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Palermo Protocol

AT/DE/LU: Palermo-Protokoll
BG: Протоколът от Палермо
CS: Palermská úmluva
EE: Palermo protokoll
ES: Protocolo de Palermo
FI: Palermon pöytäkirja
FR/BE/LU: Protocole de Palerme
GR: Πρωτόκολλο του Παλέρμο
HU: Palermói Jegyzőkönyv
IE: Prótacal Palermo
IT: Protocollo di Palermo
LT: Palermo protokolas
LV: Palermo protokols
MT: Protokoll (Il-) ta' Palermo
NL/BE: Protocol van Palermo
NO: Palermo-protokollen
PL: Protokół z Palermo
PT: Protocolo de Palermo
RO:  Protocolul de la Palermo
SE: Palermoprotokollet
SI: Palermski protokol
SK: Palermský protokol

A UN protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocolse .


Related Term: trafficking in human beings

Note:
The Protocol was adopted in Palermo, Italy in November 2000.

Source:Palermo Protocol

partnership of convenience

AT/DE/LU: Scheinpartner-schaft
BG: партньорство, сключено с единствената цел да се даде възможност на заинтересованите лица да влязат или да пребивават в държава-членка
CS: účelové partnerství
EE: partnerlus riiki sisenemise eesmärgil/mugavuspartnerlus
ES: pareja de hecho de conveniencia
FI: harhautustarkoituksessa solmittu parisuhde
FR/BE/LU: partenariat de complaisance
HU: No translation
IE: comhpháirtíocht áise
IT: relazione stabile fittizia
LT: fiktyvi partnerystė
LV: fiktīvas partnerattiecības
MT: Sħubija / Unjoni ta’ konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnpartnerschap
NO: proformapartnerskap (b) / proformapartnarskap (n)
PL: (fikcyjny) związek partnerski stworzony w celu obejścia przepisów umożliwiających legalizację pobytu
RO: parteneriat civil de convenineţă
SE: skenpartnerskap
SI: navidezna zakonska zveza
SK: účelové partnerstvo

A partnership contracted for the sole purpose of enabling one of the persons concerned to enter or reside in a Member State.


Related Term: adoption of convenience, civil partnership of convenience, marriage of convenience

Source:Art. 16(2b) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

persecution

AT/DE/LU: Verfolgung
BG: преследване
CS: pronásledování
EE: tagakiusamine
ES: persecución
FI: vaino
FR/BE/LU: persécution
GR: δίωξη
HU: üldöz(tet)és
IE: géarleanúint
IT: persecuzione
LT: persekiojimas
LV: vajāšana
MT: Persekuzzjoni
NL/BE: vervolging
NO: forfølgelse (b) / forfølging (n)
PL: prześladowanie
PT: perseguição
RO: persecuţie
SE: förföljelse
SI: preganjanje
SK: prenasledovanie

human rights abuses or other serious harm, often, but not always, with a systematic or repetitive element.


Narrower Term: act of persecution, Convention grounds for persecution

Related Term: group persecution

Note:
The core concept of persecution was deliberately not defined in the Geneva Convention of 1951, suggesting that the drafters intended it to be interpreted in a sufficiently flexible manner so as to encompass ever-changing forms of persecution.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

person eligible for subsidiary protection

AT/DE/LU: Person mit Anspruch auf subsidiären Schutz
BG: лице, което отговаря на условията за субсидиарна закрила
CS: osoba, která má nárok na doplňkovou ochranu
EE: täiendava kaitse saamise nõuetele vastav isik
ES: persona con derecho a protección subsidiaria
FI: henkilö, joka voi saada toissijaista suojelua
FR/BE/LU: personne pouvant bénéficier de la protection subsidiare
GR: άτομο επιλέξιμο για επικουρική προστασία
HU: kiegészítő védelemben részesített személy / oltalmazott
IE: duine i dteideal cosaint choimhdeach
IT: persona avente titolo a beneficiare della protezione sussidiaria
LT: papildomą apsaugą galintis gauti asmuo
LV: persona, kura tiesīga uz alternatīvo statusu
MT: Persuna eliġibbli għal protezzjoni sussidjarja
NL/BE: persoon die voor subsidiaire bescherming in aanmerking komt
NO: person som har krav på subsidiær beskyttelse (b) / person som har krav på subsidiært vern (n)
PL: osoba kwalifikująca się do ochrony uzupełniającej
PT: pessoa elegível para protecção subsidiária
RO: persoană eligibilă pentru protecţie subsidiară
SE: person som uppfyller kraven för att betecknas som subsidiärt skyddsbehövande
SI: oseba upravičena do subsidiarne zaščite
SK: osoba oprávnená na doplnkovú ochranu

A third-country national or a stateless person who does not qualify as a refugee but in respect of whom substantial grounds have been shown for believing that the person concerned, if returned to their country of origin, or in the case of a stateless person, to their country of former habitual residence, would face a real risk of suffering serious harm as defined in Art. 15 of Directive 2011/95/EC, and to whom Art. 17(1) and (2) of said Directive do not apply, and is unable, or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country.


Broader Term: subsidiary protection

Related Term: applicant for international protection, beneficiary of international protection

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(f) of Directive 2011/95/EC (Recast Qualification Directive)

person with a migratory background

AT/DE/LU: Person mit Migrationshintergrund
BG: лице с миграционен произход
CS: osoba s migračním pozadím
EE: rändetaustaga isik
ES: persona de origen migratorio
FI: maahanmuuttajataustainen henkilö
FR/BE/LU:  personne issue de l’immigration
HU: bevándorlói háttérrel rendelkező személy
IE: duine ag a bhfuil cúlra imirceach
IT: persona con un background migratorio
LT: asmuo, kilęs iš migrantų šeimos arba asmuo, gyvenantis ne savo kilmės valstybėje
LV:  persona ar migrācijas pieredzi
MT: Persuna bi storja ta' migrazzjoni warajha
NL/BE:  Persoon met een migratieachtergrond
NO: person med innvandrerbakgrunn (b) / person med innvandrarbakgrunn (n)
PL: osoba z przeszłością migracyjną
PT: Pessoa com antecedentes migratórios
RO: persoană cu trecut migraţionist
SE:  person med invandrarbakgrund
SI: oseba z migracijskim ozadjem
SK: osoba s migrantským pôvodom

A person who has:

  1. migrated into their present country of residence; and/or
  2. previously had a different nationality from their present country of residence; and/or
  3. at least one of their parents previously entered their present country of residence as a migrant.


Synonym(s): person in a migratory context, person of migrant origin

Narrower Term: second generation migrant

Note:
1. This is a broad definition which aims to encompass all possibilities for a person who has undertaken a migration at some point and/or has parents who did so.
2. Point (a) can also include a national of the country of residence who previously lived elsewhere and then returned to their country of nationality.

Source:Derived by EMN from paragraphs 360-368 in the UN Economic Commission for Europe: Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing, 2010

population stock

AT/DE/LU: Bevölkerungs(be)stand
BG: брой на населението
CS: obyvatelstvo - stav k; počet obyvatel - stav k
EE: rahvaarv kindlal territooriumil, teatud aja seisuga
ES: stock de población
FI: väestökanta
FR/BE/LU: stock de population
GR: πληθυσμιακό απόθεμα
HU: adott év január 1-jén tartózkodó népesség
IE: stoc daonra
IT: stock di popolazione
LT: gyventojų skaičius
LV: iedzīvotāju skaits 1.janvārī
MT: Rendikont tal-popolazzjoni
NL/BE: stand van de bevolking (NL syn.: omvang van de bevolking)
NO: folketall (b) / folketal (n)
PL: populacja w danym momencie
RO: stoc de populaţie
SE: folkmängd
SI: število prebivalstva / "zaloga" prebivalstva
SK: počet obyvateľov

The inhabitants of a given area on a certain date (e.g. 1 January or 31 December) of the year in question.


Narrower Term: migrant stock

Related Term: migration flow, net migration, stock of foreigners, total migration, usually resident population

Note:
1. The population is based either on data from the most recent census, adjusted by the components of population change produced since the last census, or on population registers.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'total population' in the Eurostat Glossary on Demographic Statistics

positive discrimination

AT/DE/LU: positive Diskriminierung
BG: позитивна дискриминация
CS: pozitivní diskriminace
EE: eeliskohtlemine
ES: discriminación positiva
FI: positiivinen syrjintä
FR/BE/LU: discrimination positive
GR: θετική διάκριση
HU: pozitív diszkrimináció
IE: idirdhealú dearfach
IT: discriminazione positiva
LT: pozityvioji diskriminacija
LV: pozitīva diskriminācija
MT: Diskriminazzjoni pożittiva
NL/BE: positieve discriminatie
NO: utsatt uttransportering
PL: dyskryminacja pozytywna
PT: discriminação positiva
RO: discriminare pozitivă
SE: positiv särbehandling
SI: pozitivna diskriminacija
SK: pozitívna diskriminácia

A policy or a programme providing advantages for certain groups of people who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against, with the aim of creating a more egalitarian society. This consists of preferential access to education, employment, healthcare or social welfare.


Synonym(s): affirmative action, positive action


Related Term: principle of equal treatment

Source: Derived by EMN from the FRA (EUMC) Open Glossary (no longer available online)

posted worker

AT/DE/LU: entsandter Arbeitnehmer
BG: командирован работник
CS: vyslaný pracovník
EE: lähetatud töötaja
ES: trabajador desplazado
FI: lähetetty työntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur détaché
HU: kihelyezett dolgozó
IE: oibrí ar phostú
IT: lavoratore distaccato
LT: komandiruotas darbuotojas
LV: darba ņēmējs, kas norīkots darbā citā dalībvalstī
MT: Ħaddiem stazzjonat / ippostjat
NL/BE: ter beschikking gestelde werknemer
NO: utsatt effektuering / iverksettelse (b) / utsett effektuering / iverksetjing (n)
PL: pracownik oddelegowany
PT: trabalhador destacado
RO: lucrător detaşat
SE: utstationerad arbetstagare
SI: napoteni delavec
SK: vyslaný pracovník

A worker who, for a limited period, carries out his work in the territory of a Member State other than the State in which they normally work.


Note:
A posted worker is also one of the forms of ‘trade in services mode 4’ according to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).

Source:Art. 2(1) of Directive 96/71/EC (Posting of Workers Directive)

postponement of removal

AT/DE/LU: einstweilige Aussetzung der Abschiebung (EU acquis), vorübergehende Aussetzung der Abschiebung, Duldung (DE), Duldung (AT) Aufschub der Abschiebung (LU)
BG: временно отлагане на извеждането
CS: odklad vyhoštění
EE: väljasaatmise edasilükkamine
ES: aplazamiento de la expulsión
FI: maastapoistamisen lykkääminen
FR/BE/LU: report de l'éloignement
GR: αναβολή της απομάκρυνσης
HU: befogadottkénti tartózkodás
IE: an t-aistriú a chur siar
IT: rinvio dell'allontanamento
LT: išsiuntimo vykdymo sustabdymas
LV: izraidīšanas atlikšana
MT: Posponiment ta' tneħħija
NL/BE: uitstel van verwijdering
NO: utsatt uttransportering
PL: wstrzymanie wydalenia
PT: adiamento do afastamento
RO: amânarea îndepărtării
SE: uppskov med avlägsnande
SI: dovolitev zadrževanja / odložitev vračanja
SK: odklad odsunu (EU acquis) / tolerovaný pobyt (national law)

(Tempoary) suspension of removal of a third-country national who has received a return decision but whose removal is not possible either for humanitarian reasons (as their removal would violate the principle of non-refoulement or due to the third-country national's physical state or mental capacity) or for technical reasons (such as lack of transport capacity or failure of the removal due to lack of identification or the country of origin's refusal to accept the person) and for as long as a suspensory effect is granted in accordance with Art. 13(2) of Directive 2008/115/EC.


Synonym(s): suspension of removal, tolerated stay

Note:
1. Tolerated stay status is granted in a number of Member States with differing definitions and regulated by different legal instruments. The toleration is only a suspension of removal.
2. In several Member States, the term 'tolerated stay' is not formally used anymore and has been replaced by 'postponment of removal' after the transposition of Directive 2008/115/EC.
3. For more information, see the EMN: Alternatives to Detention, 2014.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 9 of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

Prague Process

AT/DE/LU: Prager Prozess
BG: Пражки процес
CS: Pražský proces
EE: Praha protsess
ES: Proceso de Praga
FI: Prahan prosessi
FR/BE/LU: Processus de Prague
HU: Prágai Folyamat
IE: Próiseas Phrág
IT: Processo di Praga
LT: Prahos procesas
LV: Prāgas process
MT: Proċess (Il-) ta’ Praga
NL/BE: Praag-proces
NO: Praha-prosessen
PL: Proces Praski
PT: Processo de Praga
RO: Procesul Praga
SE: Pragprocessen
SI: Praški proces
SK: Pražský proces

A process to strengthen cooperation in migration management between the EU and 19 partner countries to the East (the Western Balkans, Eastern Europe, Turkey, Russia, Central Asia and Southern Caucasus).


Synonym(s): Prague Process – Building Migration Partnerships

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. This process follows a ministerial conference in Prague in April 2009, at the initiative of the Czech Republic in conjunction with Hungary, Slovakia, Poland and Romania.
2. Its activities extend across five areas:

  1. combating irregular migration,
  2. readmission, voluntary return and reintegration,
  3. legal immigration,
  4. integration, and
  5. migration and development.

The process takes a comprehensive, balanced, pragmatic and operational approach, respecting the rights and human dignity of migrants and their family members, as well as of refugees.
3. For more information, see: http://www.pragueprocess.eu/

Source:Joint Declaration from Prague Ministerial Conference

presumed victim of trafficking in human beings

AT/DE/LU: vermutetes Opfer von Menschen-handel
BG: предполагаема жертва на трафика на хора
CS: pravděpodobné oběti obchodování s lidmi
EE: eeldatav inimkaubanduse ohver
ES: presunta victima de trata de seres humanos
FI: oletettu ihmiskaupan uhri
FR/BE/LU: victime présumée de la traite des êtres humains
HU: emberkereskedelem feltételezett áldozata
IE: duine ar dócha gur íospartach gáinneála é/í
IT: vittima presunta di tratta di esseri umani
LT: asmuo, galėjęs nukentėti nuo prekybos žmonėmis
LV: persona, kuru uzskata par cilvēku tirdzniecības upuri
MT: Preżumibbilment vittma fit-traffikar tal-persuni
NL/BE: verondersteld slachtoffer van mensenhandel
NO: antatt offer for menneskehandel
PL: domniemana ofiara handlu ludźmi
RO: presupuse victime ale traficului de fiinţe umane
SE: förmodat offer för människohandel
SI: domnevna žrtev trgovine z ljudmi
SK: pravdepodobná obeť obchodovania s ľuďmi / formálne neidentifikovaná obeť obchodovania s ľuďmi

A person who has met the criteria of EU regulations and international Conventions but has not been formally identified by the relevant authorities (e.g. police) as a trafficking victim or has declined to be formally or legally identified as trafficked.


Synonym(s): victim of trafficking in human beings (presumed)

Note:
If a person is presumed to be a victim of trafficking in human beings, this does not rule out the possibility that the person's status will later be assessed otherwise (i.e. not identified/confirmed as a victim).

Source:Derived by EMN from Eurostat: Trafficking in human being, 2013

prima facie refugee

AT/DE/LU: Prima-Facie Flüchtling
BG: no translation
CS: no translation
EE: prima facie pagulane
ES: refugiado (prima facie)
FI: prima facie -pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié prima facie
GR:  εκ πρώτης όψεως πρόσφυγας
HU: prima facie elismert menekült
IE: dídeanaí prima facie
IT: rifugiato prima facie
LT: prima facie pabėgėlis
LV: prima facie bēglis
MT:  Rifuġjat(a) prima facie
NL/BE: prima facie vluchteling
NO: prima facie-flyktning
PL: uchodźca prima facie
PT: refugiados prima facie
RO: refugiat prima facie
SE: prima facie-flykting
SI: prima facie begunec
SK: utečenec prima facie

Person recognised as a refugee, by a State or UNHCR, on the basis of objective criteria related to the circumstances in their country of origin, which justify a presumption that they meet the criteria of the applicable refugee definition.


Broader Term: refugee

Related Term: group determination of refugee status, group persecution

Note:
This term refers to a more theoretical concept and is often not applied.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

principle of equal treatment

AT/DE/LU: Gleichbehandlungsgrundsatz
BG: принцип на равно третиране
CS: princip rovného zacházení
EE: võrdse kohtlemise põhimõte
ES: principio de igualdad de trato
FI: yhtäläisen kohtelun periaate
FR/BE/LU: principe d'égalité de traitement
GR:  ίση μεταχείριση
HU:  egyenlő bánásmód (elve)
IE: an prionsabal um dhéileáil chomhionann
IT: principio di parità di trattamento
LT: vienodo požiūrio principas
LV: vienlīdzīgas attieksmes princips
MT: Prinċipju (Il-) ta' trattament ugwali
NL/BE: beginsel van gelijke behandeling
NO: prinsippet om likebehandling
PL: zasada równego traktowania
PT: igualdade de tratamento
RO: principiul tratamentului egal
SE: principen om likabehandling
SI: načelo enakega obravnavanja
SK: zásada rovnakého zaobchádzania / princíp rovnakého zaobchádzania

The principle that there shall be no direct or indirect discrimination based on racial or ethnic origin, sex, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.


Synonym(s): equal opportunities

Narrower Term: direct discrimination,indirect discrimination

Related Term: positive discrimination

Note:
1. This is an important right conferred by EU citizenship. The Treaty of Amsterdam added a new Art. 13 to the Treaty, reinforcing the principle of non-discrimination. Under this article, the Council has the power to take appropriate action to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.
2. The term 'equal treatment' has a distinct use/meaning when used in the context of bilateral social security agreements between EU Member States as per [Regulation (EU) No 465/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2012 amending Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 on the coordination of social security systems and Regulation (EC) No 987/2009 laying down the procedure for implementing Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 Text of relevance to the EEA and to the EU/Switzerland Agreement |Regulation 465/2012].
3. For more information see EMN: Migrant Access to Social Security and Healthcare – policy and practice .

Source: Derived by EMN from Art. 2 of Council Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive) and Art. 13 of the Treaty of Amsterdam

procedural guarantees

AT/DE/LU: Verfahrens-garantien
BG: процедурни гаранции
CS: procesní záruky
EE: menetlustagatised
ES: garantías procedimentales
FI: menettelylliset takeet
FR/BE/LU: garanties procédurales
HU: eljárási garanciák
IE: ráthaíochtaí nós imeachta
IT: garanzie procedurali
LT: procedūrinės garantijos
LV: procesuālās garantijas
MT: Garanziji proċedurali
NL/BE: procedurele waarborgen
NO: saksbehandlingsgaranti (b) / sakshandsamingsgaranti (n)
PL: gwarancje proceduralne
SE: förfarandegarantier
SI: postopkovna jamstva
SK: procesné záruky / procedurálne záruky

In the EU asylum context, special guarantees addressing the legal rights of applicants for international protection as outlined in Chapter II of Directive 2013/32/EC (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) and Art. 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights .


Note:
These guarantees comprise the following rights of applicants for international protection: access to the procedure; right to remain in the Member State pending the examination of the application; information on their rights and obligations in a language they understand; acess to interpreters; the opportunity to communicate with UNHCR or with any other organisation providing legal advice or other counselling; notice in reasonable time of the decision by the determining authority on their application; a personal interview, and free legal assistance and representation granted on request in the appeals procedures (including the preparation of the required procedural documents and participation in the hearing before a court or tribunal of first instance on behalf of the applicant.

Source:Chapter II of Directive 2013/32/EC (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) and Art. 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights

protection

AT/DE/LU: Schutz
BG: закрила
CS: ochrana
EE: kaitse
ES: protección
FI: suojelu
FR/BE/LU: protection
GR: προστασία
HU: védelem
IE: cosaint
IT: protezione
LT: apsauga
LV: aizsardzība
MT: Protezzjoni / Ħarsien
NL/BE: bescherming
NO: beskyttelse (b) / vern (n)
PL: ochrona
PT: protecção
RO: protecţie
SE: skydd
SI: zaščita
SK: ochrana

A concept that encompasses all activities aimed at obtaining full respect for the rights of the individual in accordance with the letter and spirit of human rights, refugee and international humanitarian law.


Narrower Term: humanitarian protection, international protection, subsidiary protection, temporary protection

Related Term: asylum

Note:
Protection involves creating an environment conducive to respect for human beings, preventing and/or alleviating the immediate effects of a specific pattern of abuse, and restoring dignified conditions of life through reparation, restitution and rehabilitation.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

pull factor

AT/DE/LU: Pull-Faktor
BG: притегателен фактор
CS: pull faktor
EE: tõmbefaktor
ES: factor de atracción
FI: vetotekijä
FR/BE/LU: facteur d’attraction
GR: πόλος έλξης
HU: húzó tényező / vonzó tényező / pull-faktor
IE:  toisc tharraingthe
IT:  fattore di attrazione
LT: traukos veiksnys
LV: pievilkšanas faktors
MT: Fattur t'attrazzjoni / ta' ġibda
NL/BE: pull factor
NO: trekkfaktor
PL: czynnik przyciągający
PT: factor de atracção/pull factor
RO: factor de atragere/"pull factor
SE: pull-faktor
SI: dejavnik privabljanja
SK: stimulačný faktor / „pull“ faktor

The condition(s) or circumstance(s) that attract a migrant to another country.


Broader Term: push-pull factor

Related Term: push factor

Note:
As recognised by the project European Reintegration Networking, this can be for a specific or a variety of reasons, e.g. expanding economic opportunities and potential for advancement in the country of destination.

Source:Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

push factor

AT/DE/LU: Push-Faktor
BG: отблъскващ фактор
CS: push faktor
EE: tõukefaktor
ES: factor de expulsión
FI: työntötekijä
FR/BE/LU: facteur de répulsion
GR: αιτία/παράγοντας απώθησης
HU: taszító tényező / push faktor
IE: toisc bhrú
IT: fattore di spinta
LT: stūmimo veiksnys
LV: atgrūšanas faktors
MT: Fattur ta' ripulsjoni / ta' tbarrija
NL/BE: push factor
NO: skyvfaktor (b) / skuvfaktor (n)
PL: czynik wypychający
PT: factor de afastamento/ push factor
RO: "push factor"
SE:  push-faktor
SI: dejavnik spodbujanja
SK: nútiaci faktor / „push“ faktor

The condition(s) or circumstance(s) in a country of origin that impel or stimulate emigration.


Broader Term: push-pull factor

Related Term: pull factor

Note:
As recognised by the project European Reintegration Networking, this can be for a specific or a variety of reasons, e.g. declining economic opportunities or political instability may stimulate emigration.

Source:Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

push-pull factor

AT/DE/LU: Push-Pull-Faktor
BG: фактори на привличане и отблъскване
CS: pull-push faktor
EE: tõuke-tõmbefaktor
ES: factores de expulsión / atracción
FI: työntö- ja vetotekijä
FR/BE/LU: facteur d'attraction-répulsion
GR: αιτία/παράγοντας ταυτόχρονης απώθησης - προσέλευσης
HU: taszító-vonzó tényező / push-pull factor
IE: toisc bhrú is tarraingthe
IT: fattore di spinta-attrazione
LT: stūmimo-traukos veiksnys
LV: atgrūšanas-pievilkšanas faktors / motivētājfaktors
MT: Fattur ta' ripulsjoni-attrazzjoni / ta' ġibda-tbarrija
NL/BE:  push-pull factor
NO: skyv-trekk-faktor (b) / skuv-trekk-faktor (n)
PL: czynnik wypychający i przyciągający
PT: factor de afastamento/factor de atracção
RO:  "push-pull factor"
SE: push-pull faktor
SI: dejavnik spodbujanja in privabljanja
SK: motivačný faktor / „push-pull“ faktor

Factors which initiate and influence the decision to migrate, either by attracting them to another country (pull factors) or by impelling or stimulating emigration (push factors).


Narrower Term: pull factor, push factor

Source: Developed by EMN

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