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managed migration

AT/DE/LU: gesteuerte Migration
BG: управление на миграционните процеси
CS: řízená migrace
EE: juhitud ränne
ES: gestión integral de la migración
FI: hallittu maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: gestion des migrations
GR: ελεγχόμενη μετανάστευση
HU: migráció kezelés / migráció menedzsment (+ well-managed migration = megfelelően kezelt migráció)
IE: imirce bhainistithe
IT: migrazione gestita
LT: valdoma migracija
LV: pārvaldīta migrācija
MT: Ġestjoni ta' flussi migratorji
NL/BE: gereguleerde migratie
NO: styrt migrasjon
PL: migracja zarządzana
PT: migração assistida/ Gestão de Migrações
RO: migraţie controlată
SE: reglerad migration
SI: upravljanje migracij / vodene migracije
SK: riadená migrácia

An approach used by the EU and Member States to structure the management of all aspects of Migration into and within the EU of both third-country nationals and EU nationals, particularly the entry, admission, residence, integration and return, as well as of refugees and others in need of protection.


Synonym(s): migration management

Related Term: economic migration, forced migration, quota

Source: Developed by EMN

mandate refugee

AT/DE/LU: Mandatsflüchtling
BG: бежанец по мандата на Върховния комисар на ООН за бежанците (ВКБООН)
CS: mandatorní uprchlík
EE: mandaadipagulane
ES: refugiado (bajo mandato)
FI: mandaattipakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié relevant du mandat du HCR
GR: πρόσφυγας εντολής
HU: mandátumos menekült
IE: dídeanaí mandáide
IT: rifugiato ex Mandato
LT: pabėgėlis pagal mandatą
LV: UNHCR mandāta bēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a) b'digriet / b'mandat
NL/BE: mandaatvluchteling
NO: overføringsflyktning
PL: uchodźca mandatowy
PT:  refugiados (Mandato)
RO: refugiat sub mandat UNHCR
SE: no translation
SI: mandatni begunec
SK: mandátny utečenec

A person who meets the criteria of the UNHCR Statute and qualifies for the protection of the UN provided by the High Commissioner, regardless of whether or not they are in a country that is a party to the Geneva Convention of 1951, or whether or not they have been recognised by the host country as a refugee under either of these instruments.


Broader Term: refugee

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

marriage of convenience

AT/DE/LU: Scheinehe
BG: фиктивен брак
CS: účelové manželství
EE: fiktiivabielu/näiline abielu
ES: matrimonio de complacencia
FI: lumeavioliitto
FR/BE/LU: mariage de complaisance
GR: γάμος συμφέροντος
HU: érdekházasság
IE: pósadh áise
IT: matrimonio fittizio
LT: fiktyvi santuoka
LV: fiktīva laulība
MT: Żwieġ ta’ konvenjenza / għall-konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnhuwelijk
NO: proformaekteskap
PL: małżeństwo zawarte w celu obejścia przepisów umożliwiających legalizację pobytu / małżeństwo fikcyjne
PT: casamento de conveniência
RO: căsătorie de convenienţă
SE: skenäktenskap
SI: poroka iz koristoljubja
SK: účelové manželstvo

A marriage contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person concerned to enter or reside in a Member State.


Related Term: adoption of convenience, civil partnership of convenience, partnership of convenience

Note:
For further information, see EMN : Marriages of convenience and false declarations of parenthood, 2012 .

Source:Art. 16 (2b) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

mass influx

AT/DE/LU: Massenzustrom
BG: масово навлизане
CS: hromadný příliv
EE: massiline sisseränne
ES: afluencia masiva
FI: joukoittainen maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: afflux massif
GR:  μαζική εισορρή
HU: tömeges beáramlás
IE: mórphlódú isteach
IT: afflusso massiccio
LT: antplūdis
LV: masveida pieplūdums
MT: Influss tal-massa / ta' massa
NL/BE: massale toestroom (syn.: massale instroom)
NO: massetilstrømning (b) / massetilstrøyming (n)
PL: masowy napływ
PT: afluxo maciço
RO: aflux masiv
SE: massiv tillströmning
SI: množični priliv / množični prihod
SK: hromadný prílev

Arrival in the Community of a large number of displaced persons, who come from a specific country or geographical area, whether their arrival in the Community was spontaneous or aided, for example through an evacuation programme.


Related Term: temporary protection

Source:Art. 2(d) of Council Directive 2001/55/EC (Temporary Protection Directive)

material reception conditions

AT/DE/LU: materielle Aufnahmebedingungen
BG: материални условия за приемане
CS: materiální podmínky přijetí
EE: materiaalsed varjupaigataotlejate vastuvõtutingimused
ES: condiciones materiales de acogida
FI: aineelliset vastaanotto-olosuhteet
FR/BE/LU: conditions matérielles d'accueil
GR: υλικές συνθήκες υποδοχής
HU: a befogadás anyagi feltételei
IE: coinníollacha ábhartha glactha
IT: condizioni materiali di accoglienza
LT: materialinės priėmimo sąlygos
LV: materiālie uzņemšanas nosacījumi
MT: Kondizzjonijiet materjali tal-akkoljenza
NL/BE: materiële opvangvoorzieningen
NO: materielle mottaksforhold (b) / materielle mottakstilhøve (n)
PL: materialne warunki przyjmowania
PT: condições materiais de acolhimento
RO: condiţii materiale de recepţie
SE: materiella mottagningsvillkor
SI: materialni pogoji sprejema
SK: materiálne prijímacie podmienky (EU acquis) / materiálne podmienky prijímania (national law)

The reception conditions that include housing, food and clothing provided in kind, or as financial allowances or in vouchers, or a combination of the three, and a daily expenses allowance.


Note:
For further information, see EMN: The Organisation of Reception Facilities for Asylum Seekers in different Member States, 2013 pdf - 2 MB [2 MB] .

Source:Art. 2(g) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

migrant

AT/DE/LU: Migrant
BG: мигрант
CS: migrant
EE: sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante
FI: maahanmuuttaja/siirtolainen
FR/BE/LU: migrant
GR: μετανάστης
HU: migráns
IE: imirceach
IT: migrante
LT: migrantas
LV: migrants
MT: Migrant(a)
NL/BE: migrant
NO: migrant
PL: migrant
PT: migrante
RO: migrant
SE: migrant
SI: migrant
SK: migrant

In the global context, a person who is outside the territory of the State of which they are nationals or citizens and who has resided in a foreign country for more than one year irrespective of the causes, voluntary or involuntary, and the means, regular or irregular, used to migrate.

In the EU context, a person who either:

  1. establishes their usual residence in the territory of a Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country; or
  2. having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.


Narrower Term: economic migrant, emigrant, forced migrant, immigrant, short-term migrant, long-term migrant

Related Term: Migration

Note:
1. At the international level, no universally accepted definition for 'migrant' exists.
2. Under the UN definition, those travelling for shorter periods as tourists and business persons would not be considered migrants. However, common usage includes certain kinds of shorter-term migrants, such as seasonal workers.
3. The term 'migrant' was usually understood to cover all cases where the decision to migrate was taken freely by the individual concerned for reasons of 'personal convenience' and without intervention of an external compelling factor; it therefore applied to persons, and family members, moving to another country or region to better their material or social conditions and improve the prospect for themselves or their family.

Source: Global context: derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration and UNESCO
EU context: Derived by EMN from Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database and the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration

migrant stock

BG: брой на мигрантите
CS: počet imigrantů - stav k
: Anzahl der Einwanderer
EE: sisserännanute arv kindlal territooriumil, teatud aja seisuga
ES: población inmigrante
FI: maahanmuuttajaväestön määrä
FR/BE/LU: stock de migrants
HU: bevándorlók aránya
IE: lion na n-imirceach
IT: stock di migranti
LT: migrantų skaičius
LV: migrantu skaits (1.janvārī)
MT: Rendikont tal-migranti
NL/BE: migrant stock (no usual translation)
NO: antall registrert bosatte innvandrere (b) / tal på registrert busette innvandrarar (n)
PL: populacja migrantów w danym momencie
RO: stoc de migranţi
SE: migrantstock
SI: število priseljenecev / "zaloga" migrantov
SK: počet migrantov / stav migrantov

The number of migrantsin a given area on a certain date (e.g. 1 January or 31 December) of the year in question.


Synonym(s): immigrant population, stock of migrants

Broader Term: population stock , stock of foreigners

Source:Derived by EMN from Eurostat: Working Papers and Studies (3/2003/E/no25)

migrant worker

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitsmigrant, Wanderarbeiter, Wanderarbeitnehmer
BG: работник мигрант
CS: migrant - zaměstnanec
EE: võõrtöötaja
ES: trabajador migrante
FI: siirtotyöläinen/vierastyöläinen
FR/BE/LU: travailleur migrant
GR: εργαζόμενος μετανάστης
HU: migráns munkavállaló
IE: oibrí imirceach
IT: lavoratore migrante
LT: migrantas darbuotojas
LV: darba ņēmējs migrants
MT: Migrant(a) ħaddiem(a)
NL/BE: arbeidsmigrant (syn.: buitenlandse werknemer)
NO: arbeidsmigrant
PL: pracownik migrujący
PT: trabalhador migrante
RO: lucrător/muncitor migrant
SE: migrantarbetare
SI: delavec migrant
SK: migrujúci pracovník / pracovný migrant

A person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a state of which they are not nationals.


Synonym(s): foreign worker, guest worker, labour migrant

Narrower Term: contract migrant worker,highly-qualified migrantBroader Term: economic migrant

Related Term: labour migration

Note:
1. OECD defines a migrant worker as 'a foreigner admitted by the receiving state for the specific purpose of exercising an economic activity remunerated from within the receiving country. Their length of stay is usually restricted as is the type of employment they can hold'.
2. For the purpose of the EMN the UN definition is prefered as it is more common in literature and more comprehensive since it specifically includes those migrant workers who may currently be out of work, but had been working earlier. The Convention also includes self-employed workers.

Source:UN Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families

migration

AT/DE/LU: Migration
BG: миграция
CS: migrace
EE: ränne
ES: migración
FI: muuttoliike/siirtolaisuus
FR/BE/LU: migration
GR: μετανάστευση
HU: migráció
IE: imirce
IT: migrazione
LT: migracija
LV: migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: migratie
NO: migrasjon
PL: migracja
PT: migração
RO: migraţie
SE: migration
SI: migracija
SK: migrácia

In the global context, movement of a person either across an international border (international migration), or within a state (internal migration) for more than one year irrespective of the causes, voluntary or involuntary, and the means, regular or irregular, used to migrate.

In the EU context, the action by which a person either:

  1. establishes their usual residence in the territory of a Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country; or
  2. having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.


Narrower Term: economic migration, emigration, forced migration, immigration, irregular migration, legal migration, long-term migration, short-term migration

Related Term: displacement, migrant

Note:
1. At the international level, no universally accepted definition for migration exists.
2. IOM defines migration as follows: 'movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border (international migration), or within a state (internal migration), encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever its length, composition and causes'. This broad definition covers all forms of migration (voluntrary/forced migration, internal/international migration, long-term/short-term migration), different motives for migration (migration because of political persecution, conflicts, economic problems, environmental degradation or a combination of these reasons or migration in search of better economic conditions or conditions of survival or well-being, or other motives such as familiy reunfication) and irrespective of the means used to migrate (legal/irregular migration). Thus it includes migration of Refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants and persons moving for other purposes, including family reunification.
2. Under the UN, the definition 'movements for shorter periods' would not be considered migration.

Source: Global context: derived by EMN from UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration and IOM GLossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011
EU context: Derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration and OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative

AT/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Регионална инициатива по миграция, убежище и бежанци
CS: Regionální iniciativa pro migraci, azyl a uprchlíky
: Regionale Migrations-, Asyl- und Flüchtlingsinitiative
EE: rände, varjupaiga ja pagulaste regionaalne meede (no usual translation)
ES:  iniciativa regional para la migración, el asilo y los refugiados (MARRI)
FI: maahanmuuttoa, turvapaikkaa ja pakolaisia koskeva alueellinen aloite (MARRI)
FR/BE/LU: Initiative régionale en matière de migration, d’asile et de retour des réfugiés (MARRI)
GR: Περιφερειακή Πρωτοβουλία για τη Μετανάστευση, το Άσυλο και τους Πρόσφυγες
HU: Migráció és Menekültügyi Regionális Kezdeményezés (MARRI)
IE: Tionscnamh Réigiúnach um Imirce, Tearmann & Dídeanaithe
IT:  Iniziativa Regionale Migrazione, Asilo, Rifugiati (MARRI)
LT: Migracijos, prieglobsčio ir pabėgėlių regioninė iniciatyva
LV: Migrācijas, patvēruma un bēgļu reģionālā iniciatīva
MT: Inizzjattiva Reġjonali dwar il-Migrazzjoni, l-Ażil, u r-Rifuġjati (MARRI)
NL/BE: Regionaal Migratie-, Asiel- en Vluchtelingeninitiatief (MARRI)
NO: regionalt initiativ for asyl og flyktninger (MARRI) for Vest-Balkan (b) / regionalt initiativ for asyl og flyktningar for Vest-Balkan (MARRI) (n)
PL: Regionalna Inicjatywa w sprawach Migracji, Azylu i Uchodźstwa (MARRI)
PT: iniciativa regional sobre migração, asilo e refugiados (MARRI)
RO: Iniţiativa regională cu privire la migraţaie, azil şi refugiaţi
SE: Regionala initiativet för migration, asyl och flyktingar (MARRI)
SI: Regionalna pobuda za migracije, azil in begunce
SK: Regionálna iniciatíva pre migráciu, azyl a utečencov / MARRI

An initiative forming part of the South-East European Cooperation Process, which aims to enhance regional cooperation in the field of migration by promoting a comprehensive, integrated, and coherent approach to the issues of Migration, asylum, border management, visapolicies and consular cooperation, refugee return and settlement in order to meet international and European standards.


Synonym(s): MARRI

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. MARRI was formed in 2003 within the context of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe by merging the Regional Return Initiative (RRI) and the Migration and Asylum Initiative (MAI). Since 2004, MARRI has functioned through two mechanisms: the MARRI Regional Forum, which provides political and framework support to the Initiative, and the MARRI Regional Centre in Skopje, which carries out practical cooperation and activities of MARRI and supports the implementation of the decisions reached by the Regional Forum.
2. MARRI's top priority is the enhancement of regional cooperation in its fields of activities among countries in the regio, as a vital part of the EU integration process and in line with the Thessaloniki Agenda for the Western Balkans.
3. For more information, see the webite of MARRI.

Source:Website of MARRI

migration flow

AT/DE/LU: Wanderungsbewegung, Migrationsbewegung
BG: миграционен поток
CS: migrační tok
EE: rändevoog
ES:  flujo migratorio
FI: muuttovirta
FR/BE/LU: flux migratoire
GR: μεταναστευτική ροή
HU: migrációs áramlat
IE: sreabhadh imirce
IT:  flusso migratorio
LT: migracijos srautas
LV: migrācijas plūsma
MT: Nixxiegħa migratorja
NL/BE: migratiestroom
NO: migrasjonsstrøm (b) / migrasjonsstraum (n)
PL: strumień migracyjny
PT: fluxo migratório
RO: flux de migraţie
SE: migrationsströmmar
SI: migracijski tok
SK: migračný tok

The number of migrants crossing a boundary, within a specific time period, for the purpose of establishing residence.


Synonym(s): migratory flow

Related Term: crude rate of net migration, mixed migration flow, net migration, population stock, total migration

Note:
1. The boundary can range from within national borders, within the EU and international boundaries, and can range from international migration flows (crossing national borders) and internal migration flows (within the same national border).
2. UN statistics in particular also refer to 'inflows' (flow of migrants entering into a particular boundary) and 'outflows' (flow of migrants leaving a particular boundary).

Source: Developed by EMN

migration profile

AT/DE/LU: Migrationsprofil
BG: миграционен профил
CS: migrační profil
EE: rändeprofiil
ES: perfil migratorio
FI: muuttoprofiili
FR/BE/LU: profil migratoire
GR: μεταναστευτικό προφίλ
HU: migrációs profil
IE: próifíl imirce
IT: profilo migratorio
LT: migracijos profilis
LV: migrācijas profils
MT: Profil migratorju
NL/BE: migratieprofiel
NO: migrasjonsprofil
PL: profil migracyjny
PT: perfil migratório/profiling
RO: profil de migraţie
SE: migrationsprofil
SI: migracijski profil
SK: migračný profil

A tool to bring together and analyse all the relevant information needed to develop policy in the field of migration and development and to monitor the impact of policies implemented.


Broader Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Related Term: Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, mobility partnership

Note:
1. Migration profiles are reports on the migration situation of a country for the purpose of increasing the evidence-base for their own policy development. Such reports contain data and analysis on current migration patterns,labour market trends, remittance flows, information on diasporas and other development-related data.
2. Migration profiles have been produced by IOM and by CARIM (Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration) amongst other organisations. For more information see the description of migration profiles on the IOM website.
3. The Global Forum on Migration and Development also hosts a repository of migration profiles
4. Migration profiles entail an analysis of the policy and practice of a state and not that of a person. In this vein, the concept should not be confused with the profiling of a 'person'.

Source:Annex I, 2 (glossary) to COM(2007) 247 final

migration routes initiative

AT/DE/LU: Migrationsrouten-Initiative
BG: Инициатива за миграционни маршрути
CS: Iniciativa migračních tras
EE: rändeteede meede
ES: iniciativa de rutas migratorias
FI: muuttoreittejä koskeva aloite
FR/BE/LU:  initiative relative aux routes migratoires
GR: πρωτοβουλία μεταναστευτικών οδών
HU: migrációs útvonalak kezdeményezés
IE: Tionscnamh um Bhealaí Imirce
IT: Iniziativa "Rotte migratorie"
LT: Migracijos maršrutų iniciatyva
LV: Migrācijas ceļu iniciatīva
MT: Inizzjattiva fir-rigward tar-rotot migratorji
NL/BE: migratie-routes initiatief
NO: initiativ i tilknytning til migrasjonsruter (b) / initiativ i tilknyting til migrasjonsruter (n)
PL: Inicjatywa ds. Szlaków Migracyjnych
PT: Iniciativa sobre rotas migratórias
RO:  iniţiativa cu privire la rutele de migraţie
SE: Migration Routes Initiative
SI: Pobuda glede migracijskih poti
SK: iniciatíva migračných trás

An initiative by which work along the main migratory routes through a particular region and towards the EU is identified and which takes into account the need to work in close collaboration with the third countries along these routes.


Broader Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Related Term: Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, migration profile, mobility partnership

Source:Annex I, 2 (glossary) to Communication applying the Global Approach to Migration, COM(2007) 247 final

minimum standards

AT/DE/LU: Minimum-standards
BG: минимални стандарти
CS: minimální normy
EE: miinimumnõuded
ES: normas mínimas
FI: vähimmäisvaatimukset
FR/BE/LU: normes minimales
HU: minimumszabályok
IE: íoschaighdeáin
IT: norme minime
LT: būtiniausi reikalavimai
LV: minimālie standarti
MT: Livelli standard minimi
NL/BE: minimumnormen
NO: minimumsstandard
PL: minimalne standardy
RO: standarde minime
SE: miniminormer
SI: minimalni standardi
SK: minimálne pravidlá / minimálne štandardy

In an asylum context, a number of principles in relation to procedures for international protection, to reception conditions, and to the refugee definition established by the Treaty of Amsterdam from which EU Member States cannot derogate.


Related Term: Common European Asylum System

Note:
In the Tampere Agreement, and then reaffirmed by the Hague Programme, Member States agreed to go beyond minimum standards and develop a Common European Asylum System (CEAS) based on a common asylum procedure and a uniform status for those who are granted international protection.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 63 of the Treaty of Amsterdam

minor

AT/DE/LU: Minderjähriger
BG: непълнолетно лице
CS: nezletilý
EE: alaealine
ES: menor
FI: alaikäinen
FR/BE/LU: mineur
GR: ανήλικος
HU: kiskorú
IE: mionaoiseach
IT: minorenne
LT: nepilnametis
LV: nepilngadīgais
MT: Minorenni
NL/BE: minderjarige
NO: mindreårig
PL: małoletni
PT: menor
RO: minor
SE: underårig
SI: mladoletnik
SK: maloletý

In a legal context and in contrast to a child, a person who, according to the law of their respective country, is under the age of majority, i.e. is not yet entitled to exercise specific civil and political rights.


Related Term: adult, child

Note:
1. This is the preferred term to use when referring to an individual. The term 'child' should then be used to describe the relationship with other family members.
2. The age specified by law, called the 'legal age of majority', indicates that a person acquires full legal capacity to be bound by various documents, such as contracts and deeds, that they make with others and to commit other legal acts such as voting in elections and entering marriage. The age at which a person becomes an adult varies from State to State and often varies within a State, depending upon the nature of the action taken by the person.

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

minority

AT/DE/LU: Minderheit
BG: малцинство
CS: menšina
EE: vähemus
ES: minoría
FI: vähemmistö
FR/BE/LU: minorité
HU: kissebbség
IE: mionlach
IT: minoranza
LT: mažuma
LV: minoritāte
MT: Minoranza / F'minoranza
NL/BE: minderheid
NO: minoritet
PL: mniejszość
PT: Minoria
RO: minoritate
SE: minoritet
SI: manjšina
SK: menšina

A non-dominant group which is usually numerically less than the majority population of a State or region regarding their ethnic, religious or linguistic characteristics and who (if only implicitly) maintain solidarity with their own culture, traditions, religion or language.


Narrower Term: ethnic minority, national minority

Related Term: ethnicity, ethnic nationality

Note:
1. There is still no universally accepted definition of minority in international law, although a variety of international documents have attempted to define the concept of a minority. See, for example, Art. 27 of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).
2. This definition has been added because of its relevance to integration-related aspects.

Source:Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011

mixed migration flow

AT/DE/LU: gemischte Wanderungs-/ Migrationsbewegung
BG: смесен миграционен поток
CS: smíšený migrační tok
EE: segarändevoog (no usual translation)
ES: flujo migratorio mixto
FI: erilaisista ryhmistä koostuva muuttovirta
FR/BE/LU: flux migratoire mixte
HU: vegyes migrációs áramlás
IE: sreabhadh imirce measctha
IT: flusso migratorio misto
LT: mišrūs migracijos srautai
LV: jauktas migrācijas plūsma
MT: Fluss migratorju mħallat // Nixxiegħa migratorja mħallta
NL/BE: gemengde migratiestroom
NO: blandet migrasjonsstrøm (b) / blanda migrasjonsstraum (n)
PL: mieszane przepływy migracyjne
RO: flux de migraţie mixtă
SE: blandade migrationsströmmar
SI: mešani migracijski tok
SK: zmiešané migračné toky

Complex migratory population movement including Refugees, asylum-seekers, economic migrants and other types of migrants as opposed to migratory population movements that consist entirely of one category of migrants.


Related Term: migration flow

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011

mobility partnership

AT/DE/LU: Mobilitätspartnerschaft
BG: Партньорство за мобилност
CS: partnerství pro mobilitu
EE: rändepartnerlus
ES: asociación de movilidad
FI: liikkuvuuskumppanuus
FR/BE/LU: partenariat pour la mobilité
GR: σύμπραξη κινητικότητας
HU: mobilitási partnerség
IE: comhpháirtíocht soghluaisteachta
IT: partenariato per la mobilità
LT: judumo partnerystė
LV: mobilitātes partnerība
MT: Multikulturaliżmu
NL/BE: mobiliteitspartnerschappen
NO: mobilitetspartnerskap (b) / mobilitetspartnarskap (n)
PL: Partnerstwo na rzecz Mobilności
PT: parcerias para a mobilidade
RO: parteneriat de mobilitate
SE: partnerskap för rörlighet
SI: partnerstvo za mobilnost
SK: partnerstvo v oblasti mobility / mobilitné partnerstvo

A cooperation arrangement, on the basis of political declarations, that provides the bilateral framework for dialogue and practical cooperation to address relevant migration and mobility issues of mutual concern primarily with EU neighbourhood countries, including short and long-term mobility, on a voluntary basis.


Synonym(s): MP

Related Term: circular migration, Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, migration profile, readmission agreement

Note:
1. Mobility partnerships (MPs) are an important tool of the EU’s Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, providing the overall framework for managing various forms of legal movement between the EU and third countries. Such partnerships are agreed with those third countries that have in place effective mechanisms for readmission of irregular migrants.
2. For further information on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility and on mobility partnerships, see the website of DG HOME.

Source:Council Conclusions (No 42) on the Global Approach of Migration and Mobility of 29 May 2012

multiculturalism

AT/DE/LU: Multikulturalismus
BG: мултикултурализъм
CS: multikulturalismus
EE: multikultuursus
ES: multiculturalismo
FI: monikulttuurisuus
FR/BE/LU: multiculturalisme
HU: multikulturalizmus
IE: ilchultúrthacht
IT: multiculturalismo
LT: multikultūriškumas
LV: multikulturālisms
MT: Sħubija għall-Mobbilità
NL/BE: multiculturalisme
NO: multikulturalisme
PL: wielokulturowość
RO: multiculturalism
SE: multikulturalism
SI: multikulturalizem
SK: multikulturalizmus

A policy that endorses the principle of cultural diversity and supports the right of different cultural and ethnic groups to retain distinctive cultural identities ensuring their equitable access to society, encompassing constitutional principles and commonly shared values prevailing in the society.


Synonym(s): interculturalism

Related Term: cultural diversity

Note:
1. The term was first used in 1957 to describe Switzerland, but came into common currency in Canada in the late 1960s. It quickly spread to other English-speaking countries.
2. There is no universally accepted definition of multiculturalism, which can refer to different concepts: demographic facts, philosophical or polictical ideas and values.
3. Multiculturalism emphasises cultural differences and different cultures existing next to each other without necessarily much contact or participative interaction.
4. The model of multiculturalism has often been criticised on different grounds. Criticis of multiculturalism question the ideal of the maintenance of distinct ethnic cultures within a state; others argue that policies of multiculturalism have failed to create inclusion of different cultures within society, but instead have divided society by legitimising segregated separate communities that have isolated themselves and accentuated their specificity.

Source: Derived by EMN from the FRA (EUMC) Open Glossary (no longer available online)

mutual information mechanism

AT/DE/LU: Mechanismus zur gegenseitigen Information über asyl- und einwanderungspolitische Maßnahmen der Mitgliedstaaten
BG: Механизъм за взаимно информиране
CS: Mechanismus vzájemné výměny informací
EE: vastastikuse teabesüsteemi
ES: Mecanismo de Información Mutua
FI: keskinäinen tiedottamisjärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: méchanisme d’information mutuelle
GR: μηχανισμός αμοιβαίας πληροφόρησης
HU:  kölcsönös tájékoztatási mechanizmus
IE: Meicníocht um Fhaisnéis Fhrithpháirteach (MIM)
IT: Meccanismo di Informazione Reciproca (MIM)
LT: Tarpusavio keitimosi informacija mechanizmas
LV: savstarpējās informācijas apmaiņas mehānisms
MT: Mekkaniżmu għal Informazzjoni Reċiproka (MIR)
NL/BE: Wederzijds Informatiemechanisme
NO: Ordning for gjensidig informasjonsutveksling
PL: Mechanizm Wymiany Informacji (MIM)
PT: Mecanismo de Informação Mútua
RO: mecanismul de informare mutuală (MIM)
SE: system för ömsesidigt informationsutbyte
SI: Medsebojni informacijski sistem
SK: mechanizmus vzájomnej výmeny informácií

A mechanism for the mutual exchange of information concerning national measures in the areas of asylum and immigration that are likely to have a significant impact on several Member States or on the European Union as a whole.


Synonym(s): MIM

Related Term: Information and Coordination Network for Member States’ Migration Management Services

Note:
The mechanism also allows for the preparation of exchanges of views and debates on such measures.

Source:Art. 1 of Council Decision 2006/688/EC (Mutual Information Mechanism Decision)

mutual recognition agreement

AT/LU: gegenseitige Anerkennungs-vereinbarung
BG: споразумение за взаимно признаване
CS: smlouva o uznávání rovnocennosti dokladů (o vzdělání)
: gegenseitige Anerkennungsvereinbarung
EE: vastastikuse tunnustamise leping
ES: acuerdo de reconocimiento mutuo
FI: sopimus vastavuoroisesta tunnustamisesta
FR/BE/LU: accord de reconnaissance mutuelle
HU: kölcsönös elismerési megállapodás
IE: comhaontú maidir le haitheantas frithpháirteach
IT: accordo di reciproco riconoscimento
LT: susitarimas dėl abipusio pripažinimo
LV: savstarpējas atzīšanas līgums
MT: Ftehim għar-rikonoxximent reċiproku
NL/BE: overeenkomst inzake wederzijdse erkenning
NO: avtale om gjensidig godkjenning
PL: umowa o wzajemnym uznaniu kwalifikacji
RO: acord de recunoaştere mutuală
SE: avtal för ömsesidigt erkännande av kvalifikationer
SI: sporazum o vzajemnem priznavanju
SK: dohoda o vzájomnom uznávaní rovnocennosti dokladov o vzdelaní

Agreements on the recognition of foreign qualifications negotiated by governments and professional organisations in several countries by setting out clear rules for licensing or certifying migrant professionals who move between signatory countries in order to reduce, or even eliminate, the need for case-by-case assessments when applicants have been trained in systems conferring essentially comparable skills and knowledge.


Synonym(s): MRA


Note:
1. MRAs can lessen barriers migrant professionals face when transferring their skills and experience across borders and help governments to recognise professional qualifications from other jurisdictions. They come in several different forms with major variations in the scope of the agreement and the benefits they provide to the applicant (automatic, partial or limited-scope recognition, temporary access).
2.The furthest-reaching and most comprehensive system is the EU's system outlined in Council Directive 2005/36/EC (Professional Qualification Directive) which covers all regulated occupations in all EU Member States and reduces regulatory authorities' discretion to reject applicants that fall under its purview.

Source:Migration Policy Institute: Skilled Immigrants in The Global Economy: Prospects for International Cooperation on Recognition of Foreign Qualifications, 2013

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