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safe country of origin

AT/DE/LU: sicherer Herkunftsstaat
BG: сигурна страна на произход
CS: bezpečná země původu
EE: turvaline päritoluriik (kolmas riik)
ES: país de origen seguro
FI: turvallinen alkuperämaa
FR/BE/LU: pays d'origine sûr
GR: ασφαλής χώρα προέλευσης
HU: biztonságos származási ország
IE: tír bhunaidh shábháilte
IT: paese di origine sicuro
LT: saugi kilmės valstybė
LV: droša izcelsmes valsts
MT: Pajjiż tal-oriġini sigur / bla perikli
NL/BE: veilig land van herkomst
NO: trygt hjemland (b) / trygt heimland (n)
PL: bezpieczny kraj pochodzenia
PT: país de origem seguro
RO: ţara de origine sigură
SE: säkert ursprungsland
SI: varna izvorna država
SK: bezpečná krajina pôvodu

A country where, on the basis of the legal situation, the application of the law within a democratic system and the general political circumstances, it can be shown that there is generally and consistently no persecution as defined in Art. 9 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) , no tortureor inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and no threat by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict.

Narrower Term: concept of safe country of origin

Broader Term: country of origin

Related Term: safe third country

1. According to Art. 37 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive), Member States may retain or introduce legislation that allows for the national designation of safe countries of origin for the purposes of examining applications for international protection .
2. According to the Protocol 29 of TFEU, EU Member States shall be regarded as constituting safe countries of origin in respect of each other for all legal and practical purposes in relation to asylum matters. Accordingly, any application for asylum made by a national of a Member State are normally not taken into consideration.
3. Member States shall regularly review the situation in third countries that are designated as safe countries of origin.
4. The assessment of whether a country is a safe country of origin shall be based on a range of sources of information, including in particular information from other Member States, EASO, UNHCR, the Council of Europe and other relevant international organisations.
5. According to Art. 36 of Directive 2013/32/EU, the 'concept of safe country of origin' means that a third country is - after an individual examination of the application - considered as a safe country of origin for a particular applicant only if:

  1. they have the nationality of that country; or
  2. they are a stateless person and were formerly habitually resident in that country, and they have not submitted any serious grounds for considering the country not to be a safe country of origin in their particular circumstances and in terms of their qualification as a beneficiary of international protection in accordance with Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive).

Source:Annex 1 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

safe third country

AT/DE/LU: sicherer Drittstaat
BG: сигурна трета страна
CS: bezpečná třetí země
EE: turvaline kolmas riik
ES: tercer país seguro
FI: turvallinen kolmas maa
FR/BE/LU: pays tiers sûr
GR: ασφαλής τρίτη χώρα
HU: biztonságos harmadik ország
IE: tríú tír shábháilte
IT: paese terzo sicuro
LT: saugi trečioji valstybė
LV: droša trešā valsts
MT: Pajjiż terz sigur / bla perikli
NL/BE: veilig derde land
NO: trygt tredjeland
PL: bezpieczny kraj trzeci
PT: país terceiro seguro
RO: ţară/stat terţ(ă) sigură
SE: säkert tredjeland
SI: varna tretja država
SK: bezpečná tretia krajina

A third countrythat treats a person seeking international protection in accordance with the following principles:

  1. life and liberty are not threatened on account of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion;
  2. there is no risk of serious harmas defined in Directive 2011/95/EU;
  3. the principle of non-refoulement in accordance with the Geneva Convention of 1951is respected;
  4. the prohibition of removal , in violation of the right to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment as laid down in international law, is respected; and
  5. the possibility exists to request refugee statusand, if found to be a refugee, to receive protection in accordance with the Geneva Convention.

Broader Term: third country

Related Term: safe country of origin

Source:Art. 38 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

Schengen Agreement

AT/DE/LU: Schengener Übereinkommen
BG: Шенгенско споразумение
CS: Schengenská dohoda
EE: Schengeni leping
ES: Acuerdo de Schengen
FI: Schengenin sopimus
FR/BE/LU: accord de Schengen
HU: Schengeni Megállapodás
IE: Comhaontú Schengen
IT: Accordo di Schengen
LT: Šengeno susitarimas
LV: Šengenas nolīgums
MT: Ftehim (Il-) ta’ Schengen
NL/BE: Schengenakkoord
NO: Schengen-avtalen
PL: Układ z Schengen
PT: Acordo de Schengen: Acordo de Schengen
RO: Acordul Schengen
SE: Schengenavtalet
SI: Schengenski sporazum
SK: Schengenská dohoda

An agreement between some EU Member States and some neighbouring non-Member States to gradually remove controls at their common borders and introduce freedom of movement for all nationals of the signatory Member States, other Member States or third countries.

Related Term: Schengen Borders Code, Schengen Convention, Schengen Information System

1. The Schengen Agreement was signed on 14 June 1985 between BE, FR, DE, LU, NL.
2. The Agreement and the Convention, the rules adopted on that basis and the related agreements together form the 'Schengen acquis'. Since 1999, this has formed part of the institutional and legal framework of the European Union by virtue of a protocol to the Treaty of Amsterdam.
3. The rules governing the movement of persons across borders are set out in Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code).
2. For more information, see DG HOME website.

Source:Derived by EMN from the Schengen acquis

Schengen Borders Code

AT/DE/LU: Schengener Grenzkodex
BG: Шенгенски граничен кодекс
CS: Schengenský hraniční kodex
EE: Schengeni piirieeskirjad
ES: Código de fronteras Schengen
FI: Schengenin rajasäännöstö
FR/BE/LU: code frontières Schengen
GR: κώδικαςσυνόρων του Σένγκεν
HU: Schengeni határ-ellenőrzési kódex
IE: Cód Teorainneacha Schengen
IT: Codice Frontiere Schengen 
LT: Šengeno sienų kodeksas
LV: Šengenas Robežu kodekss
MT: Konvenzjoni (Il-) ta’ Schengen
NL/BE: Schengengrenscode
NO: Schengen-regelverket
PL: kodeks graniczny Schengen
PT: Código das Fronteiras Schengen
SE: kodex om Schengengränserna
SI: Zakonik o schengenskih mejah
SK: Kódex schengenských hraníc

Schengen Convention

AT/LU: Schengener Durchführungsüber-einkommen
BG: Шенгенска конвенция
CS: Schengenská prováděcí úmluva
: Schengener Durchführungsübereinkommen
EE: Schengeni konventsioon
ES: Convenio de Schengen
FI: Schengenin yleissopimus
FR/BE/LU: convention de Schengen
HU: Schengeni Egyezmény
IE: Coinbhinsiún Schengen
IT: Convenzione di Schengen
LT: Šengeno konvencija
LV: Šengenas konvencija
MT: Kodiċi tal-Fruntieri / tal-Konfini ta’ Schengen
NL/BE: Schengen Uitvoeringsovereenkomst
NO: Schengen-konvensjonen
PL: Konwencja Wykonawcza do Układu z Schengen
PT: Convenção de Schengen: Convenção de Schengen
RO: Convenţia Schengen
SE: Schengenkonventionen
SI: Schengenska konvencija
SK: Schengenský dohovor

Legislation supplementing the Schengen Agreementand laying down the arrangements and safeguards for implementing freedom of movement.

Synonym(s): Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement

Related Term: Schengen Agreement, Schengen Borders Code, Schengen Information System

Source:Derived by EMN from the Schengen acquis

Schengen Information System

AT/DE/LU: Schengener Informationssystem (SIS)
BG: Шенгенска информационна система
CS: Schengenský informační systém (SIS)
EE: Schengeni infosüsteem (SIS)
ES: Sistema de Información de Schengen (SIS)
FI: Schengenin tietojärjestelmä (SIS)
FR/BE/LU: Système d'information Schengen (SIS)
HU: Schengeni Információs Rendszer (SIS)
IE: Córas Faisnéise Schengen
IT: Sistema di Informazione Schengen (SIS)
LT: Šengeno informacinė sistema
LV: Šengenas informācijas sistēma
MT: Sistema ta' Informazzjoni Schengen (SIS)
NL/BE: Schengeninformatiesysteem (SIS)
NO: Schengen informasjonssystem (SIS)
PL: System Informacji Schengen
PT: Sistema de Informação de Schengen
RO: Sistemul de Informaţii Schengen (SIS)
SE: Schengens informationssystem (SIS)
SI: Schengenski informacijski sistem
SK: Schengenský informačný systém / SIS

A joint information system that enables the relevant authorities in each Member State, by means of an automated search procedure, to have access to alerts on persons and property for the purposes of border checks and other police and customs checks carried out within the country in accordance with national law and, for some specific categories of alerts (Art. 96), for the purposes of issuing visas, residence permitsand the administration of legislation on aliens in the context of the application of the provisions of the Schengen Conventionrelating to the movement of persons.

Synonym(s): second generation Schengen Information System, SIS, SIS II

Related Term: Schengen Agreement, Schengen Convention, Schengen Borders Code

The second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II) was launched in April 2013 with enhanced functionalities, such as the possibility to use biometrics, new types of alerts, the possibility to link different alerts (such as an alert on a person and a vehicle) and a facility for direct queries on the system. SIS II also contains copies of European arrest warrants (EAW), which are recognised as having the same legal value as the originals, making it easier and quicker for the competent authorities to ensure the necessary follow-up. For more information, see the DG Home e-Library Glossary.

Source:Derived by EMN from the Schengen acquis

Schengen Visa Code

Please see entry for Visa Code

school pupil

AT/DE/LU: Schüler
BG: ученик
CS: žák
EE: kooliõpilane
ES: escolar
FI: oppilas
FR/BE/LU: élève
GR: μαθητής
HU: tanuló
IE: dalta scoile
IT: alunno
LT: mokinys
LV: skolēns
MT: Tifel (Tifla) tal-iskola
NL/BE: scholier
NO: skoleelev (b) / skuleelev (n)
PL: uczeń
PT: aluno
RO: elev
SE: elev
SI: učenec / šolar
SK: žiak

In the EU migration context, a third-country nationaladmitted to the territory of a Member State to follow a recognised programme of secondary education in the context of an exchange scheme operated by an organisation recognised for that purpose by the Member State in accordance with its national legislation or administrative practice.

On 25 March 2013, the European Commission published a proposal of the Council Directive on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, pupil exchange, remunerated and unremunerated training, voluntary service and au pairing (Recast Students Directive, COM(2013) 151 final) which maintains the definition of the original version.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2004/114/EC (Student Directive) and Art. 3(d) of Proposal for a Directive on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, pupil exchange, remunerated and unremunerated training, voluntary service and au pairing, COM(2013) 151 final


seasonal migrant, seasonal worker migrant

Please see entry for seasonal worker

seasonal worker

AT/DE/LU: Saisonarbeiter
BG: сезонен работник
CS: sezónní pracovník
EE: hooajaline (võõr)töötaja
ES: trabajador de temporada extranjero
FI: kausityöntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur saisonnier
GR: εποχικός μετανάστης
HU: szezonális munkavállaló migráns
IE: oibrí séasúrach
IT: lavoratore stagionale
LT: sezoninis darbuotojas
LV: sezonas strādnieks
MT: Ħaddiem staġjonali / tal-istaġun
NL/BE: buitenlandse seizoensarbeider
NO: sesongarbeider (b) / sesongarbeidar (n)
PL: migrant (pracownik sezonowy)
PT: migrante trabalhador sasonal
RO: lucrător/muncitor sezonier
SE: säsongsarbetare
SI: sezonski delavec
SK: sezónny zamestnanec / sezónny pracovník

A tthird-country nationalwho retains their principal place of residence in a third countryand stays legally and temporarily in the territory of a Member State to carry out an activity dependent on the passing of the seasons, under one or more fixed-term work contracts concluded directly between that third-country national and the employer established in that Member State.

Synonym(s): seasonal migrant, seasonal worker migrant

Related Term: circular migration, contract migrant worker

This term is specifically referring to a third-country national, although it is known that other types of seasonal workers exist, e.g. for nationals within the same country, as well as intra-EU seasonal workers.

Source:Art. 3 of Directive 2014/36/EU (Seasonal Workers' Directive)

second generation Schengen Information System

Please see entry for Schengen Information System

secondary migrant

Please see entry for secondary movement of migrants

secondary movement of migrants

AT/DE/LU: Sekundärmigration
BG: вторично движение на мигранти
CS: druhotný pohyb migrantů
EE: sisserändajate teisene (riikidevaheline) liikumine
ES: movimientos migratoris secundarios
FI: maahanmuuttajien toissijainen siirtyminen
FR/BE/LU: mouvement secondaire de migrants
HU: másodlagos migrációs mozgás
IE: athghluaiseacht imirceach
IT: movimento secondario di migranti
LT: migrantų pakartotinis judėjimas
LV: migrantu tālāka pārvietošanās
MT: Moviment sekondarju ta’ migranti
NL/BE: secundaire migratiestroom
NO: sekundærflytting
PL: wtórny przepływ migrantów
PT: movimentos migratórios secundários: movimentos migratórios secundários
RO: mişcare secundară a migranţilor
SE: sekundär migration
SI: sekundarno gibanje migrantov
SK: sekundárny pohyb migrantov

The phenomenon of migrants, including Refugeesand asylum seekers, who for different reasons move from the country in which they first arrived to seek protection or permanent resettlementelsewhere.

Synonym(s): irregular secondary movement of migrants, secondary migrant, secondary movement of asylum seekers and refugees

Narrower Term: asylum-shopping

Broader Term: irregular migration

This movement is without the prior consent of the national authorities, without an entry visa, or with no or insufficient documentation normally required for travel purposes, or with false or fraudulent documentation.

Source:Derived by EMN from UNHCR Executive Committee (ExCom) Conclusion No 58 (1989)

second-generation immigrant

Please see entry for second-generation migrant

second-generation migrant

AT/DE/LU: Migrant der zweiten Generation
BG: второ поколение мигрант
CS: migrant druhé generace
EE: teise põlvkonna sisserändaja
ES: inmigrante de segunda generación
FI: toisen polven maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant de la deuxième génération
HU: Migráns (második generációs)
IE: imirceach den dara glúin
IT: migrante di seconda generazione
LT: antros kartos migrantas
LV: otrās paaudzes migrants
MT: Migrant(a) tat-ieni ġenerazzjoni
NL/BE: tweedegeneratie allochtoon (syn: tweedegeneratiemigrant)
NO: person med to innvandrerforeldre (b) / person med to innvandrarforeldre (n)
PL: migrant drugiego pokolenia
PT: Migrante de segunda geração
RO: migrant (a doua generaţie)
SE: andra generationens invandrare
SI: migrant druge generacije
SK: migrant [z] druhej generácie

A person who was born in and is residing in a country that at least one of their parents previously entered as a migrant.

Synonym(s): second-generation immigrant

Broader Term: person with a migratory background

Related Term: first-generation migrant , third-generation migrant

1. This term is not defined in legislation but has a more sociological context; a broad defintion encompassing the concept of a 'second-generation migrant' has been used.
2. Strictly this term does not relate to a migrant, since the person concerned has not undertaken a migration, but the term is included as it is commonly used in publications and the media.
3. According to the Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing, the group referred to as 'second generation' is generally restricted to those persons whose parents were born abroad, whereas those persons having one parent born in the country and the other one born abroad represent a special case (they form the group of persons with a mixed background). As explained in 1. above, a broader definition was considered more appropriate for the work of the EMN.

Source: Developed by EMN


AT/DE/LU: Segregation
BG: сегрегация
CS: segregace
EE: eraldamine
ES: segregación
FI: segregaatio
FR/BE/LU: ségrégation
HU: szegregáció
IE: deighilt (agus deighilt ar bhonn cine, reiligiúin, srl dá dteastódh sé)
IT: segregazione
LT: segregacija
LV: segregācija
MT: Segregazzjoni / Twarrib
NL/BE: segregatie
NO: segregering
PL: segregacja
PT: segregação: segregação
RO: segregare
SE: segregation
SI: segregacija / izločevanje
SK: segregácia

The act by which a (natural or legal) person separates other persons on the basis of race, colour, language, religion, nationality or national or ethnic origin without an objective and reasonable justification.

Broader Term: discrimination

Source:European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI): General Policy Recommendation No 7: National legislation to combat racism and racial discrimination

self-employed person

AT/DE/LU: Selbstständiger, selbstständig erwerbstätige Person (LU)
BG: самонаето лице
CS: osoba samostatně výdělečně činná (OSVČ)
EE: füüsilisest isikust ettevõtja
ES: trabajador por cuanta propia
FI: itsenäinen ammatinharjoittaja
FR/BE/LU: travailleur indépendant
HU: önfoglalkoztatott személy
IE: duine féinfhostaithe
IT: lavoratore autonomo
LT: savarankiškai dirbantis asmuo
LV: pašnodarbināta persona
MT: Persuna taħdem għal rasha
NL/BE: zelfstandige
NO: selvstendig sysselsatt (b) / sjølvstendig sysselsett (n)
PL: osoba samozatrudniona
PT: trabalhador por conta própria: trabalhador por conta própria
RO: asociat
SE: egenföretagare
SI: samozaposlena oseba
SK: samostatne zárobkovo činná osoba / SZČO

A person who is the sole or joint owner of the unincorporated enterprise (one that has not been incorporated, i.e. formed into a legal corporation) in which they work, unless they are also in paid employment which is their main activity. (In that case, they are considered to be employees.)

According to ILO's ICSE-93, self-employment jobs are those jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits (or the potential for profits) derived from the goods and services produced (where own consumption is considered to be part of the profits). The incumbents make the operational decisions affecting the enterprise, or delegate such decisions while retaining responsibility for the welfare of the enterprise. (In this context, 'enterprise' includes one-person operations.)

Source:Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database

separated child

AT/DE/LU: alleinstehendes Kind
BG: no translation
CS: nezletilý bez doprovodu
EE: vanematest eraldatud laps
ES: menor separado
FI: huoltajasta erilleen joutunut lapsi
FR/BE/LU: enfant séparé
GR: παιδί (αποχωρισμένο από την οικογένεια)
HU: kísérő nélküli kiskorú
IE: páiste dealaithe
IT: minore separato
LT: atskirtas nuo tėvų vaikas
LV: bez vecāku vai aizbildņu gādības palicis bērns
MT: Tifel /Tifla mifrud(a) // separat(a)
NL/BE: alleenstaand kind
NO: enslig barn (b) / einsleg barn (n)
PL: małoletni bez opieki
PT: criança separada
RO: minor neînsoţit/separat
SE: separerade barn
SI: otrok brez spremstva
SK: odlúčené dieťa

A childunder 18 years of age who is outside their country of originand separated from both parents or their previous legal/customary primary caregiver.

Narrower Term: unaccompanied minor

1. This definition covers both third-country-nationaland EU-national children.
2. A child may be totally alone while another may be living with extended family members. All such children are separated children and entitled to ational protectionunder a broad range of international and regional instruments.

Source:Art. 8 of UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No 6 and FRA: Study on separated, asylum seeking children in EU Member States, 2010

serious harm

AT/DE/LU: ernsthafter Schaden
BG: тежки посегателства
CS: vážná újma
EE: tõsine oht/kahju
ES: daños graves
FI: vakava haitta
FR/BE/LU: atteinte grave
HU: súlyos veszély
IE: díobháil thromchúiseach
IT: danno grave
LT: didelė žala
LV: smags kaitējums
MT: Dannu(-i) serju(-i)
NL/BE: ernstige schade
NO: alvorlig skade (b) / alvorleg skade (n)
PL: poważna krzywda
RO: vătămare gravă
SE: allvarlig skada
SI: resna škoda
SK: vážne bezprávie

Harm consisting of (a) the death penalty or execution; or (b) torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment of an applicant in the country of origin; or (c) serious and individual threat to a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict.

Narrower Term: real risk of suffering serious harm

Related Term: torture, persecution

Source:Art. 15 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)


AT/DE/LU: biologisches Geschlecht
BG: пол
CS: pohlaví
EE: sugu
ES: sexo
FI: sukupuoli
FR/BE/LU: sexe
HU: (biológiai) nem
IE: gnéas
IT: sesso
LT: lytis
LV: dzimums
MT: Sess
NL/BE: sekse, geslacht (syn.)
NO: kjønn
PL: płeć
PT: sexo
RO: sex
SE: kön
SI: spol
SK: pohlavie

The biological characteristics of a person, predominantly female or male.

Related Term: gender

Source:Derived by EMN from UN Woman website and EuropeAid Glossary of gender and development terms

short-stay visa

AT/DE/LU: Visum für den kurzfristigen Aufenthalt
BG: виза за краткосрочно пребиваване
CS: krátkodobé vízum
EE: lühiajaline viisa
EL: θεώρηση για διαμονή σύντομης διαρκείας
ES: visado para estancia de corta duración
FI: lyhytaikainen viisumi
FR/BE/LU: visa de court séjour
HU: rövid távú tartózkodásra jogosító vízum
IE: víosa gearrchuairte
IT: visto per soggiorno di breve durata
LT: trumpalaikė viza
LV: īstermiņa vīza
MT: Migrazzjoni għal perjodu qasir
NL/BE: visum voor kort verblijf
NO: besøksvisum
PL: wiza krótkoterminowa
PT: visto de curta duração
RO: viză de scurtă şedere
SE: visering för kortare vistelse
SI: vizum za kratkoročno prebivanje
SK: krátkodobé vízum

The authorisation or decision of a Member State with a view to transit through or an intended stay on the territory of one or more or all the Member States of a duration of no more than 90 days in any 180-day period.

Synonym(s): short-term visa, transit visa

Broader Term: visa

Related Term: airport transit visa, long-stay visa

Source:Art. 2(2) of Regulation (EU) No 610/2013 (Visa Code Regulation) and Art. 2(m) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

short-term migrant

AT/DE/LU: kurzfristig aufhältiger Migrant, Kurzzeit-Migrant, temporärer Migrant
BG: краткосрочен мигрант
CS: krátkodobý migrant
EE: lühiajaline sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante de carácter temporal
FI: tilapäiseksi ajaksi muuttava henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant de courte durée
GR: προσωρινός/μικρής διάρκειας μετανάστης
HU: this term is not used,
IE: imirceach gearrthréimhseach
IT: migrante di breve periodo
LT: trumpalaikis migrantas
LV: īstermiņa migrants
MT: Migrant(a) għal żmien qasir / għal ftit żmien
NL/BE: kortverblijvende migrant (syn.: kortdurige migrant)
NO: migrant med kortvarig opphold (b) / migrant med kortvarig opphald (n)
PL: migrant krótkookresowy
PT: migrante de curta duração
RO: migrant pe termen scurt
SE: korttidsmigrant
SI: migrant za krajše obdobje
SK: krátkodobý migrant

A person who moves to a country other than that of their usual residencefor a period of at least three months but less than a year (12 months) except in cases where the movement to that country is for purposes of recreation, holiday, visits to friends or relatives, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage.

Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: emigrant, immigrant, long-term migrant, temporary migration

For purposes of international migration statistics, the country of usual residence of short-term migrants is considered to be the country of destination during the period they spend in it.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms , Derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration and OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

short-term migration

AT/DE/LU: kurzfristige Migration, Kurzzeit-Migration
BG: краткосрочна миграция
CS: krátkodobá migrace
EE: lühiajaline sisseränne
ES: migración de corta duración
FI: lyhytaikainen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration de courte durée
HU: rövid-távú migráció
IE: imirce ghearrthréimhseach
IT: migrazione di breve periodo
LT: trumpalaikė migracija
LV: īstermiņa migrācija
MT: Viża għal żjara/waqfa qasira // Viża għal ftit taż-żmien
NL/BE: korte-termijnmigratie
NO: korttidsmigrasjon
PL: migracja krótkookresowa
PT: migração de curta duração: migração de curta duração
RO: migraţie pe termen scurt
SE: korttidsmigration
SI: migracija za krajše obdobje
SK: krátkodobá migrácia

Movement of individuals who change their country of usual residencefor a period of at least three months but less than a year (12 months) except in cases where the movement to that country is for purposes of recreation, holiday, visits to friends or relatives, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage.

Broader Term: migration

Related Term: temporary migration

Source:Derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration and OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

short-term visa

Please see entry for short-stay visa

single application procedure

AT/DE/LU: einheitliches Antragsverfahren
BG: единна процедура за кандидатстване
CS: jednotný postup vyřizování žádostí
EE: ühtne taotlemismenetlus
EL: ενιαία διαδικασία υποβολής αίτησης
ES: procedimiento único de solicitud
FI: yhden hakemuksen menettely
FR/BE/LU: procédure de demande unique
HU: összevont kérelmezési eljárás
IE: nós imeachta aoniarratais
IT: procedura unica di domanda
LT: viena prašymų pateikimo procedūra
LV: vienota pieteikšanās procedūra
MT: Proċedura ta’ applikazzjoni/talba waħda għal kull persuna
NL/BE: één enkele aanvraagprocedure
NO: samlet prosedyre om opphold og arbeid (b) / samla prosedyre om opphald og arbeid (n)
PL: procedura jednolitego wniosku
PT: procedimento de pedido único
RO: Procedură unică
SE: ett enda ansökningsförfarande
SI: enotni postopek za obravnavanje vloge
SK: jednotný postup vybavovania žiadostí

A procedure leading, on the basis of a single application made by a third-country national, or by their employer, for the authorisation of residence and work in the territory of a Member State, to a decision ruling on that application for the single permit.

Source:Art. 2(d) of Directive 2011/98/EU (Single Permit Directive)

single permit

AT/DE/LU: kombinierte Erlaubnis
BG: единно разрешение
CS: jednotné povolení
EE: ühtne luba
EL: ενιαία άδεια
ES: permiso único
FI: yhdistelmälupa
FR/BE/LU: permis unique
HU: összevont engedély
IE: ceadúnas aoniarratais
IT: permesso unico
LT: vienas leidimas
LV: vienota atļauja
MT: Permess għal persuna waħda
NL/BE: gecombineerde vergunning
NO: samlet tillatelse (b) / samla løyve (n)
PL: jednolite zezwolenie
PT: autorização única
RO: permis unic
SE: kombinerat tillstånd
SI: enotno dovoljenje
SK: jednotné povolenie na pobyt a zamestnanie

A residence permitissued by the authorities of a Member State after a single application procedure allowing a third-country national to reside legally in its territory for the purpose of work.

Broader Term: residence permit

A single permit is a combined title encompassing both residence and work permits within a single administrative act based on a common set of rights for third-country workers legally residing in a Member State.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(d) of Directive 2011/98/EU (Single Permit Directive)


Please see entry for Schengen Information System


Please see entry for Schengen Information System

Smart Borders Package

AT/DE/LU: Maßnahmenpaket Intelligente Grenzen
BG: Пакет интелигентни граници
CZ: Soubor opatření týkající se inteligentních hranic
FI: Älykkäät rajat-paketti
FR/BE/LU: train de mesures "frontières intelligentes"
IE: an Pacáiste Teorainneacha Cliste 
HU: Intelligens Határok Csomag
IT: pacchetto «Frontiere intelligenti»
LV:viedrobežu pakotne
NO: Pakke med tiltak for effektiv grensekontroll
PL: Pakiet "Inteligentne granice"
SE: Smart gränsförvaltning (Smarta gränser)
SK: balík predpisov o inteligentných hraniciach / balík inteligentných hraníc
SI: Projekt   "Smart Borders"

A set of measures  consisting of  an Entry/Exit System (EES) and a Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) which aim to improve the management of the external borders of the Schengen Member States, to fight against irregular migration and to provide information on overstayers, as well as to facilitate border crossings for pre-vetted frequent non-EU travellers.

Narrower Term: Entry/Exit System, Registered Traveller Programme 


1. The 'Smart Borders Package' was proposed by the Commission in February 2013 based on the 2008 Communication on 'Preparing the next steps in border management in the European Union'.
2. The Entry/Exit System (EES) is a system for the recording and storage of information on the time and place of entry and exit of third country nationals crossing the external borders and admitted for a short stay in the territory of the Member States, for the calculation of the duration of their stay, and for the generation of alerts to Member States when authorised periods for stay have expired.
3. The 'Registered Traveller Programme' (RTP) is a programme which allows third-country nationals who have been pre-vetted and granted access to the RTP to benefit from facilitation of border checks at the Union external border.


Source: Communication on Preparing the next steps in border management in the European Union, COM(2008) 69 final

smuggling of migrants

AT/DE/LU: Schleusung von Migranten
BG: контрабанда на мигранти
CS: pašování migrantů
EE: sisserändajate ebaseaduslik üle piiri toimetamine
ES: tráfico de inmigrantes
FI: maahanmuuttajien salakuljettaminen
FR/BE/LU: trafic d’être humains
GR: λαθρεμπόριο μεταναστών
HU: embercsempészés
IE: smuigleáil imirceach
IT: traffico di migranti
LT: neteisėtas migrantų gabenimas
LV: migrantu kontrabanda
MT: Ku(n)trabandu ta' migranti
NL/BE: mensensmokkel
NO: menneskesmugling
PL: przemyt migrantów
PT: auxílio à imigração ilegal
RO: contabandă cu migranţi
SE: smuggling av migranter
SI: tihotapljanje migrantov
SK: prevádzačstvo migrantov


The procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the irregular entry of a person into a (UN) member State of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident. 

The UN Protocol was approved by Council Decision 2006/616/EC.

Source:Art. 3 of UN Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime

social dumping

AT/DE/LU: Sozialdumping
BG: социален дъмпинг
CS: sociální dumping
EE: sotsiaalne dumping
ES: dumping social
FI: sosiaalinen polkumyynti
FR/BE/LU: dumping social
HU: szociális dömping
IE: dumpáil shóisialta (níor aistríodh an coincheap i dteangacha eile), coinníolacha oibre faoi bhun an chaighdeáin
IT: dumping sociale
LT: socialinis dempingas
LV: sociālais dempings
MT: Esklużjoni soċjali
NL/BE: sociale dumping
NO: sosial dumping
PL: dumping socjalny
PT: dumping social: dumping social
RO: dumping social
SE: social dumpning
SI: socialni damping
SK: sociálny damping / sociálny dumping

The practice whereby workers are given pay and/or working and living conditions which are sub-standard compared to those specified by law or collective agreements in the relevant labour market, or otherwise prevalent there.

Narrower Term: wage dumping

1. There is no clear, universally accepted definition of social dumping.
2. In the EU context, this practice usually refers to EU/EFTA and third-country nationals.

Source:Derived by EMN from the Norwegian Regulations regarding workers from the new EU Member States

social exclusion

AT/DE/LU: soziale Ausgrenzung
BG: социално изключване
CS: sociální vyloučení
EE: sotsiaalne tõrjutus
ES: exclusión social
FI: sosiaalinen syrjäytyminen
FR/BE/LU: exclusion sociale
GR: κοινωνικός αποκλεισμός
HU: társadalmi kirekesztés
IE: eisiamh sóisialta
IT: esclusione sociale
LT: socialinė atskirtis
LV: sociālā atstumtība
MT: Tisbita/Tbarrija soċjali // dumping soċjali
NL/BE: sociale uitsluiting
NO: sosial eksklusjon / sosial ekskludering
PL: wykluczenie społeczne
PT: exclusão social
RO: excludere socială
SE: social utestängning
SI: socialna izključenost
SK: sociálne vylúčenie / sociálna exklúzia

In the EU context, a situation whereby a person is prevented (or excluded) from contributing to and benefiting from economic and social progress.

Related Term: social inclusion

Source:Developed by EMN from the website of the European Commission, DG Employment and Social Affairs

social group

AT/DE/LU: soziale Gruppe
BG: социална група
CZ: společenská skupina
FI: yhteiskunnallinen ryhmä
FR/BE/LU: groupe social
IE: grúpa sóisialta
HU: társadalmi csoport
IT/span>: gruppo sociale: gruppo sociale
PL: grupa społeczna
LV: sociālā grupa
NO: sosial gruppe
SE: Socialgrupp
SK: sociálna skupina
SI: družbena skupina

In the global context, a group of persons who share a common characteristic other than their risk of being persecuted, or who are perceived as a group by society. The characteristic will often be one which is innate, unchangeable, or which is otherwise fundamental to identity, conscience or the exercise of one’s human rights.

In the EU-context, a group where in particular members of that group share an innate characteristic, or a common background that cannot be changed, or share a characteristic or belief that is so fundamental to identity or conscience that a person should not be forced to renounce it;
and that group has a distinct identity in the relevant country, because it is perceived as being different by the surrounding society.

Synonym(s): Membership of a particular social group

Related Term(s): gender-based persecution, gender-specific violence, gender, LGB(TI)


1. Membership of a particular social group is one of the five Convention grounds for persecution enumerated in Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Convention of 1951 . It is the ground with the least clarity and it is not defined by the Convention itself. It is being invoked with increasing frequency in refugee status determinations with States having recognised women, families, tribes, occupational groups, and homosexuals, as constituting a particular social group for the purposes of the Convention. For more information see: Guidelines on international protection “Membership of a particular social group” within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees .
2. The concept of the Qualification Directive is narrower than that of UNHCR.
3. Depending on the circumstances in the country of origin, a particular social group might include a group based on a common characteristic of sexual orientation. Sexual orientation cannot be understood to include acts considered to be criminal in accordance with national law of the Member States. Gender related aspects, including gender identity, shall be given due consideration for the purposes of determining membership of a particular social group or identifying a characteristic of such a group.


global context: Definition of “Membership of a particular social group” from the UNHCR Guidelines on International Protection within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 2002
EU-context: Art. 10 (1d) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

social inclusion

AT/DE/LU: soziale Eingliederung
BG: социално включване
CS: sociální začlenení
EE: sotsiaalne kaasatus
ES: inclusión social
FI: sosiaalinen osallisuus
FR/BE/LU: inclusion sociale
GR: not used
HU: társadalmi befogadás
IE: cuimsiú sóisialta
IT: inclusione sociale
LT: socialinė įtrauktis
LV: sociālā iekļaušana
MT: Inklużjoni soċjali
NL/BE: sociale insluiting
NO: sosial inkludering
PL: włączenie społeczne
PT: inclusão social
RO: includere socială
SE: social integration
SI: socialna vključenost
SK: sociálne začlenenie / sociálna inklúzia

In the EU context, a framework for national strategy development, as well as for policy coordination between the Member States, on issues relating to tackling poverty and social exclusion.

Related Term: social exclusion

Source:Derived by EMN from DG Employment and Social Affairs

social partners

AT/DE/LU: Sozialpartner
BG: социални партньори
CZ: sociální partneři
FI: työmarkkinaosapuolet
FR/BE/LU: partenaires sociaux
IE: comhpháirtithe sóisialta
HU: szociális partnerek
IT: parti sociali
LV: sociālie partneri
NO: partene i arbeidslivet (b) / partane i arbeidslivet (n)
PL: partnerzy społeczni
SE: Arbetsmarknadens parter
SK: sociálni partneri
SI: ssocialni partnerji

Bodies representing employers, workers and governments when meeting for the purpose of consultations and negotiations on labour, social and economic practices, policies and legislation. 



The concept of 'social partners' is central to the structure and governance of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and is implied by articles 152 and 153 in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).


Derived by EMN from the Constitution of the International Labour Organisation and Articles 152 and 153 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union TFEU) and

social protection benefits

AT/DE/LU: Sozialschutzleistungen
BG: обезщетения за социална закрила
CS: dávky sociální ochrany
EE: sotsiaalse kaitse hüvitised
ES: prestaciones de asistencia social
FI: sosiaalietuudet, sosiaaliturvaetuudet
FR/BE/LU: prestations de protection sociale
HU: szociális védelmi juttatások
IE: sochair chosanta sóisialta
IT: prestazione di protezione sociale
LT: socialinės išmokos
LV: sociālās drošības sistēmas pabalsti
MT: Benefiċċji ta’ protezzjoni soċjali
NL/BE: sociale uitkeringen
NO: ytelser knyttet til sosial sikkerhet (b) / ytingar knytte til sosial tryggleik (n)
PL: zasiłki z opieki społecznej
PT: prestações sociais: prestações sociais
RO: beneficii ale protecţiei sociale
SE: sociala förmåner
SI: ugodnosti socialnega varstva
SK: dávky sociálnej ochrany (EU acquis) / sociálna pomoc (national law)

Transfers, in cash or in kind, by social protection schemes to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of one or more of the risks defined in the European Commission’s Mutual Information System on Social Protection.

Narrower Term: access to healthcare

The European Commission’s Mutual Information Systemon Social Protection uses the following categorisation of 11 groups or branches dedicated to specific risks:

  • healthcare,
  • sickness cash benefits,
  • maternity and paternity benefits,
  • invalidity benefits,
  • old-age pensions and benefits,
  • survivors’ benefits,
  • benefits in respect of accidents at work and occupational diseases,
  • family benefits,
  • unemployment benefits,
  • guaranteed minimum resources,
  • long-term care benefits.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2 of Council Regulation (EC) No 458/2007 (ESSPROS Regulation) and European Commission’s Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC)

social security

AT/DE/LU: soziale Sicherheit
BG: социлно осигуряване
CS: sociální zabezpeční
EE: sotsiaalkindlustus
ES: seguridad social
FI: sosiaaliturva
FR/BE/LU: sécurité sociale
HU: társadalombiztosítás
IE: slándáil shóisialta
IT: sicurezza sociale
LT: socialinė apsauga
LV: sociālais nodrošinājums
MT: Sigurtà soċjali
NL/BE: maatschappelijke zekerheid
NO: trygd
PL: zabezpieczenie socjalne
PT: segurança social: segurança social
RO: securitate socială
SE: social trygghet
SI: socialna varnost
SK: sociálne zabezpečenie

A right to which every member of society is entitled to realise through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance with the organisation and resources of each state, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for their dignity and the free development of their personality.

According to this concept, everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and of their families, including food, clothing, housing and medical care, and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond their control (Art. 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) .

Source:Art. 22 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Söderköping Process

Please see entry for Eastern Partnership

speedy asylum procedure

speedy international protection procedure

AT/DE/LU: Zusammenführender, Sponsor
BG: спонсор
CS: osoba usilující o sloučení rodiny / nositel právna na sloučení rodiny
EE: sponsor
ES: reagrupante
FI: perheenkokoaja
FR/BE/LU: regroupant
GR: συντηρών
HU: családegyesítő (note: a sponsor only in context of family reunification)
IE: urraitheoir
IT: sponsor
LT: globėjas
LV: galvotājs/garantētājs
MT: Garanti / Sponsor
NL/BE: gezinshereniger (NL syn.: referent, hoofdpersoon)
NO: referanseperson/sponsor
PL: sponsor
PT: requerente do reagrupamento familiar
RO: sponsor
SE: referensperson
SI: sponzor / pokrovitelj
SK: garant

In the global context, a person or entity which undertakes a (legal, financial or personal) engagement, promise or pledge, on behalf of another.

In the EU context of family reunification, a third-country nationalresiding lawfully in a Member State and applying, or whose family membersapply, for family reunificationto be joined with them.

Related Term: dependant, family member

Source: General context: developed by EMN
EU context: Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

secondary movement of asylum seekers and refugees

Please see entry for secondary movement of migrants

spontaneous migration

AT/DE/LU: spontane Migration
BG: no translation
CS: spontánní migrace
EE: spontaanne ränne
ES: migración espontánea
FI: spontaani/oma-aloitteinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration spontanée
GR: προσωρινή μετανάστευση
HU: spontán migráció
IE: imirce spontáineach
IT: migrazione spontanea
LT: spontaniška migracija
LV: spontāna migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni spontanja
NL/BE: spontane migratie
NO: spontan migrasjon
PL: spontaniczna migracja
PT: migração espontânea
RO: migraţie spontană
SE: spontan migration
SI: spontana migracija
SK: spontánna migrácia

The movement of a person or a group of persons who initiate and proceed with their migration plans without any outside assistance.

Broader Term: Migration

1. Spontaneous migration is usually caused by push-pull factorsand is characterised by the lack of state assistance or any other type of international or national assistance.
2. The term is not in common use.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

standard of proof

AT/DE/LU: Beweisanforderung
BG: изискване за доказване
CZ: stav věci, o němž nejsou důvodné pochybnosti
FI: näyttökynnys
FR/BE/LU: niveau de preuve
IE: caighdeán cruthúnais
HU: bizonyítás foka
IT: grado di intensità della prova
NO: beviskrav
PL: pierādījumu kopums
PL: standard dowodu
SE: Beviskrav
SI: miera dokazovania

In the global context, the degree or level of persuasiveness of the evidence required in a specific case.

In the context of international protection, the degree or level of persuasiveness of the evidence required (as the threshold to be met) by the applicants in persuading the adjudicators as to the truth of the facts of the claim and when establishing if there is a well-founded fear of persecution.

Related Term: burden of proof


It is the  applicant’s responsibility to prove facts in support of their claim.  Facts which need to the 'proved' are those which concern the background and personal experiences of the applicant which purportedly have given rise to fear of persecution and the resultant unwillingness to avail themselves of the protection of the country of origin.



global context: IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. Ed. 2011

international protection context: derived by EMN based on EASO Training Curriculum, IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd.ed. 2011  and UNHCR: Note on Burden and Standard of Proof, 16 December 1998

state liaison officer

Please see entry for Immigration Liaison Officer

state of nationality

Please see entry for country of nationality

stateless person

AT/DE/LU: Staatenloser
BG: лице без гражданство
CS: osoba bez státní příslušnosti / bezdomovec
EE: kodakondsuseta isik
ES: apátrida
FI: kansalaisuudeton
FR/BE/LU: apatride
GR: ανιθαγενής
HU: hontalan
IE: duine gan stát
IT: apolide
LT: asmuo be pilietybės
LV: bezvalstnieks
MT: Persuna apolida / bla stat
NL/BE: staatloze
NO: statsløs person (b) / statslaus person (n)
PL: bezpaństwowiec
PT: apátrida
RO: apatrid
SE: statslös
SI: apatrid / oseba brez državljanstva
SK: osoba bez štátneho občianstva / osoba bez štátnej príslušnosti

Person who is not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law.

The definition also includes a person whose nationalityis not established.

Source:Art. 1 of UN Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons

statutory refugee

AT/DE/LU: statutärer Flüchtling
BG: no translation
CS: uprchlík
EE: statuudipagulane
ES: refugiado bajo instrumentos anteriores a la Convención de 1951
FI: pakolaisaseman saanut henkilö / sääntömääräinen pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié statutaire
GR: πρόσφυγας σύμφωνα με το νόμο
HU: történelmi menekült
IE: dídeanaí reachtúil
IT: rifugiato titolare dello status prima della Convenzione di Ginevra del 1951
LT: pabėgėlis pagal susitarimus
LV: [Ženēvas konvencijas] statūtbēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a) statutarju(-a)
NL/BE: erkende vluchteling (syn.: verdragsvluchteling)
NO: statuttflyktning
PL: uchodźca statutowy
PT: refugiados estatutários
RO: refugiat statutar
SE: konventionsflykting
SI: statusni begunec
SK: štatutárny utečenec

Person considered to be a refugee (according to the criteria of Art. 1A(I) of the Geneva Convention of 1951) under the provision of the international instruments preceding the Geneva Convention of 1951 or a person who has been recognised as a refugee by the former International Refugee Organisation during the period of its activities.

1. These instruments are: The Arrangements with regard to Russian and Armenian Refugees of 12 May 1926, the Arrangement with regard to Turkish and Assyrian Refugees of 30 June 1928, the Conventions of 28 October 1933 and 10 February 1938, the Protocol of 14 September 1939 and the Constitution of the International Refugee Organisation.
2. This type of status is normally no longer granted, although the term is still used by the UNHCRin its activities.

Source:Derived by EMN from the UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

stock of foreigners

BG: брой на чуждите граждани
CS: Stockholmský program
: Bestand der ausländischen Wohnbevölkerung,
EE: välisriigi kodanike arv kindlal territooriumil, teatud aja seisuga
ES: Programa de Estocolmo
FI: ulkomaalaisväestön määrä
FR/BE/LU: stock d'étrangers
IE: líon eachtrannach
IT: stock di popolazione straniera
LT: Stokholmo programa
LV: ārzemnieku skaits (1.janvārī)
MT: Programm (Il-) ta’ Stokkolma
NL/BE: bevolking van buitenlandse nationaliteit
NO: antall utenlandske borgere (b) / tal på utanlandske borgarar (n)
PL: populacja cudzoziemców w danym momencie
PT: stock de estrangeiros: stock de estrangeiros
SE: antal utländska medborgare
SI: število tujcev / "zaloga" tujecv
SK: stav cudzincov

The number of foreign nationals in a given area on a certain date (e.g. 1 January or 31 December) of the year in question.

Narrower Term: migrant stock

Broader Term: foreign population of a country

Related Term: population stock

1. The term is added because of the two methods used to calculate population stock.
2. Foreign stock can include migrants plus those born in a given area to foreign parents living in given area.

Source: Developed by EMN

stock of migrants

Please see entry for migrant stock

stock of pending cases (in procedures for international protection)

AT/DE/LU: bestehende anhängige Verfahren (bei Verfahren zur Anerkennung auf internationalen Schutz)/Bestand an anhängigen Verfahren
BG: брой висящи дела
CZ: množství žádostí v řízení (ve věci mezinárodní ochrany)
FI: päätöstä odottavien  (kansainvälistä suojelua koskevien) turvapaikkahakemusten määrä
FR/BE/LU: stock de dossiers en attente (dans les procédures d'octroi de la protection internationale)
IE: Líon na gcásanna ar feitheamh (i nósanna imeachta um chosaint idirnáisiúnta)
HU: függőben lévő ügyek köre (nemzetközi védelem megadására irányuló eljárás során)
IT: stock di casi pendenti (nelle procedure di protezione internazionale)
LV: izskatīšanā esošo lietu skaits
NO: restanse (ved behandling av søknader om internasjonal beskyttelse) (b) / restanse (ved handsaming av søknadar om internasjonalt vern (n)  
PL: liczba rozpatrywanych wniosków (w procedurze udzielania ochrony miedzynarodowej)
SE: Ärendebalans (gällande ansökningar om internationellt skydd)
SK: stav prebiehajúcich konaní (o medzinárodnej ochrane) / stav žiadostí v riešení (v konaniach o medzinárodnej ochrane)
SI: zaloga nerešenih primerov (v postopkih mednarodne zaščite)

The number of formally lodged applications for international protection which have not yet received a decisions in each stage of the procedure for international protection (first instance and final appeal) at the end of the reference period.


It is the  applicant’s responsibility to prove facts in support of their claim.  Facts which need to the 'proved' are those which concern the background and personal experiences of the applicant which purportedly have given rise to fear of persecution and the resultant unwillingness to avail themselves of the protection of the country of origin.



Derived by EMN from EASO Quarterly Asylum Report

Stockholm Programme

AT/DE/LU: Stockholmer Programm
BG: Стокхолмска програма
CS: počet cizinců - stav k
EE: Stockholmi programm
FI: Tukholman ohjelma
FR/BE/LU: Programme de Stockholm
HU: Stockholmi Program
IE: Clár Stócólm
IT: Programma di Stoccolma
LT: užsieniečių skaičius
LV: Stokholmas programma
MT: Rendikont tal-barranin
NL/BE: Programma van Stockholm
NO: Stockholm-programmet
PL: Program Sztokholmski
PT: Programa de Estocolmo: Programa de Estocolmo
SE: Stockholmsprogrammet
SI: Stockholmski program
SK: Štokholmský program

A five-year political, strategic document describing the focus of cooperation in the policy areas of justice and home affairs of the Member States of the European Union for the years 2010 to 2014.

1. The Stockholm Programme is the third programme in this area. The first programme was adopted in 1999 in Tampere. The second programme, the Hague Programme, was adopted in 2004 and expired in December 2009.
2. The Programme contains guidelines for common politics on the topics of protection of fundamental rights, privacy, minority rights and the rights of groups of people in need of special protection, as well as citizenship of the European Union. The programme also outlined plans for measures in the area of border-crossing data exchange between State authorities and surveillance of the Internet. The Programme's work programme also attaches great importance to how the EU should work to guarantee respect for fundamental freedoms and privacy, while guaranteeing security in Europe. Chapter 5 specifically outlines the priorities in migration and asylum matters (based on the principles and objectives of the Pact on Immigration and Asylum). It underlines that solidarity is an important objective of a common immigration and asylum policy and that the EU should provide support to Member States most exposed to migratory pressures.
3. For more information, see the Communication on the Stockholm Programme .

Source:Communication on the Stockholm Programme

Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum

AT/DE/LU: Strategisches Komitee für Einwanderungs-, Grenz- und Asylfragen
BG: Стратегически комитет по имиграция, граници и убежище
CS: Strategický výbor pro přistěhovalectví, hranice a azyl
EE: Rände-, piiri- ja varjupaigateema strateegiakomitee
FI: Maahanmuutto-, raja- ja turvapaikka-asioiden strateginen komitea
FR/BE/LU: Comité stratégique sur l'immigration, les frontières et l'asile
GR: Στρατηγική Επιτροπή για τη Μετανάστευση, τα Σύνορα και το Άσυλο
HU: Bevándorlással, Határokkal és Menekültüggyel Foglalkozó Stratégiai Bizottság
IE: an Coiste Straitéiseach um Inimirce, um Theorainneacha agus um Thearmann; SCIFA
IT: Comitato Strategico in materia di Immigrazione, Frontiere e Asilo
LT: Imigracijos, sienų ir prieglobsčio strateginis komitetas
LV: Imigrācijas, robežu un patvēruma jautājumu stratēģiskā komiteja
MT: Kumitat Strateġiku dwar l-Immigrazzjoni, il-Fruntieri u l-Ażil
NL/BE: Strategisch Comité immigratie, grenzen en asiel
NO: Strategikomité for innvandrings-, grense- og asylspørsmål
PL: Strategiczny Komitet ds. Imigracji, Granic i Azylu
PT: Comité Estratégico Imigração, Fronteiras e Asilo
RO: Comitetul Strategic pentru Imigraţie, Frontiere şi Azil
SE: Strategiska kommittén för invandring, gränser och asyl
SI: Strateški odbor za priseljevanje, meje in azil
SK: Strategický výbor pre prisťahovalectvo, hranice a azyl / SCIFA

A forum for the exchange of information amongst the Member States, consisting of senior officials in the fields of asylum, immigration and frontiers, which aims to implement a European Union strategic approach to matters related to asylum, immigration and frontiers.

Synonym(s): SCIFA

Related Term: High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration

1. SCIFA was set up as part of a new working structure to prepare the Council's discussions with regard to immigration, frontiers and asylum. SCIFA focuses on in-depth discussions on issues of a more strategic nature, such as politically important issues and issues of a horizontal or cross-cutting character to deal with questions arising from Articles 62, 63 and 64 of the Treaty of the European Community (TEC) with a view to synthesising and, where necessary, solving them and to give substantive input to Coreper's discussions. SCIFA provides its conclusions to Coreper, after which they are considered by the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Council.
2. SCIFA can create Working Parties (e.g. Working Party on Migration and Expulsion) to consider in detail the specific proposals tabled by the European Commission. These Working Parties report on their outcomes to SCIFA.

Source:Note from the President of the EU Council to SCIFA, Document 17476/10

subsequent application for international protection

AT/DE/LU: Folgeantrag auf internationalen Schutz
BG: последваща молба за международна закрила
CS: následná žádost (o mezinárodní ochranu)
EE: järgnev/teine rahvusvahelise kaitse taotlus
ES: solicitud posterior de protección internacional
FI: myöhempi kansainvälistä suojelua koskeva hakemus
FR/BE/LU: demande ultérieure de protection internationale
HU: ismételt menedékkérelem
IE: iarratas iardain ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: domanda reiterata di protezione internazionale
LT: pakartotinis prašymas suteikti prieglobstį
LV: atkārtots pieteikums par starptautiskās aizsardzības statusa piešķiršanu
MT: Applikazzjoni /Talba sussegwenti għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: volgend verzoek om internationale bescherming
NO: ny søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / ny søknad om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: kolejny wniosek o ochronę międzynarodową
PT: pedido subsequente de proteção internacional
RO: cerere ulterioară
SE: efterföljande ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: ponovna prošnja za mednarodno zaščito
SK: následná žiadosť o medzinárodnú ochranu / následná žiadosť o udelenie medzinárodnej ochrany

A further application for international protectionmade after a final decision has been taken on a previous application, including cases where the applicant has explicitly withdrawn their application and cases where the determining authorityhas rejected an application following its implicit withdrawal in accordance with Art. 28 (1) of Directive 2013/32/EU.

Broader Term: application for international protection

Source:Art. 2(q) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

subsidiary protection status

AT/DE/LU: subsidiärer Schutzstatus
BG: статут на субсидиарна закрила
CS: status doplňkové ochrany
EE: täiendava kaitse seisund
ES: estatuto de protección subsidiaria
FI: toissijainen suojeluasema
FR/BE/LU: statut conféré par la protection subsidiaire
GR: καθεστώς επικουρικής προστασίας
HU: kiegészítő védelmi jogállás
IE: stádas cosanta coimhdí
IT: status di protezione sussidiaria
LT: papildomos apsaugos statusas
LV: alternatīvās aizsardzības statuss
MT: Status ta’ protezzjoni sussidjarja
NL/BE: subsidiairebeschermingsstatus
NO: status for subsidiær beskyttelse (b) / status for subsidiært vern (n)
PL: status ochrony uzupełniającej
PT: estatuto de protecção subsidiária
RO: statut de protecţie subsidiară
SE: status som subsidiärt skyddsbehövande
SI: status subsidiarne zaščite
SK: status doplnkovej ochrany / štatút doplnkovej ochrany

subsidiary protection

AT/DE/LU: subsidiärer Schutz
BG: субсидиарна закрила
CS: doplňková ochrana
EE: täiendav kaitse
ES: protección subsidiaria
FI: toissijainen suojelu
FR/BE/LU: protection subsidiaire
GR: επικουρική προστασία
HU: kiegészítő védelem
IE: cosaint choimhdeach
IT: protezione sussidiaria
LT: papildoma apsauga
LV: alternatīvā aizsardzība
MT: Protezzjoni sussidjarja
NL/BE: subsidiaire bescherming
NO: subsidiær beskyttelse (b) / subsidiært vern (n)
PL: ochrona (uzupełniająca)
PT: ochrona (uzupełniająca)
RO: protecţie subsidiară
SE: subsidiärt skydd
SI: subsidiarna zaščita
SK: doplnková ochrana

The protectiongiven to a third-country nationalor a stateless personwho does not qualify as a refugeebut in respect of whom substantial grounds have been shown for believing that the person concerned, if returned to their country of origin, or in the case of a stateless person to their country of former habitual residence, would face a real risk of suffering serious harmas defined in Art. 15 of 2011/95/EU, and to whom Art. 17(1) and (2) of Directive 2011/95/EU do not apply, and is unable or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country.

Narrower Term: person eligible for subsidiary protection status

Broader Term:international protection

Related Term: (civil) war refugee, humanitarian protection, temporary protection

This term is not used in UK (see 'humanitarian protection').

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(f) of Directive 2011/95/EC (Recast Qualification Directive)

suspension of removal

Please see entry for postponement of removal

stranded migrant

AT/DE/LU: gestrandeter Migrant (term is not used in AT,DE, LU)
BG: no translation
CS: cizinec, kterému brání ve vycestování překážka na jeho vůli nezávislá
EE: juhusisserändaja (No usual translation)
ES: migrante desamparado
FI: maahan jäämään joutunut siirtolainen / No usual translation
FR/BE/LU: migrant en détresse
HU: megfeneklett migránsok
IE: imirceach sáinnithe
IT: migrante bloccato
LT: migrantas, atsidūręs sunkioje padėtyje
LV: grūtā stāvoklī nonācis migrants
MT: Migrant(a) imwaħħal (imwaħħla) fil-post
NL/BE: gestrande migrant
NO: migrant med påtvunget opphold (b) / migrant med påtvinga opphald (n)
PL: migrant przymusowy
PT: migrante involuntariamente forçado a permanecer num dado país: migrante involuntariamente forçado a permanecer num dado país
RO: migrant forţat să rămână pe teritoriu
SE: strandad migrant
SI: ujeti migrant / nasedli migrant
SK: uviaznutý migrant

A migrantwho for reasons beyond their control has been unintentionally forced to stay in a country.

Broader Term: migrant

1. There is no legal definition of the term 'stranded migrant'; however, the term has been used by academics and organisations such as IOM since 2006.
2. According to UNESCO, migrants may become stranded due to circumstances in the country of origin, a position of prolonged detention or practical difficulties. Stranded migrants may be individuals whose claim for refugee status has been rejected.
3. For further information, see UNESCO's People on the Move Handbook

Source: Developed by EMN


AT/DE/LU: Student
BG: студент
CS: student
EE: üliõpilane
ES: estudiante
FI: opiskelija
FR/BE/LU: étudiant
GR: φοιτητής / σπουδαστης
HU: diák
IE: mac léinn
IT: studente
LT: studentas
LV: students
MT: Student(a)
NL/BE: student
NO: Student
PL: student
PT: estudante
RO: student
SE: student
SI: študent
SK: študent

In the EU migration context, a third-country national accepted by an establishment of higher education and admitted to the territory of a Member State to pursue as their main activity a full-time course of study leading to a higher education qualification recognised by the Member State, including diplomas, certificates or doctoral degrees, which may cover a preparatory course prior to such education according to its national legislation.

Related Term: researcher, school pupil

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2004/114/EC (Student Directive)

suspensive effect

AT/DE/LU: aufschiebende Wirkung
BG: суспензивен ефект
CS: odkladný účinek
EE: edasilükkav toime
ES: efecto suspensivo
FI: lykkäävä vaikutus
FR/BE/LU: effet suspensif
HU: halasztó hatály
IE: éifeacht fionraíochta
IT: effetto sospensivo
LT: stabdomasis poveikis
LV: atliekošs efekts
MT: Posponiment / Sospensjoni bħala konsegwenza (b’effett) ta’ ...
NL/BE: schorsende werking
NO: utsettende virkning (b) / utsetjande verknad (n)
PL: skutek zawieszający
: efeito suspensivo
RO: efect suspensiv
SE: suspensiv effekt
SI: suspenzivni učinek /odložilni učinek
SK: odkladný účinok [rozhodnutia]

A consequence of an appeal, which suspends the enforceability of a challenged decision allowing the appellant to remain in a host countrypending the outcome.

Synonym(s): right to remain pending the examination of an application, right to remain pending the decision

Broader Term: legal remedy

1. The Directive 2013/32/EU/ (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) recognises in Art. 9 an automatic right of applicants to remain in the Member State, for the sole purpose of the procedure, until the determining authority has made a decision in accordance with the procedures at first instance, and in Art. 46(3) - in line with international refugee law and with the jurisprudence of the European Courts - an automatic right of applicants appealing against negative decisions to remain in the territory of the concerned Member State.
2. In some circumstances (listed in Art. 46(6)), such as decisions considering an application to be manifestly unfounded in accordance with Art. 32(2) or unfounded after examination in accordance with Art. 31(8), the suspensive effect of appeal is not automatic. However, the possibility remains to request a court or tribunal for a right to stay, pending the second instance decision (Art. 46 (3) of Directive 2013/32/EU).

Source: Developed by EMN