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Cooperation on Home Affairs is an integral part of the EU-Africa partnership. On the basis of the of its Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM) the EU is running an intense and broad dialogue with  Africa on migration and mobility at bilateral, regional and continental level. In line with the GAMM, those dialogues cover its four thematic priorities thus covering topics like regular migration intra-African mobility, the fight against human trafficking, the protection of migrants, the promotion of asylum and international protection, capacity building in border control, the maximisation of the positive correlation between migration and development (which includes mitigating the impact of brain drain, enhancing the role of African diasporas in the development of their countries of origin, or helping African countries build up their capacity to manage migration flows).

The Commission of the African Union visiting the European Commission in Brussels, 1 June 2011

Bilateral Dialogues between the EU and Sub-Saharan African States

The Mobility Partnership with Cape Verde

On 21 May 2008, Cape Verde and the EU signed a joint declaration on a Mobility Partnership, the first cooperation of this kind between the EU and an African state and, for the time being, the only Mobility Partnership concluded with a Sub-Saharan state. Five EU Member States (Portugal, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain) participate in this partnership and develop several initiatives covering the different objectives embodied in the Political Declaration.

In 2012 and 2013, respectively, two flagship agreements, one on visa facilitation and the other on readmission, were concluded by Cape Verde and the EU. Both entered into force on 1 December 2014.

Cooperation at regional level

The Rabat Process

The Commission is supporting financially and politically the Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development with Western and Central African countries launched in 2006 in Rabat (the so-called Rabat Process). The Rabat Process brings together more than fifty countries of origin, transit and destination, which have a shared vision of a rational, balanced and efficient management of migration flows from and via West and Central Africa. The objective is to create a framework for dialogue and consultation within which concrete, practical initiatives are implemented. A new strategy (the Dakar Strategy ) was adopted in November 2011 to guide the development of the Rabat process for the years 2012-2014.

The Seahorse Atlantic Network is an example of a concrete cooperation at regional level between Spain, Portugal, Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde, Morocco, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. It enables the information exchange between authorities along the Western African coast in order to prevent irregular migration and cross-border crime.

The ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development

On the basis of Article 13 of the Cotonou Convention , the EU and the ACP States run a Dialogue on Migration and Development covering several topics agreed among the parties. In 2012, three thematic seminars were organised on remittances, visas and readmission and the conclusions of these events were endorsed at ministerial level at the Joint EU-ACP Ministerial Council held in Vanuatu in June 2012. Both parties thus committed to implement the conclusions in the three different areas.

The EU-Africa Partnership on Migration, Mobility and Employment

The Africa-EU Partnership on Migration, Mobility and Employment (MME) was launched during the 2nd Africa-EU Summit of Heads of State and Government in December 2007 in Lisbon, where the Joint EU-Africa Strategy and the First Action Plan (2008-2010) were also adopted.

The MME partnership provides the framework for dialogue and cooperation on migration issues between the EU and all African States.

The added value of the MME partnership is that it allows for a dialogue on migration between EU and Africa at continental level, with the African Union Commission as the main interlocutor. It is therefore an inclusive framework, with the participation of all African states including the countries of the Southern Mediterranean.

So far, the MME partnership led to some significant results, the best example being the African Institute on Remittances created to better leverage financial flows and monitor the flows of labour and remittances and oversee policies to make them easier, cheaper, safer, and more productive. The fight against Trafficking in Human Beings is also one of the field is which the MME bore fruits: with the support of the EU, the African Union Commission is assisting regional actors in building their capacity to effectively address and respond to the challenges posed in the protection, prevention and prosecution of trafficking in human beings. The MME partnership’s Action Plan for 2011-2013 foresees a total of 12 initiatives on migration, employment and higher education.

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Related legislation
and documents


Tripoli conclusions

At the Tripoli EU-Africa Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development in ...


Trafficking in human beings

The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or reception of persons, including the exchange or transfer ...



A person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political ...


Rabat process

A regional process that was launched with a ministerial conference in Rabat in July 2006, which set up a ...


Organised crime

Activities of large-scale criminal and terrorist networks, including terrorism, international drugs trafficking, trafficking ...


Mobility partnership

Provide the overall framework for managing various forms of legal movement between the EU and non-EU ...


Migration flow

The number of migrants crossing a boundary, within a specific time period, for the purpose of establishing ...



The movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border (international migration),...



A broader-term of an immigrant and emigrant, referring to a person who leaves one country or region to settle in ...


Brain drain

The loss suffered by a country as a result of the emigration of (highly) qualified persons.