Navigation path

o

objective grounds for seeking asylum occurring after the applicant's departure from their country of origin

Please see entry for refugee sur place

obligation to cooperate

AT/DE/LU: Mitwirkungspflicht
BG: задължение за сътрудничество
CZ: povinnost spolupracovat
FI: yhteistyövelvoite
FR/BE/LU: obligation de coopérer
HU: együttműködési kötelezettség
IE: dualgas comhoibrithe
IT: obbligo di collaborazione
LV: pienākums sadarboties
NO: plikt til å samarbeide
PL: obowiązek współpracy
SE: Skyldighet att samarbeta
SK: povinnosť spolupracovať
SI: obveznost do sodelovanja

Obligation imposed by Member States upon  the applicant for international protection  to cooperate with the competent authorities insofar as such obligations are necessary for the processing of the application.


Synonym(s): duty to cooperate

Note: 

1. These may include obligations to: (a) report to the competent authorities or to appear before them in person; (b) to hand over documents in their possession relevant to the examination of the application, such as their passports; (c) to inform the competent authorities of their current place address; (d) to be personally searched and the items he/she carries with him/her; (e) to have ones photograph taken; and (f) to have ones oral statements recorded provided.
2. Directive 2013/32/EU allows accelerated procedures to be used in cases where applicants have failed to fulfil their obligation.

 

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from Art.4(1)  of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Art. 11 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

 

obligation to leave

Please see entry for return decision

obligation to return

Please see entry for return decision

occupation

AT/DE/LU: Beschäftigung
BG: професия/ занятие
CS: povolání
EE: amet
ES: actividad profesional
FI: ammatti
FR/BE/LU: profession
HU: foglalkozás
IE: gairm bheatha
IT: impiego
LT: profesija
LV: profesija
MT: Impieg / Xogħol / Okkupazzjoni
NL/BE: beroep
NO: yrke
PL: zawód
PT: ocupação: ocupação
RO: ocupaţie
SE: sysselsättning; yrke
SI: poklic
SK: povolanie

A set of jobs whose main tasks and duties are characterised by a high degree of similarity.


Related Term: employment, profession

Note:
1. Job, in the context of ISCO-08, is defined as follows: A set of tasks and duties performed or meant to be performed, by one person, including for an employer or in self employment.
2. The ISCO definition is also the one used by employment services (placement agencies).

Source:ILO: ISCO-88, International Standard Classification of Occupations. International Labour Office, Geneva 1990

1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees

1951 Geneva Convention

1967 Geneva Protocol

organised crime

AT/DE/LU: organisierte Kriminalität
BG: организирана престъпност
CS: organizovaný zločin
EE: organiseeritud kuritegevus
ES: delincuencia organizada
FI: järjestäytynyt rikollisuus
FR/BE/LU: crime organisé
HU: szervezett bűnözés
IE: coireacht eagraithe
IT: crimine organizzato
LT: organizuotas nusikalstamumas
LV: organizētā noziedzība
MT: Kriminalità (Il-) organizzata
NL/BE: georganiseerde misdaad
NO: organisert kriminalitet
PL: zorganizowana przestępczość
PT: crime organizado: crime organizado
RO: crimă organizată
SE: organiserad brottslighet
SI: organizirani kriminal
SK: organizovaný zločin

Large-scale and complex illicit activities carried out by an organised criminal group.


Note:
Such operations are generally carried out with a ruthless disregard of the law, and often involve offences against the person, including threats, intimidation and physical violence.

Source:Derived by EMN from the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

organised criminal group

AT/DE/LU: organisierte kriminelle Gruppe/Vereinigung
BG: организирана престъпна група
CS: skupina organizovaného zločinu
EE: organiseeritud kuritegelik ühendus
ES: grupo delictivo organizado
FI: järjestäytynyt rikollisryhmä
FR/BE/LU: groupe criminel organisé
HU: szervezett bűnözői csoport
IE: buíon choiriúil eagraithe
IT: gruppo di criminalità organizzata
LT: organizuota nusikalstama grupė
LV: organizēta noziedzīga grupa
MT: Grupp kriminali organizzat // Għaqda kriminali organizzata
NL/BE: criminele organisatie
NO: organisert kriminell gruppe
PL: zorganizowana grupa przestępcza
PT: grupo de criminalidade organizada: grupo de criminalidade organizada
RO: grup/grupare criminal organizat
SE: gruppering för organiserad brottslighet
SI: organizirana kriminalna združba
SK: organizovaná zločinecká skupina

A structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting cooperatively with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences.

Source:Art. 2(a) of UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and the protocols thereto

overstay(er)

AT/DE/LU: Overstayer, rechtswidrige Überschreitung eines befristeten Aufenthalts
BG: престой над разрешения срок
CS: překročení doby povoleného pobytu
EE: lubatud viibimisaja ületa(ja)mine
ES: extranjero en situación irregular sobrevenida
FI: henkilö, joka on jäänyt maahan oleskeluluvan tai viisumin umpeuduttua
FR/BE/LU: personne dépassant la durée de séjour autorisée
GR: ο αλλοδαπός διαμένων πέραν του χρόνου που δικαιούται
HU: túltartózkodó
IE: duine a fhanann thar an téarma údaraithe
IT: overstayer
LT: asmuo, viršijęs teisėto buvimo laiką
LV: persona, kas pārsniedz atļauto uzturēšanās termiņu
MT: Sebq (Sebbieq) il-qgħad // Min jiskorrilu / jiskadilu l-permess (biex) jibqa' // Min itawwal żjara illegalment
NL/BE: overstayer
NO: person hvis oppholdstillatelse er utløpt (b) / person med opphaldsløyve som har gått ut (n)
PL: osoba która utraciła prawo do pobytu
PT: estrangeiro com excesso de permanência
RO: străin cu şedere ilegală (prin depăşirea termenului de şedere conferit de viză sau alt document de şedere)
SE: person vars uppehållstillstånd har gått ut
SI: prekoračitev dovoljenega časa prebivanja / oseba, ki prekorači dovoljeni čas prebivanja v državi
SK: osoba, ktorá prekročila povolenú dobu pobytu

In the global context, a person who remains in a country beyond the period for which entry was granted.

In the EU context, a person who has legally entered but then stayed in an EU Member State beyond the allowed duration of their permitted stay without the appropriate visa (typically 90 days or six months), or of their visa and/or residence permit.


Broader Term: third-country national found to be illegally present

Related Term: irregular migrant, irregular stay

Source: Global context: IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011
EU context: developed by EMN