobility Partnerships have been signed so far: with Cape Verde pdf - 138 KB [138 KB] , the Republic of Moldova pdf - 151 KB [151 KB] , Georgia pdf - 198 KB [198 KB] , Armenia pdf - 121 KB [121 KB] , Morocco pdf - 440 KB [440 KB] français (fr) , Azerbaijan and Tunisia pdf - 7 MB [7 MB] français (fr) .

Two Common Agendas on Migration and Mobility (CAMMs) have been signed with Ethiopia pdf - 3 MB [3 MB] and Nigeria

The Commission's first biennial report on the implementation of the GAMM was adopted on 21 February 2014. The report was welcomed by Council Conclusions of 14 April 2014, which endorsed most of the findings in the report.

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Glossary

Trafficking in human beings

The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or reception of persons, including the exchange or transfer ...

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Smuggling of migrants

The procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry ...

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Return

In a general sense, the act or process of going back to the point of departure. This could be within the territorial ...

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Remittance

All financial transfers from migrants to beneficiaries in their countries of origin.

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Regional Protection Programme

Designed to enhance the protection capacity of the regions involved - both regions of origin and transit - and to ...

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Reintegration

Re-inclusion or re-incorporation of a person into a group or a process, e.g. of a migrant into the society of ...

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Readmission

Act by a State accepting the re-entry of an individual (own national, third-country national or stateless person).

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Rabat process

A regional process that was launched with a ministerial conference in Rabat in July 2006, which set up a ...

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Prague process

A process to strengthen cooperation in migration management between the EU and 19 partner countries to the ...

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Mobility partnership

Provide the overall framework for managing various forms of legal movement between the EU and non-EU ...

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Migration profile

A tool to bring together and analyse all the relevant information needed to develop policy in the field of migration ...

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Migration

The movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border (international migration),...

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Migrant

A broader-term of an immigrant and emigrant, referring to a person who leaves one country or region to settle in ...

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Management

Comprises three main tasks: - supervision and responsibility for increasing the performance of others...

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Legal migration

Migration that occurs through recognised, authorised channels.

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Irregular migration

The movement of a person to a new place of residence or transit using irregular or illegal means, without valid ...

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Immigration Liaison Officer (ILO)

A representative of one of the EU States posted abroad by the immigration service or other competent authority in order to establish and maintain contacts with the authorities of the host country with a view to contributing to the prevention and combating of irregular immigration, the return of irregular migrants and the management of legal migration.

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Global Approach to Migration

The external dimension of the EU's migration policy that brings together migration, external relations and ...

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Diaspora

Individuals and members or networks, associations and communities, who have left their country of origin, but ...

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Circular migration

A form of migration that is managed in a way allowing some degree of legal mobility back and forth between two ...

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Budapest process

A consultative forum of more than fifty Governments from the wider European region and ten international ...

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Brain waste

The non-recognition of the skills and qualifications acquired by migrants outside of the EU, which prevents them ...

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Brain drain

The loss suffered by a country as a result of the emigration of (highly) qualified persons.

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