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war crime

AT/DE/LU: Kriegsverbrechen
BG: военно престъпление
CS: válečný zločin
EE: sõjakuritegu
ES: crímenes de guerra
FI: sotarikokset
FR/BE/LU: crimes de guerre
GR: εγκλήματα πολέμου
HU: háborús bűncselekmények
IE: coir chogaidh
IT: crimine di guerra
LT: karo nusikaltimas
LV: kara noziegums
MT: Reati tal-gwerra
NL/BE: oorlogsmisdaden (syn.: oorlogsmisdrijven)
NO: krigsforbrytelse (b) / krigsbrotsverk (n)
PL: zbrodnie wojenne
PT: crimes de guerra
RO: crime de război
SE: krigsförbrytelser
SI: vojni zločin
SK: vojnový zločin

Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions or other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict within the established framework of international law, as defined in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.


Related Term: crime against humanity, exclusion clause

Source:Art. 8(2) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

well-founded fear of persecution

AT/DE/LU: begründete Furcht vor Verfolgung
BG: добре обоснован страх от преследване
CS: podložená obava z pronásledování
EE: põhjendatud tagakiusamise kartus
ES: temor justificado de persecución
FI: perusteltu vainon pelko
FR/BE/LU: crainte fondée de persécution
HU: üldöztetéstől való megalapozott félelem
IE: faitíos roimh ghéarleanúint a bhfuil bunús/údar maith leis
IT: giustificato timore di persecuzione
LT: visiškai pagrįsta baimė būti persekiojamam
LV: pamatotas bailes no vajāšanas
MT: Biża’ ġustifikata ta’ persekuzzjoni
NL/BE: gegronde vrees voor vervolging
NO: velbegrunnet frykt for forfølgelse (b) / velgrunna frykt for forfølging (n)
PL: uzasadniona obawa przed prześladowaniem
RO: teamă de persecuţie bine fondată
SE: välgrundad fruktan för förföljelse
SI: utemeljen strah pred preganjanjem
SK: opodstatnená obava z prenasledovania

The fear of persecution experienced by an applicant for international protection that is considered both genuine and objectively justifiable (e.g. because the person concerned has already been subject to persecution or serious harm, or to direct threats of such persecution or such harm, and there is no good reason to consider that such persecution or serious harm will not be repeated).


Related Term: credibility assessment, real risk of suffering serious harm

Note:
1. This is a key element of the definition of a refugee in the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and its Protocol of 31 January 1967. Well-foundedness of fear contains both a subjective element (fear of persecution) and an objective element (the fear must have an objectively justifiable basis). Both elements must be established for the fear to be considered well-founded within the meaning of the refugee definition. According to the 1951 Convention, persecution must be linked to any one of the five specified grounds: race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group and political opinion.
2. The subjective element is satisfied if the applicant‘s fear of persecution is genuine. In the context of refugee status determination, fear has been defined as an apprehension or awareness of danger. General dissent or disagreement with a government or the desire for more personal freedom or an improved economic situation without anything more does not satify this element (see the UNHCR guidelines on international protection on the UNHCR website).
3. The objective element is satisfied when the applicant has established that there is a reasonable possibility that they will actually suffer the feared persecution.

Source:Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary 2nd ed., 2011

withdrawal of an application for international protection

BG: оттегляне на молба за международна закрила
CS: vzít zpět žádost o udělení mezinárodní ochrany
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse taotluse tagasivõtmine
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskevan hakemuksen peruuttaminen
FR/BE/LU: retrait d'une demande de protection internationale
HU: nemzetközi védelem iránti kérelem visszavonása
IE: iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta a tharraingt siar
IT: ritiro della domanda di protezione internazionale
LT: prašymo suteikti prieglobstį nagrinėjimo nutraukimas
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikuma atsaukšana
MT: Irtirar ta' applikazzjoni għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: intrekking van een verzoek om internationale bescherming
NO: tilbaketrekking av søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b)/ tilbaketrekking av søknad om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: wycofanie wniosku o ochronę międzynarodową
SE: återkallande av ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: umik prošnje za mednarodno zaščito
SK: späťvzatie žiadosti o medzinárodnú ochranu / späťvzatie žiadosti o udelenie medzinárodnej ochrany

The actions by which the applicant terminates the procedures initiated by the submission of their application for international protection, in accordance with Directive 2013/32/EU, either explicitly or tacitly.

Source:Art. 2(e) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

withdrawal of international protection

AT/DE/LU: Aberkennung des internationalen Schutzes
BG: отнемане на международна закрила
CS: odnětí mezinárodní ochrany
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse tagasivõtmine
ES: retirada de la protección internacional
FI: kansainvälisen suojelun poistaminen /lakkauttaminen/peruttaminen
FR/BE/LU: retrait de la protection internationale
HU: nemzetközi védelem visszavonása
IE: cosaint idirnáisiúnta a tharraingt siar
IT: revoca della protezione internazionale
LT: prieglobsčio panaikinimas
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības statusa atņemšana
MT: Irtirar tal-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: intrekking van de internationale bescherming
NO: tilbaketrekking av internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / tilbaketrekking av internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: cofnięcie ochrony międzynarodowej
RO: retragerea protecţiei internaţionale
SE: återkallande av internationellt skydd
SI: preklic mednarodne zaščite
SK: odňatie medzinárodnej ochrany

The decision by a competent authority to revoke, end or refuse to renew the refugee or subsidiary protection status of a person in accordance with Directive 2011/95/EU.


Narrower Term: withdrawal of refugee status

Related Term: refugee status, subsidiary protection status

Source:Art. 2(o) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

withdrawal of refugee status

AT/DE/LU: Entziehung/Aberkennung der Flüchtlingseigenschaft
BG: отнемане на бежански статут
CS: odnětí postavení uprchlíka
EE: pagulasseisundi kehtetuks tunnistamine
ES: retirada del estatuto de refugiado
FI: pakolaisaseman poistaminen /lakkauttaminen/peruuttaminen
FR/BE/LU: retrait du statut de réfugié
GR: ανάκληση καθεστώτος πρόσφυγα
HU: menekültügyi státusz visszavonása
IE: stádas dídeanaí a tharraingt siar
IT: revoca dello status di rifugiato
LT: pabėgėlio statuso panaikinimas
LV: bēgļa statusa zaudēšana
MT: Revoka / Kanċellazzjoni / Tneħħija tal-istatus ta’ refuġjat
NL/BE: intrekking van de internationale beschermingsstatus
NO: tilbakekall av flyktningstatus (b) / attendekalling av flyktningstatus (n)
PL: cofnięcie statusu uchodźcy
PT: retirada do estatuto de refugiado
RO: retragerea statutului de refugiat
SE: återkallande av flyktingstatus
SI: preklic statusa begunca
SK: odňatie postavenia [statusu, štatútu] utečenca (EU acquis)

The decision by a competent authority to revoke, end or refuse to renew the refugee status of a person in accordance with Directive 2011/95/EU.


Broader Term: withdrawal of international protection

Related Term: refugee status

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(o) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

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