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racial discrimination

AT/DE/LU: rassistische Diskriminierung, Rassendiskriminierung
BG: расова дискриминация
CS: rasová diskriminace
EE: rassiline diskrimineerimine
ES: discriminación racial
FI: rotusyrjintä
FR/BE/LU: discrimination raciale
GR: φυλετική διάκριση
HU: faji diszkrimináció
IE: idirdhealú ciníoch
IT: discriminazione razziale
LT: rasinė diskriminacija
LV: rasu diskriminācija
MT: Diskriminazzjoni razzjali
NL/BE: rassendiscriminatie
NO: rasediskriminering
PL: dyskryminacja rasowa
PT: discriminação racial
RO: discriminare rasială
SE: rasdiskriminering
SI: rasna diskriminacija
SK: rasová diskriminácia

Any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.


Broader Term: discrimination
Related Term: racism, xenophobia

Note:
1. The Convention does not define 'race' but it does define 'racial discrimination'.
2. Distinctions made on the basis of citizenship (that is, between citizens and non-citizens) are specifically excluded from the definition, as are affirmative action policies and other measures taken to redress imbalances and promote equality.
3. Some institutions such as UNHCRand EASOuse the term 'discrimination' with the same definition.

Source:Art. 1(1) of UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

racism

AT/DE/LU: Rassismus
BG: расизъм
CS: rasismus
EE: rassism
ES: racismo
FI: rasismi
FR/BE/LU: racisme
HU: rasszizmus/ fajgyűlölet
IE: ciníochas
IT: razzismo
LT: rasizmas
LV: rasisms
MT: Razziżmu
NL/BE: racisme
NO: rasisme
PL: rasizm
PT: Racismo
RO: rasism
SE: rasism
SI: rasizem
SK: rasizmus

Ideas or theories of superiority of one race or group of persons of one colour or ethnic origin.


Related Term: racial discrimination, xenophobia

Note:
1. Racism can be defined in many ways. A broad, general definition is used here in order to have a common understanding of the concept. However, there is a problem in that the term 'racism' presupposes the existence of different races. Recital (6) of Directive 2000/43/EC states that 'The European Union rejects theories which attempt to determine the existence of separate human races.'
2. According to the EU acquis, and specifically Art. 1 of Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA, offences concerning racism and xenophobia are considered to be:

  1. publicly inciting to violence or hatred directed against a group of persons or a member of such a group defined by reference to race, colour, religion, descent or national or ethnic origin;
  2. the commission of an act referred to in point (a) by public dissemination or distribution of tracts, pictures or other material;
  3. publicly condoning, denying or grossly trivialising crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes as defined in Articles 6, 7 and 8 of the Statute of the International Criminal Court, directed against a group of persons or a member of such a group defined by reference to race, colour, religion, descent or national or ethnic origin when the conduct is carried out in a manner likely to incite violence or hatred against such a group or a member of such a group;
  4. publicly condoning, denying or grossly trivialising the crimes defined in Art. 6 of the Charter of the International Military Tribunal appended to the London Agreement of 8 August 1945, directed against a group of persons or a member of such a group defined by reference to race, colour, religion, descent or national or ethnic origin when the conduct is carried out in a manner likely to incite violence or hatred against such a group or a member of such a group.

3. The Council of Europe provides further insight into the understanding of this term at http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/chapter_5/5_4.html

Source:Art. 4 of UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

Rapid Border Intervention Team

AT/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Група за бързо реагиране по границата
CS: pohraniční jednotka rychlé reakce\
CS: Soforteinsatzteam für Grenzsicherungszwecke
EE: piirivalve kiirreageerimisrühm
ES: equipos de intervención rápida en frontera
FI: rajavalvonnan nopean toiminnan joukot (RABIT)
FR/BE/LU: équipes d’intervention rapide aux frontières
HU: Gyorsreagálású Határvédelmi Csapatok
IE: Foireann Mhear-idirghabhála Teorainneacha
IT: Squadre di rapido intervento alle frontiere (RABIT)
LT: Pasienio greitojo reagavimo komanda
LV: ātrās reaģēšanas robežapsardzes vienība
MT: Timijiet t'Intervent Rapidu mal-Fruntieri (RABIT)
NL/BE: snelle-grensinterventieteams
NO: beredskapsgruppe for grensekontroll (RABIT)
PL: Zespół Szybkiego Reagowania na Granicy (RABIT)
PT: Equipas de Intervenção Rápida nas Fronteiras
RO: Echipe de intervenţie rapidă la frontieră (RABIT)
SE: snabba gränsinsatsenheter
SI: Skupina za hitro posredovanje na mejah
SK: rýchle pohraničné zásahové tímy / RABIT

A mechanism providing rapid operational assistance for a limited period to a requesting Member State facing a situation of urgent and exceptional pressure at points of the external EU bordersfrom large numbers of third-country nationalstrying to enter the territory of the Member State illegally.


Synonym(s): RABIT

Related Term: European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

Source:Art. 1(1) of Council Regulation (EC) No 863/2007 (Rapid Border Intervention Teams Regulation)

readmission agreement

AT/DE/LU: Rückübernahmeabkommen
BG: споразумение за реадмисия
CS: readmisní dohoda
EE: tagasivõtuleping
ES: acuerdo de readmisión
FI: takaisinottosopimus
FR/BE/LU: accord de réadmission
GR: συμφωνία επανεισδοχής
HU: visszafogadási egyezmény
IE: comhaontú um athghlactha isteach
IT: accordo di riammissione
LT: readmisijos susitarimas
LV: atpakaļuzņemšanas nolīgums
MT: Ftehim ta' dħul mill-ġdid / ta' riammissjoni
NL/BE: terugnameovereenkomst
NO: returavtale
PL: umowa readmisyjna
PT: acordo de readmissão
RO: acord de readmisie
SE: återtagandeavtal
SI: sporazum o vračanju oseb
SK: readmisná dohoda

An agreement between the EU and/or a Member State with a third country, on the basis of reciprocity, establishing rapid and effective procedures for the identification and safe and orderly return of persons who do not, or no longer, fulfil the conditions for entry to, presence in, or residence in the territories of the third country or one of the Member States of the European Union, and to facilitate the transit of such persons in a spirit of cooperation.


Note:
1. Re-admission agreements concluded between the EU and a third country supersede those of any Member State with the same country, although this might not be the case for DK and possibly IE and UK as these Member States can choose not to participate in (opt-in to) the relevant EU agreement.
2. For more information, see the website of DG HOME.

Source:Preamble to EU Readmission Agreements (e.g. EU Readmission Agreement with Serbia)

real risk of suffering serious harm

AT/DE/LU: tatsächliche Gefahr, einen ernsthaften Schaden zu erleiden
BG: реален риск от тежки посегателства
CS: reálné riziko vážné újmy
EE: reaalne risk tõsise ohu tekkimiseks
EL: πραγματικός κίνδυνος σοβαρής βλάβης
ES: riesgo real de sufrir daños graves
FI: todellinen vaara joutua kärsimään vakavaa haittaa
FR/BE/LU: risque réel de subir des atteintes graves
HU: súlyos sérelem elszenvedésének tényleges veszélye
IE: fíorbhaol díobháil thromchúiseach a fhulaingt
IT: rischio effettivo di subire un grave danno
LT: realus pavojus patirti didelę žalą
LV: reāls risks ciest smagu kaitējumu
MT: Riskju reali/veru li ġġarrab dannu(-i) serju(-i)
NL/BE: reëel risico op het lijden van ernstige schade
NO: reell fare for alvorlig skade (b) / reell fare for alvorleg skade (n)
PL: rzeczywiste ryzyko doznania poważnej krzywdy
RO: risc real de vătămare fizică gravă
SE: verklig risk för att lida allvarlig skada
SI: utemeljeno tveganje resne škode
SK: reálne riziko utrpenia vážneho bezprávia / reálne riziko vážneho bezprávia

Risk ofserious harmexperienced by an applicant for international protection which is considered to be both real and likely to occur.


Broader Term: serious harm

Related Term: well-founded fear of persecution

Note:
1.The likelihood of an applicant for international protection suffering serious harm is assessed in order to provide a standard of proof for assessing eligibility for subsidiary protection. According to Art. 4(4) of the Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) on the 'assessment of facts and circumstances', earlier serious harm or direct threats are appraised as a 'serious indication of the applicant’s ... real risk of suffering serious harm, unless there are good reasons to consider that such persecution or serious harm will not be repeated'.
2. The European Court of Human Rights has ruled in a high number of different cases that there is a violation of Art. 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 'if substantial grounds have been shown for believing that the person concerned, if deported, faces a real risk of being subjected to treatment contrary to Art. 3 ECHR'. In light of the Court’s consequent jurisprudence, this standard means that: (a) there is no need for the risk to be very high (no certainty or significant probability requirement); (b) at the same time the risk cannot be a mere possibility (a distant, vague or theoretical alternative).

Source: Developed by EMN

reception centre

AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmeeinrichtung
BG: приемателен център
CS: přijímací středisko
EE: vastuvõtukeskus
ES: centro de acogida
FI: vastaanottokeskus
FR/BE/LU: centre d’accueil (pour demandeurs d’asile)
HU: befogadó állomás
IE: ionad fáiltithe
IT: centro di accoglienza per richiedenti asilo
LT: priėmimo centras
LV: uzņemšanas centrs
MT: Ċentru ta’ akkoljenza (għal min jitlob l-ażil)
NL/BE: asielzoekerscentrum
NO: transittmottak
PL: ośrodek recepcyjny
PT: centro de acolhimento
RO: centru de cazare şi proceduri
SE: mottagning
SI: nastanitveni center / sprejemni center
SK: prijímacie zariadenie (EU acquis) / záchytný tábor (national law)

A location with facilities for receiving, processing and attending to the immediate needs of Refugeesor asylum seekersas they arrive in a country of asylum.


Broader Term: reception facilities
Related Term: accomodation centre

Note:
For more information on categories of reception centres available in EU Member States, see EMN: the Organisation of Reception Facilities for Asylum Seekers in different Member States, 2013 pdf - 2 MB [2 MB] .

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

reception conditions

AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmebedingungen, im Rahmen der Aufnahmebedingungen gewährte Vorteile
BG: условия на приемане
CS: podmínky přijetí
EE: vastuvõtutingimused
ES: condiciones de acogida
FI: vastaanotto-olosuhteet
FR/BE/LU: conditions d'accueil
GR: συνθήκες υποδοχής
HU: befogadási feltételek
IE: coinníollacha glactha
IT: condizioni di accoglienza
LT: priėmimo sąlygos
LV: uzņemšanas nosacījumi
MT: Kondizzjonijiet tal-akkoljenza
NL/BE: opvangvoorzieningen
NO: mottaksforhold (b) / mottakstilhøve (n)
PL: warunki przyjmowania
PT: condições de acolhimento
RO: condiţii de recepţie
SE: mottagningsvillkor
SI: sprejemni pogoji
SK: prijímacie podmienky (EU acquis) / podmienky prijímania (national law)

The full set of measures that Member States grant to applicants for international protection.


Narrower Term: material reception conditions

Note:
For more information on reception conditions in the EU, see EMN: the Organisation of Reception Facilities for Asylum Seekers in different Member States, 2013 pdf - 2 MB [2 MB] .

Source:Art. 2(f) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

reception facilities

AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmeeinrichtung
BG: приемни съоръжения
CS: přijímací zařízení
EE: vastuvõtu majutusasutused
ES: centros de acogida
FI: vastaanoton majoitusmuodot
FR/BE/LU: structures d'accueil
HU: befogadó létesítmények
IE: áiseanna fáiltithe
IT: struttura di accoglienza
LT: priėmimo centrai
LV: uzņemšanas telpas
MT: Faċilitajiet ta’ akkoljenza
NL/BE: opvangfaciliteiten
NO: asylmottak
PL: ośrodki przyjmowania
RO: spaţii de cazare a solicitanţilor de azil
SE: anläggningsboende
SI: sprejemni prostori
SK: azylové zariadenia

All forms of premises used for the housing of applicants for international protection and other categories of migrants and Refugees.


Narrower Term: accomodation centre, Reception Centre

Note:
For more information on categories of reception facilties available in EU Member States, see EMN: the Organisation of Reception Facilities for Asylum Seekers in different Member States, 2013 pdf - 2 MB [2 MB] .

Source: Developed by EMN

recognition of foreign qualifications

AT/DE/LU: Anerkennung ausländischer Qualifikationen
BG: признаване на чуждестранни квалификации
CS: uznávání zahraničních kvalifikací
EE: välisriigi kutsekvalifikatsiooni tunnustamine
ES: reconocimiento de cualificaciones obtenidas en el extranjero
FI: ulkomaisten tutkintojen vastaavuuden tunnustaminen
FR/BE/LU: reconnaissance des qualifications acquises à l'étranger
HU: külföldi képesítések elfogadása
IE: aithint cáilíochtaí iasachta
IT: riconoscimento della qualifica estera
LT: užsienyje įgytų kvalifikacijų pripažinimas
LV: ārvalstīs iegūtu kvalifikāciju atzīšana
MT: Rikonoxximent ta’ kwalifiki barranin
NL/BE: erkenning van buitenlandse getuigschriften
NO: godkjenning av utenlandske kvalifikasjoner (b) / godkjenning av utanlandske kvalifikasjonar (n)
PL: uznanie kwalifikacji (zawodowych) cudzoziemca
RO: recunoaşterea calificărilor din străinătate
SE: erkännande av utländska kvalifikationer
SI: priznavanje tujih kvalifikacij
SK: uznávanie odborných kvalifikácií zo zahraničia / uznávanie dokladov o vzdelaní zo zahraničia

A formal acknowledgement by a competent authority of the validity of a foreign qualification with a view to access to educational and/or employment activities.


Synonym(s): qualifications (recognition of foreign)

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'recognition' in Art. 1 of the Council of Europe Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region

refoulement

AT/DE/LU: Ausweisung und Zurückweisung eines Flüchtlings
BG: refoulement/ експулсиране или връщане
CS: vyhoštění a navracení
EE: tagasisaatmine
ES: refoulement
FI: palauttaminen
FR/BE/LU: refoulement
GR: επαναπροώθηση
HU: refoulement (visszaküldés)
IE: refoulement
IT: refoulement
LT: grąžinimas
LV: izraidīšana
MT: Refoulement / Ritorn imġiegħel jew sfurzat
NL/BE: uitwijzing
NO: utsendelse (b) / utsending (n)
PL: wydalenie
PT: refoulement
RO: refoulement/ returnare
SE: refoulement (avvisning/utvisning)
SI: vračanje
SK: vyhostenie / vrátenie

The return by a State, in any manner whatsoever, of an individual to the territory of another state in which they may be persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion or would run the risk of torture .


Related Term: compulsory return, non-refoulement

Note:
Refoulement includes any action having the effect of returning the individual to a State, including expulsion , deportation , extradition, rejection at the frontier, extra-territorial interception and physical return .

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

refugee

AT/DE/LU: Flüchtling
BG: бежанец
CS: uprchlík
EE: pagulane
ES: refugiado
FI: pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié
GR: πρόσφυγας
HU: menekült
IE: dídeanaí
IT: rifugiato
LT: pabėgėlis
LV: bēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a)
NL/BE: vluchteling
NO: flyktning
PL: uchodźca
PT: refugiado
RO: refugiat
SE: flykting
SI: begunec
SK: utečenec (international law, EU acquis) / azylant (national law)

In the global context, either a person who, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or a stateless person, who, being outside of the country of former habitual residence for the same reasons as mentioned before, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it.

In the EU context, either a third-country national who, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or a stateless person, who, being outside of the country of former habitual residence for the same reasons as mentioned above, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it, and to whom Art. 12 (Exclusion) of Directive 2011/95/EU does not apply.


Narrower Term: applicant for international protection, asylum-seeker, Convention refugee

Broader Term: forced migrant

Related Term: beneficiary of international protection, person eligible for subsidiary protection

Note:
Whereas the exclusion clauses are an integral part of the refugee definition of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive), the Geneva Convention of 1951 refers to the exclusion clauses in its Articles 1D, 1E and 1F (see also the definition of 'exclusion clause').

Source: Global context: Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951
EU context: Art. 2(d) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

refugee in orbit

AT/DE/LU: No usual translation
BG: no translation
CS: refugee in orbit
EE: ringlev pagulane/No usual translation
ES: refugiados en órbita
FI: kiertävä pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié en orbite
GR: πρόσφυγας σε τροχιά
HU: we do not make use of this expression
IE: dídeanaí ag fithisiú
IT: rifugiato vagante
LT: pabėgėlis orbitoje
LV: "riņķojošs" bēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a) f'orbita / f'limbu
NL/BE: vluchteling in orbit
NO: videresendt flyktning (b) / vidaresend flyktning (n)
PL: uchodźca na orbicie/refugee in orbit
PT: requerentes de asilo em orbita
RO: refugiat pe orbită
SE: no usual translation
SI: refugee in orbit / tavajoči begunec
SK: utečenec v pohybe / refugee in orbit

A refugee who, although not returned directly to a country where they may be persecuted, is denied asylum or unable to find a State willing to examine their request, and are shuttled from one country to another in a constant search for asylum.


Related Term: de facto refugee, postponement of removal

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

refugee in transit

AT/DE/LU:  no usual translation
BG: no translation
: no translation
EE: transiidipagulane (No usual translation)
ES: refugiado en tránsito
FI: kauttakulkupakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié en transit
GR: πρόσφυγας σε ζώνη διέλευσης
HU: no usual translation // transiidipagulane (no usual translation)
IE: dídeanaí idirthurais
IT: rifugiato in transito
LT: tranzitinis pabėgėlis
LV: tranzītbēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a) fi tranżitu
NL/BE: vluchteling in transit
NO:  flyktning i transitt
PL:  uchodźca w tranzycie
PT: refugiados em trânsito
RO: refugiaţi admişi în vederea relocării (used when refering to refugees in Emergency Transit Centre in Timişoara)
SE: no translation
SI: begunec v tranzitu
SK: utečenec v tranzite / tranzitujúci utečenec

A refugeewho is temporarily admitted in the territory of a State under the condition that they are resettled elsewhere.


Related Term: resettled refugee, resettlement

Note:
1. This term is currently little used in the EU.
2. The term should not be confused with refugees who stay in the transit area of an airport.

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

refugee law

AT/DE/LU: Flüchtlingsrecht
BG: бежанско право
CS: uprchlické právo
EE: varjupaigaõigus
ES: legislación de asilo
FI: pakolaisoikeus
FR/BE/LU: droit des réfugiés
GR: προσφυγικό Δίκαιο
HU: menekültjog
IE: dlíthe um dhídeanaithe
IT: legislazione sull'asilo
LT: pabėgėlių teisė
LV: [starptautiskās] bēgļu tiesības
MT: Liġi / Att dwar ir-rifuġjati
NL/BE: vluchtelingenrecht
NO: flyktningrett
PL: prawo uchodźcze
PT: legislação de asilo
RO: legislaţia cu privire la refugiaţi
SE: flyktingrätt
SI: begunsko pravo
SK: utečenecké právo

The body of customary international and EU law and instruments that establish standards for refugee protection. The cornerstone of refugee law is the Geneva Convention of 1951 and its Protocol of 1967.


Synonym(s): international refugee law

Source:Derived by EMN from UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

refugee status

AT/DE/LU: Flüchtlingsstatus
BG: статут на бежанец
CS: postavení uprchlíka
EE: pagulasseisund
ES: estatuto de refugiado
FI: pakolaisasema
FR/BE/LU: statut de réfugié
GR: καθεστώς πρόσφυγα
HU: menekült státusz
IE: stádas dídeanaí
IT: status di rifugiato
LT: pabėgėlio statusas
LV: bēgļa statuss
MT: Status ta' rifuġjat(a)
NL/BE: vluchtelingenstatus
NO: flyktningstatus
PL: status uchodźcy
PT: estatuto de refugiado
RO: statutul de refugiat
SE: flyktingstatus
SI: status begunca
SK: postavenie utečenca (EU acquis) / status utečenca / štatút utečenca

refugee sur place

AT/DE/LU: Flüchtling sur place
BG: бежанец на място/ бежанец sur place
CS: uprchlík na místě; uprchlík "sur place"
EE: sur place pagulane
ES: refugiado sobrevenido
FI: sur place -pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié sur place
GR: επί τόπου
HU: sur place menekült
IE: dídeanaí sur place
IT: rifugiato sur place
LT: pabėgėlis sur place
LV: bēglis sur place
MT: Rifuġjat(a) sur place
NL/BE: vluchteling ‘sur place’ (NL syn. réfugié sur place)
NO: sur place-flyktning
PL: uchodźca sur place/uchodźca na miejscu
PT: refugiados sur place
RO: refugiat sur place
SE: flykting "sur place"
SI: begunec sur place
SK: utečenec sur place / utečenec „na mieste“

In the global context, a person who is not a refugee when they leave their country of origin, but who becomes a refugee, that is, acquires a well-founded fear of persecution, at a later date.

In the EU context, a person granted refugee status based on international protection needs which arose sur place, i.e. on account of events which took place after they left their country of origin.


Synonym(s): objective grounds for seeking asylum occurring after the applicant's departure from their country of origin

Note:
Refugees sur place may owe their fear of persecution to a coup d'état in their home country, or to the introduction or intensification of repressive or persecutory policies after their departure. A claim in this category may also be based on bona fide political activities, undertaken in the country of residence or refuge.

Source: Global context: UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 5 of Directive 2011/95/EU(Recast Qualification Directive)

refusal of entry

AT/DE/LU: Verweigerung der Einreise (EU acquis); Einreiseverbot (DE)
BG: отказ за влизане
CS: odmítnutí vstupu
EE: sisenemiskeeld/isiku riiki mittelubamine
ES: denegación de entrada
FI: pääsyn epääminen
FR/BE/LU: refus d`entrée
GR: υπήκοοι τρίτων χωρών με άρνηση εισόδου
HU: beléptetés megtagadása
IE: náisiúnaigh tríú tír ar diúltaíodh iontráil dóibh
IT: respingimento (rifiuto di ingresso)
LT: neįleidimas
LV: ieceļošanas atteikums
MT: Dħul miċħud / Tbarrija
NL/BE: toegangsweigering
NO: innreisenekt
PL: odmowa wjazdu
PT: recusa de entrada a nacionais de países terceiros
RO: refuzarea intrării
SE: avvisning (tredjelandsmedborgare som nekas inresa)
SI: zavrnitev vstopa
SK: odopretie vstupu

In the global context, refusal of entry of a person who does not fulfil all the entry conditions laid down in the national legislation of the country for which entry is requested.

In the EU context, refusal of entry of a third-country national at the external EU border because they do not fulfil all the entry conditions laid down in Art. 5(1) of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Border Code) and do not belong to the categories of persons referred to in Art. 5(4) of that Regulation.


Related Term: border control, illegal entry, legal entry

Source: Global context: Developed by EMN
EU context: Derived by EMN from the definition for 'third-country nationals refused entry’ in Art. 2(q) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

regional protection programme

AT/DE/LU: Regionales Schutzprogramm
BG: регионална програма за закрила
CS: program regionální ochrany
EE: piirkondlik kaitsekava
ES: programa regional de protección
FI: alueellinen suojeluohjelma
FR/BE/LU: programme régional de protection
HU: Regionális Védelmi Program
IE: Clár Cosanta Réigiúnaí
IT: programma di protezione regionale
LT: regioninė apsaugos programa
LV: reģionālās aizsardzības programma
MT: Programm ta' protezzjoni reġjonali
NL/BE: regionaal beschermingsprogramma
NO: regionalt program om beskyttelse (b) regionalt program om vern (n)
PL: program ochrony regionalnej
PT:  Programa regional de protecção
RO: program de protecţie regională
SE: regionalt skyddsprogram
SI: regionalni program zaščite
SK: regionálny program ochrany

A programme designed to enhance the capacity of non-EU countries in the regions from which many Refugees originate, or through which they pass in transit. Such a progamme aims to improve refugee protection through durable solutions(return, local integration and resettlement in a third country).


Broader Term: protection

Related Term: asylum, refugee

Note:
1. The first two regional protection programmes targeted Eastern Europe (in particular Belarus, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) as a region of transit and the African Great Lakes Region (particularly Tanzania) as a region of origin.
2. For further information, see the DG HOME website

Source:Derived by EMN from the Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on regional protection programmes – COM(2005) 388

regularisation

AT/DE/LU: Legalisierung, Regularisierung
BG: узаконяване
CS: regularizace / legalizace pobytu
EE: seadustamine
ES: regularización
FI: laillistaminen
FR/BE/LU: régularisation
GR: νομιμοποίηση
HU: legalizálás
IE: tabhairt chun rialtachta
IT: regolarizzazione
LT: reguliarizacija
LV: [personas statusa] legalizācija
MT: Regolarizzazzjoni
NL/BE: regularisatie
NO: regularisering
PL: regularyzacja
PT: regularização
RO: regularizare/legalizare
SE: regularisering
SI: regularizacija
SK: legalizácia / regularizácia

In the EU context, state procedure by which illegally staying third-country nationals are awarded a legal status.


Synonym(s): amnesty, amnesty (in the context of migration), legalisation

Source:ICMPD: Study on Regularisations in Europe, 2009

reintegration

AT/DE/LU: Reintegration
BG: реинтеграция
CS: reintegrace
EE: taaslõimumine
ES: reintegración
FI: uudelleen kotouttaminen
FR/BE/LU: réintégration
GR: επανένταξη
HU: reintegráció (visszailleszkedés)
IE: athimeascadh
IT: reintegrazione
LT: reintegracija
LV: reintegrācija
MT: Riintegrazzjoni
NL/BE: reïntegratie
NO: reintegrering
PL: reintegracja
PT: reintegração
RO: reintegrare
SE: återintegrering
SI: reintegracija / ponovna integracija
SK: reintegrácia

Re-inclusion or re-incorporation of a person into a group or a process, e.g. of a migrant into the society of their country of return.


Related Term: integration, return

Source:Derived by the EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

rejected applicant for international protection

AT/DE/LU: abgelehnter Antragsteller auf internationalen Schutz
BG: отхвърлен кандидат за международна закрила
CS: žadatel o mezinárodní ochranu, jehož žádost byla zamítnuta
EE: tagasilükatud rahvusvahelise kaitse taotleja
ES: solicitante al que se le ha denegado la protección internacional
FI: hylkäävän päätöksen saanut kansainvälisen suojelun hakija
FR/BE/LU: demandeur de protection internationale débouté
HU: elutasított menedékkérő
IE: iarratasóir ar diúltaíodh cosaint idirnáisiúnta dó
IT: richiedente protezione internazionale respinto
LT: asmuo, kuriam prieglobstis nesuteiktas
LV: persona, kurai atteikts piešķirt starptautisko aizsardzību
MT: Applikant(a) għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali respint(a)/miċħud(a)
NL/BE: afgewezen asielzoeker
NO: person med avslag på søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / person med avslag på søknad om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: osoba, której wniosek o objęcie ochroną międzynardową został odrzucony
RO: solicitant al protecţiei internaţionale respins/a cărui cerere a fost respinsă
SE: person som omfattas av beslut om avslag på ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: zavrnjeni prosilec za mednarodno zaščito
SK: neúspešný žiadateľ o medzinárodnú ochranu / neúspešný žiadateľ o udelenie medzinárodnej ochrany / žiadateľ o medzinárodnú ochranu, ktorému bola žiadosť zamietnutá / žiadateľ o udelenie medzinárodnej ochrany, ktorému bola žiadosť zamietnutá

A person covered by a first instance decision rejecting an application for international protection, including decisions considering applications as inadmissible or as unfounded and decisions under priority and accelerated procedures, taken by administrative or judicial bodies during the reference period.


Synonym(s): failed applicant, failed asylum seeker, rejected applicant

Related Terms: applicant for international protection, asylum seeker

 

Source:Art. 4(2a) of Regulation 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

relocation

AT/DE/LU: Umverteilung
BG: преместване/ релокация
CS: relokace
EE: ümberasustamine
ES: reubicación
FI: sisäinen siirto
FR/BE/LU: relocalisation
HU: áthelyezés (relokáció)
IE: athlonnú
IT: ricollocazione
LT: perkėlimas
LV: pārvietošana
MT: Rilokazzjoni
NL/BE: aanleg tot afwijzing van een verzoek om internationale
NO: relokalisering
PL: relokacja
PT: recolocação
RO: relocare
SE: omplacering
SI: preselitev
SK: premiestnenie (EU acquis) / relokácia

The transfer of persons having a status defined by the Geneva Convention of 1951 or subsidiary protection within the meaning of Directive 2011/95/EU from the EU Member State which granted them international protection to another EU Member State where they will be granted similar protection, and of persons having applied for international protection from the EU Member State which is responsible for examining their application to another EU Member State where their applications for international protection will be examined.


Related Term: Convention refugee, person eligible for subsidiary protection, resettlement

Source:DG Home e-Library Glossary

remain in the Member State

AT/DE/LU: Verbleib im Mitglied-staat
BG: оставане в държава-членка
CS: setrvat v členském státě
DE: Verbleib im Mitgliedstaat
EE: liikmesriiki jääma
ES: permanecer en el territorio del Estado Miembro
FI: jääminen jäsenvaltioon
FR/BE/LU: rester dans l'Etat membre
GR: κ-μ παραμονής
HU: a tagállam területés marad
IE: fanacht sa bhallstát
IT: permanenza nello Stato membro
LT: likti valstybėje narėje
LV: palikt uz dzīvi dalībvalstī
MT: Jibqa’/Tibqa’ fl-Istat Membru
NL/BE: in de lidstaat blijven
NO: fortsatt opphold (b) / vidare opphald (n)
PL: pozostawać w państwie członkowskim
PT: permanecer num estado membro
RO: a rămâne pe teritoriu
SE: stanna kvar i medlemsstaten
SI: ostati v državi članici
SK: zostať v členskom štáte

To remain in the territory, including at the border or in transit zones, of the Member State in which the application for international protection has been made or is being examined.

Source:Art. 2(p) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

remittance

AT/DE/LU: Rücküberweisung
BG: парични трансфери на емигранти
CS: remitence
EE: rahaülekanded
ES: remesas
FI: rahalähetys
FR/BE/LU: envois de fonds
GR: εμβάσματα
HU: hazautalás
IE: seoltán
IT: rimessa
LT: pinigų perlaidos
LV: naudas pārvedumi
MT: Trasferimenti / Bgħit ta' flus (minn migranti lejn benefiċjarji f'pajjiżhom)
NL/BE: geldovermakingen (syn. geldoverdrachten)
NO: pengeoverføringer (b) / pengeoverføringar (n)
PL: przekazy pienieżne / transfery pieniężne
PT: remessas
RO: remitenţă
SE: överföring
SI: nakazilo
SK: remitencie

In the global context, a cross-border person-to-person payment of relatively low value.

In an EU context, a financial transfer from a migrant to a beneficiary(ies) in the migrant's country of origin .

Related Term: circular migration

Source: Global context: World Bank: Committee on Payment and Settlement System – General principles for remittances, January 2007, p. 6
EU context: Footnote 7 of COM(2005) 390

removal

AT/DE/LU: Abschiebung
BG: извеждане
CS: vyhoštění
EE: väljasaatmine
ES: expulsión
FI: maasta poistaminen
FR/BE/LU: éloignement
GR: απομάκρυνση
HU: kitoloncolás
IE: aistriú
IT: allontanamento
LT: išsiuntimas
LV: piespiedu izraidīšana
MT: Tneħħija
NL/BE: uitzetting (syn: verwijdering)
NO: uttransportering
PL: odesłanie (wyjazd)
PT: afastamento
RO: Îndepărtare de pe teritoriu/returnare
SE: avlägsnande
SI: odstranitev
SK: odsun

The enforcement of the obligation to return, namely the physical transportation out of the country.


Synonym(s): deportation

Narrower Term: removal order

Broader Term: compulsory return

Related Term: voluntary departure

Note:
Under EU legislation, removal is a specific form of compulsory (forced) return.

Source:Art. 3(5) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

removal order

AT/DE/LU: Abschiebungsanordnung
BG: заповед за извеждане
CS: rozhodnutí o vyhoštění
EE: väljasaatmisotsus
ES: orden de expulsión
FI: maastapoistamismääräys
FR/BE/LU:  mesure d'éloignement
GR: εντολή απομάκρυνσης
HU: kitoloncolásról szóló határozat
IE: ordú aistrithe
IT: provvedimento di allontanamento
LT: nurodymas išsiųsti
LV: lēmums par piespiedu izraidīšanu
MT: Ordni ta' tneħħija
NL/BE: last tot uitzetting
NO: vedtak om uttransportering
PL: decyzja nakazująca wyjazd
PT: decisão de afastamento
RO: decizie de returnare sub escortă
SE: beslut om avlägsnande
SI: nalog za odstranitev
SK: príkaz na odsun / príkaz na vyhostenie

An administrative or judicial decision or act ordering a removal.


Synonym(s): deportation order

Broader Term: removal, return decision

Related Term: expulsion decision

Note:
For some Member States, a return decision and removal order may occur within one administrative or judicial act as provided for in their national legislation.

Source:Art. 8(3) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

remunerated trainee

AT/DE/LU: bezahlter Auszubildender
BG: платен стажант
CS: placený stážista
EE: tasustatud praktikant
ES: persona en prácticas remuneradas
FI: palkallinen harjoittelija
FR/BE/LU: stagiaire rémunéré
GR: αμοιβόμενος εκπαιδευόμενος
HU: javadalmazásban részesülő (fizetett) gyakornok
IE: duine faoi oiliúint a fuair luach saothair
IT: apprendista retribuito
LT: atlygintinas stažuotojas
LV: algots praktikants / stažieris
MT: Persuna titħarreġ bi ħlas
NL/BE: bezoldigd stagiair
NO: lønnet praktikant (b) / lønt praktikant (n)
PL: stażysta pobierający wynagrodzenie
PT: estagiários/formandos remunerados
RO:  stagiar remunerat
SE: avlönad praktikant
SI: plačani pripravnik
SK: platený stážista

A third-country national who has been admitted to the territory of a Member State for a training period with remuneration in accordance with its national legislation.


Broader Term: trainee

Related Term: unremunerated trainee

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition for 'unremunerated trainee' in Art. 2(d) of Council Directive 2004/114/EC (Student Migration Directive)

repatriation

AT/DE/LU: Repatriierung
BG: репатриране
CS: repatriace
EE: tagasipöördumine (repatrieerumine)
ES: repatriación
FI: paluu, palauttaminen
FR/BE/LU: rapatriement
GR: επαναπατρισμός
HU: hazatelepítés
IE: aisdúichiú
IT: rimpatrio
LT: repatriacija
LV: repatriācija
MT: Ripatrijazzjoni
NL/BE: repatriëring(NL syn.: naar het vaderland terugkeren / naar het vaderland terugbrengen)
NO: repatriering
PL: repatriacja
PT: repatriamento
RO: repatriere
SE: återvandring
SI: repatriacija
SK: repatriácia

The personal right of a refugee or a prisoner of war to return to their country of nationality under specific conditions laid down in various international instruments and human rights instruments as well as in customary international law.


Note:
1. This is not a synonym relating to compulsory (forced) return.
2. The option of repatriation is bestowed upon the individual personally and not upon the detaining power. In the law of international armed conflict, repatriation also entails the obligation of the detaining power to release eligible persons (soldiers and civilians) and the duty of the country of origin to receive its own nationals at the end of hostilities. Even if treaty law does not contain a general rule on this point, it is today readily accepted that the repatriation of prisoners of war and civil detainees has been consented to implicitly by the interested parties. Repatriation as a term also applies to diplomatic envoys and international officials in times of international crisis as well as expatriates and migrants.
3. Depending on the Member State, this term has different meanings/connotations: in PL, RO, NL, NO this refers specifically to repatriating their nationals back to PL, RO, NL, NO respectively. In ES, IE, IT, UK, it is often used in the context of returning third-country nationals to their country of origin. In EE, the term refers specifically to persons of Estonia or ethnic Estonians' resettlement to Estonia. In LV, the term refers specifically to the persons of Latvian or Livonian origin to resettle with permanent residence in Latvia. In PT, the term has no legal concept, being used more as a sociological term. It is commonly used to refer to Portuguese citizens that return to Portugal, including being forced to return.
4. The term should not be confused with 'voluntary repatriation' which is according to the UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology defined as follows: "Return to the country of origin on the basis of the freely expressed willingness of the refugees". The returns have to take place in conditions of safety, dignity and security. The principle of 'voluntariness' must be viewed in relation to both: conditions in the country of origin (calling for an informed decision) and the situation in the country of asylum (permitting a free choice). For more information, see UNHCR: Voluntary Repatriation: International Protection - handbook, 1996.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

representative

AT/DE/LU: Vertreter (EU acquis); Stellvertreter (DE)
BG: представител
CS: zástupce
EE: esindaja
ES: representante legal
FI: edustaja
FR/BE/LU: représentant
GR: εκπρόσωπος
HU: ügygondnok
IE: ionadaí
IT: rappresentante
LT: atstovas
LV: pārstāvis
MT: Rappreżentant legali // Kuratur legali
NL/BE: vertegenwoordiger
NO: verge
PL: przedstawiciel
PT: representante legal
RO: reprezentant legal
SE: företrädare
SI: predstavnik / zastopnik
SK: zástupca

A person or an organisation appointed by the competent bodies in order to assist and represent an unaccompanied minor in procedures provided for in Directive 2013/32/EU with a view to ensuring the best interests of the child and exercising legal capacity for the minor where necessary. Where an organisation is appointed as a representative, it shall designate a person responsible for carrying out the duties of representative in respect of the unaccompanied minor.


Related Term: unaccompanied minor

Source:Art. 2(n) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

researcher

AT/DE/LU: Forscher
BG: научен работник
CS: výzkumný pracovník
EE: teadlane
ES: investigador
FI: tutkija
FR/BE/LU: chercheur
GR: ερευνητής
HU: kutató
IE: taighdeoir
IT: ricercatore
LT: tyrėjas
LV: pētnieks
MT: Riċerkatur (-triċi)
NL/BE: onderzoeker
NO: forsker (b) / forskar (n)
PL: naukowiec
PT: investigador
RO: cercetător
SE: forskare
SI: raziskovalec
SK: výskumník / výskumný pracovník

In the EU migration context, a third-country national holding an appropriate higher education qualification, which gives access to doctoral programmes, who is selected by a research organisation for carrying out a research project for which the above qualification is normally required.


Related Term: school pupil, student, unremunerated trainee

Source:Art. 2(d) of Council Directive 2005/71/EC (Researchers Directive)

resettled refugee

AT/DE/LU: neuangesiedelter Flüchtling
BG: презаселен бежанец
CS: přesídlený uprchlík
EE: ümberasustatud pagulane
ES: refugiado reasentado
FI: uudelleensijoitettu pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié réinstallé
HU: áttelepített menekült
IE: dídeanaí athlonnaithe
IT: rifugiato reinsediato
LT: perkeltas pabėgėlis
LV: pārvietots bēglis
MT: rifuġjat(a) risistemat(a)
NL/BE: programma voor uitgenodigde vluchtelingen (BE: programma voor hervestigde vluchteling)
NO: overføringsflyktning
PL: przesiedlony uchodźca
RO: refugiat relocat
SE: kvotflykting
SI: ponovno naseljeni begunec
SK: presídlená osoba / presídlený utečenec / presídlenec

In the global context, a refugeewho is identified by the UNHCRand who is transferred from the country in which they have sought protection to a third state which has agreed to admit them as refugees with permanent residence status.

In the EU context, a third-country nationalor stateless personwho, on a resettlementrequest from UNHCRbased on their need for international protection , are transferred from a third country to a Member State where they are permitted to reside with one of the following statuses:

  1. refugee status within the meaning of Art. 2(d) of Directive 2011/95/EU; or
  2. a status which offers the same rights and benefits under national and Union law as refugee status .


Synonym(s): Programme refugee, quota refugee, resettled person

Related Term: refugee in transit, resettlement

Note:
1. It is the UNHCRthat, together with the relevant authorities in the State concerned, decides which refugees should be accepted; their refugee statusis established by the UNHCR and accepted by the State in advance of entering the State.
2. In some cases, national authorities assess in addition as to whether the person concerned is a refugee.
3. There are different terms used in Member States depending on different legal concepts. In some Member States such refugees are accepted as part of a yearly resettlement programme.
4. IE uses the term 'programme refugee' in a wider context than 'resettlement' and defines in Section 24 of the Irish Refugee Act, 1996 as follows: 'a person to whom leave to enter and remain in the State for temporary protection or resettlement as part of a group of persons has been given by the Government'.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the glossary of the UNHCR Resettlement Handbook
EU context: Derived by EMN from Articles 3(1)(d) and 6(e) of Council Decision 573/2007/EC establishing the Refugee Fund

resettlement

AT/DE/LU: Neuansiedlung
BG: презаселване
CS: přesídlení
EE: ümberasustamine
EL: επανεγκατάστασης
ES: reasentamiento
FI: uudelleensijoittaminen
FR/BE/LU: réinstallation
GR: επανεγκατάσταση
HU: áttelepítés (letelepítés)
IE: athlonnú
IT: reinsediamento
LT: perkėlimas
LV: pārvietošana
MT: Risistemazzjoni
NL/BE: hervestiging
NO: gjenbosetting (b) / gjenbusetjing (n)
PL: przesiedlenie
PT: reinstalação
RO: relocare
SE: vidarebosättning
SI: ponovna naselitev
SK: presídlenie / presídľovanie

In the global context, the selection and transfer of Refugeesfrom a state in which they have sought protection to a third state which has agreed to admit them as refugees with permanent residence status.

In the EU context, the transfer, on a request from the UNHCRand based on their need for international protection, of a third-country nationalor stateless person, from a third countryto a Member State, where they are permitted to reside with one of the following statuses:

  1. refugee status within the meaning of Art. 2(d) of Directive 2011/95/EU; or
  2. a status which offers the same rights and benefits under national and EU law as refugee status.


Narrower Term: resettlement programme

Related Term: durable solution

Note:
1. The status provided ensures protection against refoulementand provides a resettled refugeeand their family or dependants with access to rights similar to those enjoyed by nationals. Resettlement also carries with it the opportunity to eventually become a naturalised citizen of the resettlement country. For this reason, resettlement is a as well as a tool for the protection of refugees.
2. This term should not be confused with 'relocation'.

Source: Global context: glossary of the UNHCR Resettlement Handbook
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 3(1)(d) of Decision 573/2007/EC establishing the Refugee Fund

resettlement programme

AT/DE/LU: Neuansiedlungsprogramm
BG: програма за презаселване
CS: přesídlovací program
EE: ümberasustamisprogramm
ES: programa de reasentamiento
FI: uudelleensijoittamisohjelma
FR/BE/LU: programme de réinstallation
GR: πρόγραμμα μετεγκατάστασης
HU: áttelepítési (letelepítési) program
IE: clár athlonnaithe
IT: programma di reinsediamento
LT: perkėlimo programa
LV: pārvietošanas programma
MT: Programm ta' risistemazzjoni
NL/BE: hervestigingsprogramma
NO: gjenbosettingsprogram (b) / gjenbusetjingsprogram (n)
PL: Program Przesiedleń
PT: programa de reinstalação
RO: program de relocare
SE: program för vidarebosättning
SI: program ponovne naselitve
SK: presídľovací program / program presídľovania

In the global context, a coordinated activity undertaken in partnership with UNHCRand other NGOs that includes specific processes like the identification in the field of refugees in need of resettlement, to screening, processing, reception and integration .

In the EU context, voluntary programmes by which Member States aim to provide international protection and a durable solution  in their territories to refugees and displaced persons identified as eligible for resettlementby UNHCR, and which include actions that the Member States implement to assess the resettlement needs and transfer the persons concerned to their territories, with a view to granting them a secure legal status and to promoting their effective integration.


Broader Term: resettlement

Related Term: durable solutions

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN
EU context: Derived by EMN from Recital 18 of Decision 573/2007/EC establishing the European Refugee Fund

residence document

AT/DE/LU: Aufenthaltstitel (EU acquis)
BG: документ за пребиваване
CS: povolení k pobytu
EE: elamisluba (dokument)
ES: documento de residencia
FI: oleskeluun oikeuttava asiakirja, oleskeluasiakirja (oleskelulupa)
FR/BE/LU: titre de séjour
GR: έγγραφο διαμονής
HU: tartózkodásra jogosító okmány
IE: doiciméad cónaithe
IT: titolo di soggiorno
LT: teisę gyventi šalyje patvirtinantis dokumentas
LV: uzturēšanās dokuments
MT: Dokument ta' residenza
NL/BE: verblijfsdocument
NO: oppholdsdokument (b) / opphaldsdokument (n)
PL: dokument pobytowy
PT: título de residência
RO: document de şedere
SE: uppehållstillstånd
SI: dokument za prebivanje
SK: doklad o pobyte

A document issued by the authorities of a Member State authorising a third-country national to stay in its territory, including the documents substantiating the authorisation to remain in the territory under temporary protection arrangements or until the circumstances preventing a removal order from being carried out no longer apply, with the exception of visas and residence authorisations issued during the period required to determine the responsible Member State as established in Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation) or during examination of an application for asylum or an application for a residence permit.


Narrower Term: residence permit

Related Term: travel document, fraudulent travel or identity document, residende permit, work permit

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(l) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

residence permit

AT/DE/LU: Aufenthaltstitel (EU acquis); Aufenthaltserlaubnis, Niederlassungserlaubnis (DE)
BG: разрешение за пребиваване
CS: povolení k pobytu
EE: elamisluba
ES: permiso de residencia
FI: oleskelulupa
FR/BE/LU: permis de séjour
GR: άδεια διαμονής
HU: tartózkodási engedély
IE: cead cónaithe
IT: permesso di soggiorno
LT: leidimas gyventi
LV: uzturēšanās atļauja
MT: Permess ta' residenza
NL/BE: verblijfsvergunning
NO: oppholdstillatelse (b) / opphaldsløyve (n)
PL:  zezwolenie na pobyt
PT: autorização de residência
RO: permis de şedere
SE: uppehållstillstånd
SI: dovoljenje za prebivanje
SK: povolenie na pobyt

Any authorisation issued by the authorities of an EU Member State allowing a non-EU national to stay legally in its territory, in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 265/2010 (Long Stay Visa Regulation).



Related Term: EU Blue Card, residence document, single permit, work permit

Source:DG HOME e-Library Glossary

return

AT/DE/LU: Rückkehr
BG: връщане
CS: návrat
EE: tagasipöördumine
ES: retorno
FI: paluu(muutto), (pakko)palauttaminen
FR/BE/LU: retour
GR: επιστροφή
HU:  hazatérés / visszatérés
IE: filleadh
IT: ritorno/rimpatrio
LT: grąžinimas
LV: atgriešana (EU acquis)/ izraidīšana (national)
MT: Ritorn / Tluq lura
NL/BE: terugkeer
NO: retur
PL: powrót
PT: retorno
RO: returnare
SE: återvändande
SI: vrnitev
SK: návrat

The movement of a person going from a host countryback to a country of origin, country of nationalityor habitual residence usually after spending a significant period of time in the host country whether voluntary or forced, assisted or spontaneous.


Synonym(s): return migration

Narrower Term: compulsory return, Voluntary return

Related Term: readmission agreement, reintegration, returnee

Note:
1. The IOM definition covers all categories of return of migrants (return within the territorial boundaries of a country, as in the case of returning IDPs and demobilised combatants; or from a host country (either transit or destination) to the country of origin, as in the case of persons who have resided legally in a country, migrant workers , refugees, asylum seekers and qualified nationals; or the way the return is implemented, e.g. voluntary, forced, assisted and spontaneous return. It does not cover stays shorter than three months (such as holiday visits or business meetings and other visits typically considered to be for a period of time of less than three months).
2.In the context of Council Directive 2008/115/EU (Return Directive),  ‘return’ as defined in Art. 3(3), is understood as return which occurs once a return decision has been issued. This glossary uses the term ‘compulsory return’ to describe ‘return’ as defined in the Return Directive.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definitions of 'return' and 'return migration' in the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

return decision

AT/DE/LU: Rückkehrentscheidung (EU acquis); Rückführungsentscheidung (DE)
BG: решение за връщане
CS: rozhodnutí o navrácení
EE: lahkumisettekirjutus
ES: resolución de expulsión
FI: palauttamispäätös
FR/BE/LU: décision de retour
GR: απόφαση επιστροφής
HU: országelhagyásra kötelező határozat = decision on obligation to leave; kiutasítást elrendelő határozat = expulsion decision
IE: cinneadh fillidh
IT: decisione di ritorno
LT: sprendimas dėl grąžinimo
LV: atgriešanas lēmums (EU acquis) / izbraukšanas rīkojums/lēmums par piespiedu izraidīšanu (national)
MT: Deċiżjoni ta' ritorn
NL/BE: terugkeerbesluit
NO: returvedtak
PL: decyzja o powrocie
PT: decisão de afastamento / notificação para abandono
RO: decizie de returnare
SE:  beslut om återvändande
SI: odločba o vrnitvi
SK: rozhodnutie o návrate

An administrative or judicial decision or act, stating or declaring the stay of a third-country nationalto be illegal and imposing or stating an obligation to return.


Synonym(s): obligation to leave, obligation to return

Narrower Term: removal order

Broader Term: removal

Related Term: expulsion decision, enforcement measure, voluntary departure

Note:
For some Member States, a return decision and removal ordermay occur within one administrative or judicial act as provided for in their national legislation.

Source:Art. 3(4) of Council Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

return programme

AT/DE/LU: Rückkehrprogramm
BG: програма за връщане
CS: návratový program
EE: tagasipöördumisprogramm
ES: programa de retorno voluntario
FI: palauttamisohjelma
FR/BE/LU: programme d’aide au retour
GR: προγράμματα επιστροφής
HU: hazatérési program
IE: clár fillte
IT:  programma di ritorno
LT: grąžinimo programa
LV: atgriešanās programma
MT: Programm (t'assistenza / ta'għajnuna) għar-ritorn
NL/BE: terugkeerprogramma
NO: returprogram
PL: programy powrotów
PT: programas de retorno
RO: program de returnare
SE: återvändandeprogram
SI: program vračanja /program vrnitve
SK: návratový program

Programme to support (e.g. financial, organisational, counselling) the return, possibly including reintegration measures, of a returnee by the State or by a third party, for example an international organisation.

Broader Term: return

Source: Developed by EMN

returnee

AT/DE/LU: Rückkehrer
BG: върнат
CS: navracený cizinec
EE: tagasipöörduja
ES: extranjero retornado
FI: paluumuuttaja/palaaja, (pakko)palautettava
FR/BE/LU: rapatrié
GR: επαναπατριζόμενος
HU: hazatérő / visszatérő
IE: imirceach fillteach
IT: persona che compie ritorno
LT: grįžtantysis/grąžinamasis
LV: izraidāmais
MT: Migrant(a) ritornat(a)
NL/BE: terugkeerder
NO: den personen som vender hjem (b) / den personen som vender heim (n)
PL: osoba powracająca
PT: retornado
RO: returnat
SE: återvändare
SI: oseba, ki je predmet vračanja
SK: navrátilec

A person going from a host country back to a country of origin, country of nationality or habitual residence usually after spending a significant period of time in the host country whether voluntary or forced, assisted or spontaneous.


Related Term: return

Note:
The definition covers all categories of migrants (persons who have resided legally in a country as well as failed asylum seekers) and different ways the return is implemented (e.g. voluntary, forced, assisted and spontaneous). It does not cover stays shorter than three months (such as holiday visits or business meetings and other visits typically considered to be for a period of time of less than three months).

Source:EMN: Assisted Return and Migration Study, 2011 pdf - 939 KB [939 KB]

right of asylum

AT/DE/LU: Recht, Asyl zu gewähren; Asylrecht (DE)
BG: право на убежище (от гледна точка на държавата, предоставяща закрила)
CS: právo azylu
EE: õigus varjupaigale
ES: derecho de asilo
FI: turvapaikkaoikeus
FR/BE/LU: droit d'asile
GR: δικαίωμα ασύλου
HU: menedékjog
IE: ceart tearmainn
IT: diritto di asilo
LT: prieglobsčio suteikimo teisė
LV: patvēruma tiesības
MT: Dritt mogħti għall-ażil
NL/BE: asielrecht (syn.: recht van asiel)
NO: rett til å gi beskyttelse/asyl (b) / rett til å gje vern/asyl (n)
PL: prawo do udzielenia azylu
PT: direito ao asilo
RO: dreptul la azil
SE: asylrätt
SI: azilna pravica
SK: právo udeliť azyl

The right of the State, in virtue of its territorial sovereignty and in the exercise of its discretion, to allow a non-national to enter and reside, and to resist the exercise of jurisdiction by any State over that individual.


Synonym(s): right to grant asylum

Related Terms: right to asylum

Note :
1. In some States there are narrower or broader criteria than that laid down in the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and its Protocol of 31 January 1967.
2. The IOM uses a generic term, in two senses: the right to grant asylum (a State may grant asylum in its territory to any person at its own discretion) and the right to be granted asylum either vis-à-vis the State in whose territory asylum is requested, or vis-à-vis the pursuing State.

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

right of residence

AT/DE/LU: Aufenthaltsrecht
BG: право на пребиваване
CS: právo na pobyt
EE: elamisõigus
ES: derecho de residencia
FI: oleskeluoikeus
FR/BE/LU: droit de séjour
HU: tartózkodási jog
IE: ceart cónaithe
IT: diritto di soggiorno
LT: teisė gyventi šalyje
LV: uzturēšanās tiesības
MT: Dritt għar-residenza
NL/BE: verblijfsrecht
NO: rett til opphold (b) / rett til opphald (n)
PL: prawo pobytu
RO: drept de şedere/rezidenţă
SE: uppehållsrätt
SI: pravica do prebivanja
SK: právo zdržiavať sa v krajine / právo na pobyt v krajine

The right to regularly reside in a given country, according to the migration law of that country.


Synonym(s): right to reside

Note:
In the EU context, the right of residence for EU citizens is covered by Council Directive 2004/38/EC (Free Movement Directive) which differentiates between the right of residence for up to three months (Art. 6) and the right of residence for more than three months (Art. 7). EEA and Swiss citizens enjoy the same rights as Union citizens within the European area of free movement.

Source: Developed by EMN

right to asylum

AT/DE/LU: Recht auf Asyl
BG: право на убежище (от гледна точка на търсещия закрила)
CS: právo na azyl
EE: õigus varjupaika taotleda
ES: derecho de asilo
FI: oikeus turvapaikkaan, turvapaikkaoikeus
FR/BE/LU: droit d'asile
HU: menedékhez való jog
IE: ceart ar thearmann
IT: diritto all'asilo
LT: teisė į prieglobstį
LV: tiesības uz patvērumu
MT: Dritt għall-ażil
NL/BE: recht op asiel
NO: rett til beskyttelse (b) / rett til vern (n)
PL: prawo do azylu
RO: dreptul la azil
SE: asylrätt
SI: pravica do azila
SK: právo na azyl

The right of a person to seek asylum , guaranteed with due respect by the rules of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the status of refugees and in accordance with TFEU.



Synonym(s): right to seek asylum

Related Terms: right of asylum

Note:
Refugeeshave no enforceable right in conventional international law to be granted asylum by a State. It is contested whether customary international law has embraced the individual right to asylum.

Source:Art. 18 of the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and Art. 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

right to family life

AT/DE/LU: Recht auf Familienleben
BG: право на семеен живот
CS: právo na rodinný život
EE: õigus pere(konna)elule
ES: derecho a la vida en familia
FI: oikeus perhe-elämään
FR/BE/LU: droit à la vie familiale
GR: δικαιωμα στην οικογενειακή ζωή
HU: családi élethez való jog
IE: ceart chun saol teaghlaigh
IT: diritto alla vita familiare
LT: teisė į šeimos gyvenimą
LV:  tiesības uz ģimenes dzīvi
MT:  Dritt għal ħajja f’familja
NL/BE: recht op eerbiediging van familie- en gezinsleven (syn.: recht op familie- en gezinsleven)
NO: rett til familieliv
PL: prawo do życia rodzinnego
PT: direito à unidade familiar
RO: dreptul la viaţă de familie
SE: rätt till familjeliv
SI: pravica do družinskega življenja
SK: právo na rodinný život

A principle enshrined in Arts. 7, 9 and 33 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and Art. 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).


Narrower Term: right to family unity

Related Term: chain migration, family formation, family reunification, family migration

Note:
There is a distinction between the right to family life and the right to family unity. The right to family life is a fundamental right enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The right to family unity relates more to the purpose and procedural aspects of entry and stay for the purpose of reuniting a family.

Source:European Charter of Fundamental Rights

right to family unity

AT/DE/LU: Recht auf Familieneinheit, Recht auf Wahrung des Familienverbandes
BG: право на запазването на целостта на семейството
CS: právo na zachování celistvosti rodiny
EE: õigus perekonna ühtsusele
ES: derecho a la unidad de la familia
FI: oikeus perheen yhtenäisyyteen
FR/BE/LU:  droit à l`unité familiale
GR: δικαίωμα στην οικογενειακή ενότητα
HU:  család egységéhez való jog
IE: ceart chun aontacht teaghlaigh
IT: diritto all'unità familiare
LT: teisė į šeimos vientisumą
LV: tiesības uz ģimenes vienotību
MT: Dritt għall-għaqda / għall-unità tal-familja
NL/BE: recht op instandhouding van het (kern-)gezin (syn.: recht op eenheid van het gezin)
NO: rett til familiens enhet (b) / rett til familieeining (n)
PL: prawo do jedności rodziny
PT: direito à unidade familiar
RO: dreptul la unitatea familiei
SE: rätt till familjesammanhållning
SI: pravica do enotnosti družine
SK: právo na jednotu rodiny

In the context of a refugee, a right provisioned in Art. 23 of Directive 2011/95/EU and in Art. 12 of Directive 2013/33/EU obliging Member States to ensure that family unity can be maintained.


Synonym(s): principle of family unity

Narrower Term: family reunification

Related Term: chain migration, family formation, family migration

Note:
There is a distinction between the right to family unity and the right to family life. The right to family unity relates more to the purpose and procedural aspects of entry and stay for the purpose of reuniting a family, in order to meet the fundamental rights enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 23 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Art. 12 of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

right to free movement

AT/DE/LU: Recht auf Freizügigkeit
BG: право на свободно движение
CS: právo volného pohybu
EE: vaba liikumise õigus
ES: derecho a la libre circulación
FI: oikeus liikkua vapaasti
FR/BE/LU: droit à la libre circulation
HU: szabad mozgáshoz való jog
IE: ceart saorghluaiseachta
IT: diritto di libera circolazione
LT: laisvo judėjimo teisė
LV: tiesības brīvi pārvietoties
MT: Dritt għal-libertà tal-moviment / għall-moviment bla xkiel / għall-merħ ħieles
NL/BE: recht op vrij verkeer
NO: rett til fri bevegelse (b) / rett til fri rørsle (n)
PL: prawo do swobodnego przepływu
RO: dreptul la liberă circulaţie
SE: rätt till fri rörlighet
SI: pravica do prostega gibanja
SK: právo na slobodný pohyb / právo na voľný pohyb

The right of EU citizens and legally resident third-country nationals (in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community) to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States.


Synonym(s): freedom of movement

Related Term: Intra-EU mobility

Note:
1. The right to free movement is one of the basic rights of EU citizens which was initially one of the founding rights in the establishment of the European Union and enshrined in Art. 21(1) of TFEU; it has been developed by EU secondary legislation and the case law of the Court of Justice.
2. Free movement of workers also applies to the countries in the European Economic Area (IS, LI, NO) and to CH.
3. The provisions of the treaties in relation to freedom of movement apply in the same way to the ten Member States that joined the EU in 2004, BG and RO that joined in January 2007 and Croatia, which joined in July 2013. Some of the original EU Member States (before May 2004) apply transitional agreements that currently restrict freedom of movement to workers for a certain time period (see the description of freedom of movement on the European Citizens' Information website).
4. Freedom of movement and residence are granted, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, only for certain categories of third-country nationals, i.e. long-term residents, highly-skilled workers, researchers and students. Whilst third-country nationals who hold a valid residence permit or visa have the right to move freely within the Schengen area for up to three months within a six-month period, the rights in relation to taking up residence for a period exceeding three months in another Member State is covered by specific legal instruments, depending on their status, and subject to conditions in national legislation.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 45 of the European Charter of Fundamental Rights

risk of absconding

AT/DE/LU: Fluchtgefahr, Gefahr unterzutauchen
BG: опасност от укриване
CS: nebezpečí skrývání se
EE: põgenemise (kõrvalehoidumise) oht
ES: riesgo de fuga
FI: pakenemisen vaara
FR/BE/LU:  risque de fuite
GR: κίνδυνος απόδρασης
HU:  szökés veszélye
IE: baol éalaithe
IT: rischio di fuga
LT: pasislėpimo pavojus
LV: bēgšanas iespējamība
MT: Riskju / Biża' ta' ħarba/ħrib/kontumaċja
NL/BE: risico op onderduiken
NO: risiko for unndragelse (b) / risiko for unndraging (n)
PL:  ryzyko ucieczki
PT: perigo de fuga
RO: riscul de a se sustrage
SE: risk för avvikande
SI: tveganje pobega
SK: riziko úteku

In the EU context, existence of reasons in an individual case which are based on objective criteria defined by law to believe that a third-country national who is subject to return procedures may abscond.


Broader Term: absconding

Note:
This covers one type of absconding.

Source:Art. 3(7) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

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