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War crime

AT/DE/LU: Kriegsverbrechen
BG: военно престъпление
CS: válečný zločin
EE: sõjakuritegu
ES: crímenes de guerra
FI: sotarikokset
FR/BE/LU: crimes de guerre
GR: εγκλήματα πολέμου
HU: háborús bűncselekmények
IE: coir chogaidh
IT: crimine di guerra
LT: karo nusikaltimas
LV: kara noziegums
MT: Reati tal-gwerra
NL/BE: oorlogsmisdaden (syn.: oorlogsmisdrijven)
NO: sårbar person
PL: zbrodnie wojenne
PT: crimes de guerra
RO: crime de război
SE: krigsförbrytelser
SI: vojni zločin
SK: vojnový zločin

Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions or other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict within the established framework of international law, as defined in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.


Related Term: crime against humanity, exclusion clause

Source:Art. 8(2) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

Well-founded fear of persecution

AT/DE/LU: begründete Furcht vor Verfolgung
BG: добре обоснован страх от преследване
CS: podložená obava z pronásledování
EE: põhjendatud tagakiusamise kartus
ES: temor justificado de persecución
FI: perusteltu vainon pelko
FR/BE/LU: crainte fondée de persécution
HU: üldöztetéstől való megalapozott félelem
IE: faitíos roimh ghéarleanúint a bhfuil bunús/údar maith leis
IT: giustificato timore di persecuzione
LT: visiškai pagrįsta baimė būti persekiojamam
LV: pamatotas bailes no vajāšanas
MT: Biża’ ġustifikata ta’ persekuzzjoni
NL/BE: gegronde vrees voor vervolging
NO: krigsforbrytelse (b) / krigsbrotsverk (n)
PL: uzasadniona obawa przed prześladowaniem
RO: teamă de persecuţie bine fondată
SE: välgrundad fruktan för förföljelse
SI: utemeljen strah pred preganjanjem
SK: opodstatnená obava z prenasledovania

The fear of persecution experienced by an applicant for international protection that is considered both genuine and objectively justifiable (e.g. because the person concerned has already been subject to persecution or serious harm, or to direct threats of such persecution or such harm, and there is no good reason to consider that such persecution or serious harm will not be repeated).


Related Term: credibility assessment, real risk of suffering serious harm

Note:
1. This is a key element of the definition of a refugee in the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and its Protocol of 31 January 1967. Well-foundedness of fear contains both a subjective element (fear of persecution) and an objective element (the fear must have an objectively justifiable basis). Both elements must be established for the fear to be considered well-founded within the meaning of the refugee definition. According to the 1951 Convention, persecution must be linked to any one of the five specified grounds: race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group and political opinion.
2. The subjective element is satisfied if the applicant‘s fear of persecution is genuine. In the context of refugee status determination, fear has been defined as an apprehension or awareness of danger. General dissent or disagreement with a government or the desire for more personal freedom or an improved economic situation without anything more does not satify this element (see the UNHCR guidelines on international protection on the UNHCR website).
3. The objective element is satisfied when the applicant has established that there is a reasonable possibility that they will actually suffer the feared persecution.

Source:Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary 2nd ed., 2011

Withdrawal of refugee status

AT/DE/LU: Entziehung/Aberkennung der Flüchtlingseigenschaft
BG: отнемане на бежански статут
CS: odnětí postavení uprchlíka
EE: pagulasseisundi kehtetuks tunnistamine
ES: retirada del estatuto de refugiado
FI: pakolaisaseman poistaminen /lakkauttaminen/peruuttaminen
FR/BE/LU: retrait du statut de réfugié
GR: ανάκληση καθεστώτος πρόσφυγα
HU: menekültügyi státusz visszavonása
IE: stádas dídeanaí a tharraingt siar
IT: revoca dello status di rifugiato
LT: pabėgėlio statuso panaikinimas
LV: bēgļa statusa zaudēšana
MT: Revoka / Kanċellazzjoni / Tneħħija tal-istatus ta’ refuġjat
NL/BE: intrekking van de internationale beschermingsstatus
NO: tilbaketrekking av internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / tilbaketrekking av internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: cofnięcie statusu uchodźcy
PT: retirada do estatuto de refugiado
RO: retragerea statutului de refugiat
SE: återkallande av flyktingstatus
SI: preklic statusa begunca
SK: odňatie postavenia [statusu, štatútu] utečenca (EU acquis)

The decision by a competent authority to revoke, end or refuse to renew the refugee status of a person in accordance with Directive 2011/95/EU.


Broader Term: withdrawal of international protection

Related Term: refugee status

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(o) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

Worker (cross-border)

AT/DE/LU: Grenzgänger
BG: трансграничен работник
CS: přeshraniční pracovník; příhraniční pracovník
EE: piiriülene töötaja
ES: trabajador transfronterizo
FI: rajatyöntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur transfrontalier
HU: határ menti ingázó munkavállaló
IE: oibrí trasteorann
IT: lavoratore frontaliero
LT: darbuotojas, kertantis vidaus sienas
LV: pārrobežu darba ņēmējs
MT: Ħaddiem transkonfinali / jaqsam fruntiera
NL/BE: grensarbeider
NO: grensependler (b) / grensependlar (n)
PL: pracownik transgraniczny
RO: lucrator transfrontalier
SE: gränsarbetare
SI: čezmejni delavec
SK: cezhraničný pracovník

A person who works as an employee or self-employed person in one Member State but is recognised as residing in another (neighbouring) Member State.


Synonym(s): cross-border commuter

Related Term: frontier worker

Note:
1. In dealing with cross-border issues a multitude of definitions for the term 'cross-border worker/commuter' exists.
2. The concept of cross-border workers covers different circumstances, depending on whether one takes the Community meaning (set out, in particular, in connection with social security) or the various definitions included in bilateral double-taxation agreements.
3. Where tax is concerned, bilateral double-taxation agreements determining the tax arrangements applicable to frontier workers use more restrictive definitions which additionally impose a spatial criterion: the fact of living and working in a frontier zone.
4. Often 'cross-border workers' and 'frontier workers' are considered as synonyms. However, cross-border workers are distinct from frontier workers to the extent that they do not necessarily work in the frontier zone of the host country.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'cross-border workers' by DG Taxation and Customs Union (DG TAXUD)

Worker (posted)

AT/DE/LU: entsandter Arbeitnehmer
BG: командирован работник
CS: vyslaný pracovník
EE: sallitud/tolereeritud (riigis) viibimine (no usual translation)
ES: trabajador desplazado
FI: lähetetty työntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur détaché
HU: kihelyezett dolgozó
IE: oibrí ar phostú
IT: lavoratore distaccato
LT: komandiruotas darbuotojas
LV: darba ņēmējs, kas norīkots darbā citā dalībvalstī
MT: Ħaddiem stazzjonat / ippostjat
NL/BE: ter beschikking gestelde werknemer
NO: utsatt uttransportering (b) / utsett uttransportering (n)
PL: pobyt tolerowany
RO: lucrător detaşat
SE: uppskov med avlägsnande
SI: dovolitev zadrževanja /odložitev vračanja
SK: vyslaný pracovník

A worker who, for a limited period, carries out his work in the territory of a Member State other than the State in which they normally work.


Note:
A posted worker is also one of the forms of ‘trade in services mode 4’ according to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).

Source:Art. 2(1) of Directive 96/71/EC (Posting of Workers Directive)

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