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Marriage (Forced)

AT/DE/LU: Zwangsheirat
EE: sundabielu
ES: matrimonio forzado
FI: pakkoavioliitto
FR/BE/LU: mariage forcé
GR: εξαναγκασμένος γάμος
HU: kényszerházasság
IE: pósadh éigeantach
IT: matrimonio forzato
LT: santuoka (prievartinė)
LV: piespiedu laulības
MT: Żwieġ Sfurzat / ta' Bilfors
NL/BE: gedwongen huwelijk
NO: tvangsekteskap
PL: wymuszone małżeństwo
PT: casamento forçado
RO: căsătorie forţată
SE: tvångsäktenskap
SI: prisilna poroka
SK: nútené manželstvo

The union of two persons at least one of whom has not given their full and free consent to the marriage.

Source:Council of Europe Resolution 1468 (5th October 2005)

Marriage of Convenience

AT/DE/LU: Scheinehe; Aufenthaltsehe (AT)
BG: Фиктивен брак
EE: näilik abielu
ES: matrimonio de complacencia
FI: lumeavioliitto
FR/BE/LU: mariage de complaisance
GR: γάμος συμφέροντος
HU: érdekházasság
IE: pósadh áise
IT: matrimonio di convenienza
LT: santuoka (fiktyvi)
LV: aprēķina laulības
MT: Żwieġ ta’ Konvenjenza / għall-Konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnhuwelijk
NO: proformaekteskap
PL: małżeństwo zawarte w celu obejśćia przepisów umożliwiających legalizację pobytu
PT: casamento de conveniência
RO: căsătorie de convenienţă
SE: skenäktenskap
SI: navidezna zakonska zveza
SK: účelové manželstvo

A marriage contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person concerned to enter or reside in a Member State.


Related Terms: Civil Partnership of Convenience, Adoption of Convenience

Source:Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Article 16(2b))

Mass Influx

AT/DE/LU: Massenzustrom
EE: massiline sisseränne
ES: afluencia masiva
FI: joukoittainen maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: afflux massif
GR: μαζική εισορρή
HU: tömeges beáramlás
IE: mórphlódú isteach
IT: flusso di massa
LT: masinis antplūdis
LV: masveida pieplūdums
MT: Influss tal-Massa / ta' Massa
NL/BE: massale toestroom (Syn.: massale instroom)
NO: massetilstrømning
PL: masowy napływ
PT: afluxo maciço
RO: aflux masiv
SE: massiv tillströmning
SI: množični priliv (prihod)
SK: hromadný prílev

Arrival in the EU of a large number of displaced persons, who come from a specific country or geographical area, whether their arrival in the EU was spontaneous or aided, for example through an evacuation programme.


Related Term: Temporary Protection

Source:Council Directive 2001/55/EC

Member State (Host)

AT/DE/LU: aufnehmender Mitgliedstaat
EE: vastuvõttev liikmesriik
ES: estado miembro de acogida
FI: vastaanottava jäsenvaltio
FR/BE/LU: État membre d’accueil
GR: κ-μ υποδοχής
HU: fogadó tagállam
IE: ballstát aíochta
IT: Stato membro di accoglienza
LT: valstybė narė (priimančioji)
LV: uzņēmējdalībvalsts
MT: Stat Membru (li Jilqa')
NL/BE: gastlidstaat
NO: vertsmedlemsstat
PL: przyjmujące Państwo Członkowskie
PT: estado membro de acolhimento
RO: stat membru gazdă
SE: mottagande medlemsstat
SI: država članica gostiteljica
SK: hostiteľský členský štát

The Member State to which a Union citizen moves in order to exercise his/her right of free movement and residence.

Source:Council Directive 2004/38/EC

Member State (Remain in the)

AT/DE/LU: Verbleib im Mitgliedstaat
EE: liikmesriiki jääma
ES: permanencia en el territorio del estado miembro
FI: jäädä jäsenvaltion alueelle
FR/BE/LU: rester dans l’État membre
GR: κ-μ παραμονής
HU: tagállam területén maradás
IE: fanacht sa bhallstát
IT: permanenza nello Stato membro
LT: pasilikti valstybėje narėje
LV: palikt dalībvalstī
MT: Qagħda / Permanenza fi Stat Membru
NL/BE: verblijven in een lidstaat tijdens behandeling asielaanvraag / asielverzoek
NO: bli værende i medlemsstaten
PL: pozostanie na terytorium państwa członkowskiego
PT: permanecer num estado membro
RO: a rămâne în statul membru
SE: stanna kvar i medlemsstaten
SI: država članica zadrževanja
SK: zostať v členskom štáte

To remain in the territory, including at the border or in transit zones, of the Member State in which the application for asylum has been made or is being examined.

Source:Council Directive 2005/85/EC

Migrant

AT/DE/LU: Migrant
BG: Мигрант
DK: migrant
EE: rändaja/migrant
ES: persona migrante
FI: siirtolainen / maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant
GR: μετανάστης
HU: migráns
IE: imirceach
IT: migrante
LT: migrantas
LV: migrants
MT: Migrant(a)
NL/BE: migrant
NO: migrant
PL: migrant
PT: migrante
RO: migrant
SE: migrant
SI: migrant
SK: migrant

A broader-term of an immigrant and emigrant, referring to a person who leaves one country or region to settle in another.


Narrower Terms: Emigrant, Immigrant

Note:
In EU asylum and migration policy context, this is understood to refer to a Third-Country National entering (or within) the EU.

Source:See definitions for immigrant and emigrant

Migrant (Economic)

AT/DE/LU: Migrant aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen, Wirtschaftsmigrant
EE: majandusmigrant
ES: persona migrante por motivos económicos
FI: taloudellisten syiden vuoksi muuttava henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant économique
GR: οικονομικός μετανάστης
HU: gazdasági migráns
IE: imirceach eacnamaíoch
IT: migrante economico
LT: migrantas (ekonominis)
LV: ekonomiskais migrants
MT: Migrant/a (għal Raġunijiet Ekonomiċi)
NL/BE: economische migrant
NO: økonomisk migrant
PL: migrant ekonomiczny
PT: migrante económico
RO: migrant economic
SI: delovni migrant
SK: ekonomický migrant

Person who leaves their country of origin purely for economic reasons not in any way related to the refugee definition, or in order to seek material improvements in their livelihood.


Narrower Term: Migrant Worker

Related Terms: Managed Migration, Economic Migration

Note:
Economic migrants do not fall within the criteria for refugee status and are therefore not entitled to benefit from international protection as refugees.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

Migrant (Environmentally-driven)

AT/DE/LU: Umweltmigrant
EE: keskkonnapõhjustel rändaja
ES: persona migrante por motivos medioambientales
FI: ympäristötekijöiden vuoksi siirtymään joutunut
FR/BE/LU: migrant poussé par des raisons environnementales
GR: περιβαλλοντικός πρόσφυγας
HU: hazáját környezeti okból elhagyó migráns
IE: imirceach mar gheall ar an timpeallacht nádúrtha
IT: migrante per motivi ambientali
LT: migrantas (dėl ekologinių priežasčių)
LV: vides faktoru ietekmēts migrants
MT: Migrant/a (għal Raġunijiet Ambjentali)
NL/BE: door milieufactoren gedreven migrant (Syn. milieumigrant)
NO: miljømigrant / klimamigrant
PL: migrant z przyczyn środowiskowych
PT: migrante ambiental
RO: migrant din cauza mediului ambiant
SI: migrant zaradi okoljskih razlogov
SK: migrant z dôvodov zmien životného prostredia

Migrant (Forced)

AT/DE/LU: Zwangsmigrant
EE: sundrändaja
ES: persona migrante forzada
FI: pakkomuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migration forcé
GR: εξαναγκαστική μετανάστευση
HU: kényszermigráns
IE: imirceach éigeantach
IT: migrante forzato
LT: migrantas (prievartinis)
LV: piespiedu migrants
MT: Migrant/a (Sfurzat/a // ta' Bilfors)
NL/BE: gedwongen migrant
NO: tvungen migrant
PL: migrant niedobrowolny
PT: migrante forçado
RO: migrant forţat
SI: prisilni migrant
SK: nútený migrant

A migrant subject to Forced Migration.


Narrower Term: Environmentally Displaced Person

Related Terms: Displaced Person, Forced Migration, Refugee

Source:Derived by EMN from definition for Forced Migration

Migrant (Highly Qualified)

AT/DE/LU: hochqualifizierter Migrant
EE: kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud võõrtöötaja
ES: persona migrante altamente cualificada
FI: korkeasti koulutettu maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant hautement qualifié
GR: μετανάστης υψηλης εξειδίκευσης
HU: magasan képzett migráns
IE: imirceach ardcháilithe
IT: migrante altamente qualificato
LT: migrantas (aukštos kvalifikacijos)
LV: augsti kvalificēts migrants
MT: Migrant/a (bi Kwalifiki Għoljin)
NL/BE: hoogopgeleide migrant
NO: høyt kvalifisert migrant
PL: migrant wysoko wykwalifikowany
PT: Migrante altamente qualificado
RO: migrant înalt calificat
SE: högkvalificerad invandrare
SI: visoko kvalificirani migrant
SK: vysokokvalifikovaný migrant

In the EU context, a person who is employed in a Member State; is protected as an employee under national employment law and/or in accordance with national practice, irrespective of the legal relationship, for the purpose of exercising genuine and effective work for, or under the direction of, someone else; is paid; and has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher professional qualifications.


In a global context, a person falling within ILO ISCO-88 Classes 1, 2 and 3, e.g. a person with qualified as a manager, executive, professional, technician or similar, who move within the internal labour markets of trans-national corporations and international organisations, or who seek employment through international labour markets for scarce skills.


Synonyms: Highly skilled Migrant/Worker, Business Migrant


Related Terms: Highly qualified Employment, EU Blue Card

Note:
In some Member States, there is a distinction between highly skilled, referring to someone who has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher educational qualifications, and/or extensive (vocational) experience; and highly qualified, referring to someone who has required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher educational qualifications only. In the EU context, however, these terms are considered to be inter-changeable, e.g. the definition for highly skilled used in the Migratory Statistics Regulation (862/2007) uses the definition for highly qualified.

Source:Derived by EMN from Article 2(b) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (""highly qualified employment"")

UNESCO Glossary of Migration-related Terms"

Migrant (Illegally resident / staying)

AT/DE/LU: illegal aufhältiger Migrant, Migrant ohne legalen Aufenthalt
EE: ebaseaduslikult viibiv isik
ES: inmigrante en situación irregular
FI: laittomasti oleskeleva maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant en séjour irrégulier
GR: παράνομα διαμένων μετανάστης
HU: illegálisan tartózkodó migráns
IE: imirceach cónaitheach go neamhdhleathach
IT: migrante (residente/soggiornante non autorizzato)
LT: migrantas (nelegaliai gyvenantis/esantis)
LV: migrants, kas nelegāli uzturas
MT: Migrant/a (resident/a) Illegali (qiegħed/a b'mod illegali)
NL/BE: illegaal verblijvende migrant
NO: migrant med ulovlig opphold
PL: migrant przebywający nielegalnie
PT: migrante com permanência irregular
RO: migrant/străin cu şedere ilegală
SI: nezakoniti migrant
SK: nelegálny migrant

Migrant (Irregular)

AT/DE/LU: irregulärer Migrant
EE: ebaseaduslik rändaja
ES: inmigrante en situación irregular
FI: laittomasti maassa oleskeleva henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant en séjour irrégulier
GR: παράνομος μετανάστης
HU: irreguláris migráns
IE: imirceach neamhrialta
IT: migrante irregolare
LT: migrantas (neteisėtas)
LV: nelegālais migrants
MT: Migrant/a (Irregolari)
NL/BE: illegaal verblijvende migrant
NO: ulovlig migrant
PL: migrant nieregularny
PT: imigrante irregular
RO: migrant ilegal
SE: irreguljär migrant
SI: nezakoniti migrant
SK: nelegálny migrant/migrant bez povolenia na pobyt

In the EU context, a third-country national who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils the conditions of entry as set out in Article 5 of the Schengen Borders Codeor other conditions for entry, stay or residence in that Member State.


In a global context, someone who, owing to illegal entry or the expiry of his or her legal basis for entering and residing, lacks legal status in a transit or host country.


Synonym: insufficiently documented/undocumented/illegal/clandestine/unauthorised migrant


Narrower Term: Third-country national found to be illegally present

Related Terms: Illegal stay, Illegal entry, Illegal employment, irregular migration, Overstay(er)

Notes:
1. The European Commission has used the term Third-Country National found to be illegally presentor Illegally resident / staying Third- Country National in legislation.
2. Referring to Resolution 1509 (2006) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, ‘illegal’ is preferred when referring to a status or process, whereas ‘irregular’ is preferred when referring to a person.
3. For global context definition, the term applies to migrants who infringe a country’s admission rules and any other person not authorised to remain in the host country.
4. This term is not commonly used in NL, but is used more often by NGOs.

Source:Derived by EMN from definition for illegal stay in Directive 2008/115/EC

UNESCO Glossary of Migration-related Terms

Migrant (Labour)

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitsmigrant
EE: võõrtöötaja
ES: persona migrante por motivos laborales
FI: työvoimamuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: travailleur migrant
GR: οικονομικός μετανάστης
HU: migráns munkavállaló / munkavállalás céljából érkező migráns (note: the latter term focuses on the purpose of stay)
IE: imirceach saothair
IT: migrante per motivi di lavoro
LT: migrantas (darbo)
LV: darba migrants
MT: Migrant/a (Ħaddiem / fuq Xogħol)
NL/BE: arbeidsmigrant
NO: arbeidsmigrant
PL: migrant zarobkowy
PT: trabalhador migrante
RO: lucrător migrant
SI: delovni migrant
SK: migrujúci za prácou

See Migrant Worker

Broader Term: Economic Migrant

Source:

Migrant (Long-Term)

AT/DE/LU: langfristig aufhältiger Migrant, Langzeit-Migrant
EE: pikaajaline rändaja
ES: persona migrante de carácter permanente
FI: pitkään oleskellut maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant de longue durée
GR: μετανάστης επί μακρόν διαμένων
HU: huzamos tartózkodói jogállással rendelkező személy (not really used, have the term "Letelepedett" for persons having the right to stay for an indefinite period)
IE: imirceach fadtéarmach
IT: migrante di lungo termine
LT: migrantas (ilgalaikis)
LV: ilgtermiņa migrants
MT: Migrant/a (fit-Tul / għal Żmien Twil)
NL/BE: langverblijvende migrant (Syn.: langdurige migrant)
NO: migrant (langvarig opphold)
PL: migrant długoterminowy
PT: migrante de longa duração
RO: migrant pe termen lung
SE: långtidsmigrant
SI: migrant za daljši čas
SK: dlhodobý migrant

A person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country of destination effectively becomes his or her new country of usual residence. From the perspective of the country of departure, the person will be a long-term emigrant and from that of the country of arrival, the person will be a long-term immigrant.


Related Terms: Emigrant, Immigrant, Short-Term Migrant, Permanent Migration

Note:
In the EU context, this is not the same as Long-Term Residence (See Directive 2003/109/EC). It is more of a demographic concept, rather than legal definition (certainly in the EU) and for purpose of migratory statistics, the definitions given in Regulation 862/2007 are used.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Migrant (Second Generation)

AT/DE/LU: Migrant der zweiten Generation
EE: Teine generatsioon/põlvkond
ES: inmigrante de segunda generación
FI: toisen polven maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant de la deuxième génération
HU: Migráns (második generációs)
IE: imirceach den dara glúin
IT: migrante di seconda generazione
LT: migrantas (antros kartos)
LV: otrās paaudzes migrants
MT: Migrant/a (tat-Tieni Ġenerazzjoni)
NL/BE: tweedegeneratie allochtoon (syn: tweedegeneratiemigrant)
NO: person med to innvandrerforeldre
PL: migrant drugie pokolenie
PT: Migrante de segunda geração
RO: migrant (a doua generaţie)
SE: andra generationens invandrare
SK: migrant (druhá generácia)

A person who was born in and is residing in a country that at least one of his/her parents previously entered as a migrant.


Synonym: Second-generation immigrant


Broader Term: Person with a Migratory Background

Related Terms: First (1st) and Third (3rd) Generation Migrant


Notes:
1. This term is not defined in legislation, but has a more sociological context, and a broad defintion encompassing the concept of a Second Generation Migrant has been used.
2. Strictly this term does not relate to a migrant, since the person concerned has not undertaken a migration, but the term is included as it is commonly used in publications and the media.
3. According to the Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing (http://www.unece.org/stats/archive/01.01a.e.htm), the group referred to as "second generation" is generally restricted to those persons whose parents were born abroad, whereas those persons having one parent born in the country and the other one born abroad represent a special case (they form the group of persons with a mixed background). As explained in 1. above, a broader definition was considered more appropriate for the work of the EMN.

Source:Derived by EMN

Migrant (Short-Term)

AT/DE/LU: kurzfristig aufhältiger Migrant, Kurzzeit-Migrant, temporärer Migrant
ES: persona migrante de carácter temporal
EE: lühiajaline rändaja
FI: tilapäiseksi ajaksi muuttava henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant de courte durée
GR: προσωρινός/μικρής διάρκειας μετανάστης
HU: this term is not used,
IE: imirceach gearrthéarmach
IT: migrante di breve termine
LT: migrantas (trumpalaikis)
LV: īstermiņa migrants
MT: Migrant/a (għal Żmien Qasir / għal Ftit Żmien)
NL/BE: kortverblijvende migrant (Syn.: kortdurige migrant)
NO: migrant (kortvarig opphold)
PL: migrant krótkoterminowy
PT: migrante de curta duração
RO: migrant pe termen scurt
SE: korttidsmigrant
SI: migrant za krajši čas
SK: krátkodobý migrant

A person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least three months but less than a year (12 months) except in cases where the movement to that country is for purposes of recreation, holiday, visits to friends or relatives, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage.


For purposes of international migration statistics, the country of usual residence of short-term migrants is considered to be the country of destination during the period they spend in it.


Related Terms: Emigrant, Immigrant, Long-Term Migrant, Temporary Migration

Note:
In the EU context, this is not the same as Long-Term Residence (See Directive 2003/109/EC). It is more of a demographic concept, rather than a legal definition (certainly in EU) and for the purpose of migratory statistics, definitions as given in Regulation 862/2007 are used.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Migrant (Transit)

AT/DE/LU: Transitmigrant
EE: läbisõidurändaja
ES: persona migrante en tránsito
FI: kauttakulkumuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant en transit
GR: διερχόμενος μετανάστης
HU: tranzitmigráns
IE: imirceach idirthurais
IT: migrante di transito
LT: migrantas (vykstantis tranzitu)
LV: tranzīta migrants
MT: Migrant/a (fi Tranżitu)
NL/BE: doorreizende migrant (Syn.: transit migrant)
NO: migrant i transitt
PL: migrant tranzytowy
PT: migrante em trânsito
RO: migrant în tranzit
SI: tranzitni migrant
SK: tranzitujúci migrant

Use of the term should be avoided. Term added only for the sake of completeness.


See definition given in Transit.


Notes:
1. There are several interpretations of this phrase, see, for example, http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/wp-06-33/.
2. Concept exists in IT, ES and refers more to Third-Country Nationals aiming to enter the EU from a Third Country, waiting in a country of transit, or, in BE, it refers to entry to another EU Member State illegally.

Source:

Migrant Worker

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitsmigrant, Wanderarbeiter, Wanderarbeitnehmer
EE: võõrtöötaja
ES: trabajador migrante
FI: siirtotyöläinen / vierastyöläinen
FR/BE/LU: travailleur migrant
GR: εργαζόμενος μετανάστης
HU: migráns munkavállaló
IE: oibrí imirceach
IT: lavoratore migrante
LT: migrantas darbuotojas
LV: migrants strādnieks
MT: Migrant Ħaddiem
NL/BE: arbeidsmigrant (Syn.: buitenlandse werknemer)
NO: arbeidsmigrant
PL: pracownik migrujący
PT: trabalhador migrante
RO: lucrător/muncitor migrant
SE: migrantarbetare
SI: delovni migrant
SK: pracujúci migrant

From UN Convention, a person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national.


From OECD, foreigners admitted by the receiving State for the specific purpose of exercising an economic activity remunerated from within the receiving country. Their length of stay is usually restricted as is the type of employment they can hold.




Synonyms: Labour Migrant, Foreign Worker, Guest Worker

Broader Term: Economic Migrant

Narrower Term: Contract Migrant Worker

Related Term: Labour Migration

Note:
UN definition is more common in literature and more comprehensive since it specifically includes those migrant workers who may currently be out of work, but had been working earlier. The Convention includes also self-employed workers, which are not included in the ILO instruments.

Source:UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Migrant Worker (Contract)

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitsmigrant mit befristetem Vertrag (AT); Vertragsarbeitnehmer (DE, LU)
EE: lepinguline võõrtöötaja
ES: No translation
FI: maahanmuuttaja, jolla on rajoitettu työnteko-oikeus
FR/BE/LU: travailleur migrant sous contrat
GR: μισθωτός μετανάστης εργαζόμενος / Εργατικός Μετανάστης
HU: szerződéssel rendelkező / szerződéses migráns munkavállaló
IE: oibrí imirceach conartha
IT: lavoratore migrante a contratto
LT: migrantas darbuotojas (pagal sutartį)
LV: migrants līgumstrādnieks
MT: Migrant Ħaddiem (b'Kuntratt)
NL/BE: buitenlandse contractarbeider
NO: migrant med begrenset arbeidsavtale
PL: migrant (pracownik kontraktowy)
PT: trabalhador migrante por conta de outrem
RO: contractul lucrătorului/muncitorului migrant
SI: pogodbeni delovni migrant
SK: migrant (zmluvný pracovník)

Persons working in a country other than their own under contractual arrangements that set limits on the period of employment and on the specific job held by the migrant (that is to say, contract migrant workers cannot change jobs without permission granted by the authorities of the receiving state).


Broader Term: Migrant Worker

Related Terms: Seasonal Worker Migrant, Circular Migration

Note:
Full term is not commonly used, more common is "Contract Worker", which does not necessarily apply to migrants only.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Migration

AT/DE/LU: Migration
BG: Миграция
EE: ränne
ES: migración
FI: muuttoliike
FR/BE/LU: migration
GR: μετανάστευση
HU: migráció
IE: imirce
IT: migrazione
LT: migracija
LV: migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: migratie
NO: migrasjon
PL: migracja
PT: migração
RO: migraţie
SE: migration
SI: migracije
SK: migrácia

In the EU context, a broader-term of an immigration and emigration, i.e. the action by which a person either:


(i) establishes his or her usual residence in the territory of a Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least twelve months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country; or


(ii) having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have his or her usual residence in that Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least twelve months.


In a global context, the movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border (international migration), or within a State (internal migration). It is a population movement, encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever its length, composition and causes; it includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants and persons moving for other purposes, including family reunification.


Narrower Terms: Emigration, Immigration

Source:Derived by EMN on basis of definitions for immigration and emigration.

IOM Glossary on Migration

Migration (Chain)

AT/DE/LU: Kettenmigration
EE: ühinemisränne
ES: reagrupación en cadena
FI: ketjumaahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration en chaîne
GR: αλυσιδωτή μετανάστευση
HU: láncmigráció
IE: imirce shlabhrach
IT: catena migratoria
LT: grandininė migracija
LV: ķēdes migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (Katina ta')
NL/BE: kettingmigratie
NO: kjedemigrasjon
PL: migracja łańcuchowa
PT: migração em cadeia
RO: migraţie în lanţ
SI: verižna migracija
SK: reťazová migrácia

The practice where those who have settled on a family reunification basis can themselves sponsor further family members, consistent with European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) obligations.


Related Terms: Family Formation, Family Reunification, Right to Family Life, Right to Family Unity, Family Migration

Source:EMN Return Migration study

Migration (Circular)

AT/DE/LU: zirkuläre Migration
BG: Циркулярна миграция
DK: cirkulær migration
ES: migración circular
EE: korduvränne
FI: kiertomuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration circulaire
GR: κυκλική μετανάστευση
HU: körkörös migráció
IE: imirce chiorclach
IT: migrazione circolare
LT: migracija (apykaitinė)
LV: cirkulārā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni Ċirkolari
NL/BE: circulaire migratie
NO: sirkulær migrasjon
PL: migracja cyrkulacyjna
PT: migração circular
RO: migraţie circulară
SE: cirkulär migration
SI: krožne migracije
SK: okružná migrácia

A repetition of legal migration by the same person between two or more countries.


Related Terms: Brain Drain, Brain Gain, Brain Circulation, Contract Migrant Worker, Mobility Partnership

Notes:
The two main forms of circular migration which could be most relevant in the EU context are:
(1) Circular migration of third-country nationals settled in the EU
This category of circular migration gives people the opportunity to engage in an activity (business, professional, voluntary or other) in their country of origin while retaining their main residence in one of the Member States. This covers various groups, for instance:
• Business persons working in the EU and wishing to start an activity in their country of origin (or in another third country); and
• Doctors, professors or other professionals willing to support their country of origin by conducting part of their professional activity there.
(2) Circular migration of persons residing in a third country
Circular migration could create an opportunity for persons residing in a third country to come to the EU temporarily for work, study, training or a combination of these, on the condition that, at the end of the period for which they were granted entry, they must re-establish their main residence and their main activity in their country of origin. Circularity can be enhanced by giving migrants the possibility, once they have returned, to retain some form of privileged mobility to and from the Member States where they were formerly residing, for example in the form of simplified admission/re-entry procedures.
This category covers a wide array of situations, spanning the whole spectrum of migrants, including:
• Third-country nationals wishing to work temporarily in the EU, for example in seasonal employment;
• Third-country nationals wishing to study or train in Europe before returning to their country;
• Third-country nationals who, after having completed their studies, wish to be employed in the EU (for example as trainees) to acquire professional experience which is difficult to obtain at home, before returning;
• Third-country researchers wishing to carry out a research project in the EU;
• Third-country nationals, who wish to take part in intercultural people-to-people exchanges and other activities in the field of culture, active citizenship, education and youth (such as, for example, training courses, seminars, events, study visits);
• Third-country nationals who wish to carry out an unremunerated voluntary service pursuing objectives of general interest in the EU.

Source:COM(2007) 248 final

Migration (Crude Rate of Net)

AT/DE/LU: rohe Netto-Migrationsrate
EE: rände suhtarv
ES: tasa neta de migración
FI: maahanmuutto tuhatta henkeä kohti
FR/BE/LU: taux brut de solde migratoire
GR: το ποσοστό της καθαρής μετανάστευσης
HU: nemzetközi migráció nettó különbözete
IE: garbhráta den imirce ghlan
IT: tasso grezzo di migrazione netta (o saldo migratorio)
LT: migracijos saldo tūkstančiui gyventojų
LV: migrācijas saldo vispārējais koeficents
MT: Rata Bejn Wieħed u Ieħor ta' Migrazzjoni Netta / Rata Netta ta’ Migrazzjoni (għal kull elf ruħ)
NL/BE: bruto cijfer migratiesaldo
NO: summarisk netto migrasjonrate
PL: współczynnik migracji netto
PT: taxa bruta do saldo migratório
RO: rata brută de migraţie
SE: migration (allmänna nettotalet)
SI: splošne stopnje neto migracij
SK: hrubá miera čistej migrácie

The ratio of the net migration during the year to the average population in that year.


Related Terms: Migration Flow, Total Migration, Net Migration, Population Stock, Net Migration Rate


Note:
The value is expressed per 1000 inhabitants. The crude rate of net migration is equal to the difference between the crude rate of increase and the crude rate of natural increase (that is, net migration is considered as the part of population change not attributable to births and deaths). It is calculated in this way because immigration or emigration flows are either unknown or the figures are not sufficiently precise.

Source:EUROSTAT Glossary on Population Statistics

Migration (Economic)

AT/DE/LU: Wirtschaftsmigration, Migration aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen
BG: Миграция (икономическа)
EE: majandusränne
ES: migración económica
FI: taloudellisista syistä tapahtuva maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration économique
GR: οικονομική μετανάστευση
HU: gazdasági (célú) migráció
IE: imirce eacnamaíoch
IT: migrazione economica
LT: migracija (ekonominė)
LV: ekonomiskā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (għal Raġunijiet Ekonomiċi)
NL/BE: economische migratie
NO: økonomisk migrasjon
PL: migracja ekonomiczna
PT: migração económica
RO: migraţie economică
SI: ekonomske migracije
SK: ekonomická migrácia

Migration mainly for economic reasons or in order to seek material improvements.


Narrower Term: Labour Migration

Related Terms: Managed Migration, Economic Migrant, Forced Migration

Source:Derived by EMN from definition for Economic Migrant

Migration (Exploitative)

AT/DE/LU: ausbeuterische Migration
EE: ekspluateerimisränne
ES: migración con fines de explotación
FI: maahanmuuttajien työperäinen hyväksikäyttö
FR/BE/LU: migration à des fins d`exploitation
GR: εκμετάλλευση μεταναστών
HU: kizsákmányoló migráció
IE: imirce mar gheall ar dhúshaothrú
IT: migrazione per motivi di sfruttamento
LT: migracija (išnaudojamoji)
LV: ekspluatatīvā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (għal Raġunijiet ta' Sfruttament)
NL/BE: uitbuitende migratie
NO: utnyttelse av migranter
PL: wyzysk migrantów
PT: exploração de migrantes
RO: migraţie în scopul exploatării
SI: migracija v namen izkoriščanja
SK: vykorisťovateľská migrácia

This term is not common, and should not be used. It is added for the sake of completeness only, see Exploitation, Forced Marriage, Trafficking in Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants.


A broad spectrum of exploitation that migrants may be confronted with, like trafficking, smuggling or exploitative labour of a person in a country of which he or she is not a national.


Note:
The protocol against trafficking mentions various forms of exploitative labour (namely "prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude."), but it is very difficult to draw a line between 'real' exploitation on the one hand and poor wages, poor working conditions, social pressures, discrimination etc. on the other hand. However, all these situations following migration can be called exploitative migration.

Source:UNESCO Glossary of Migration-related Terms

Migration (Family)

AT/DE/LU: Familienzusammenführung, Familienmigration
EE: perekonnaränne
ES: migración por motivos familiares
FI: perheperusteinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration pour des raisons familiales
GR: οικογενειακή μετανάστευση
HU: családegyesítési célú migráció / családegyesítés
IE: imirce teaghlaigh
IT: migrazione familiare
LT: migracija (šeimos)
LV: ģimenes migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (għal Raġunijiet ta' Familja)
NL/BE: gezinsmigratie
NO: familiemigrasjon
PL: migracja rodzinna
PT: migração familiar
RO: migraţie în scopul reîntregirii/reunificării familiei
SI: migracija zaradi združevanja družine
SK: rodinná migrácia

In the EU context, this refers explicitly to Family Reunification and Family Formation.


In a global context, a general concept encompassing family reunification, family formation, and migration of an entire family at the same time.


Related Terms: Family Reunification, Family Formation, Right to Family Unity, Chain Migration

Source:See Family Reunification and Family Formation (EU context)

Chapter 6 of IOM World Migration Report 2008 (global context)

Migration (Forced)

AT/DE/LU: erzwungene Migration, Zwangsmigration
BG: Миграция (принудителна)
EE: sundränne
ES: migración forzada
FI: pakkomuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration forcée
GR: αναγκαστική μετανάστευση
HU: kényszervándorlás / kényszermigráció
IE: imirce éigeantach
IT: migrazione forzata
LT: migracija (prievartinė)
LV: piespiedu migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (Sfurzata / ta' Bilfors)
NL/BE: gedwongen migratie
NO: tvungen migrasjon
PL: migracja wymuszona
PT: migração forçada
RO: migraţie forţată
SI: prisilna migracija
SK: nútená migrácia

General term used to describe a migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects).


Narrower Term: Displacement

Related Terms: Economic Migration, Refugee

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration

Migration (Illegal)

AT/DE/LU: illegale Migration
ES: inmigración ilegal
FI: laiton maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration illégale
HU: illegális migráció
IE: imirce (neamhdhleathach)
IT: migrazione non autorizzata
LV: nelegālā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (Illegali)
NL/BE: illegale migratie
NO: ulovlig inn- eller utvandring (migrasjon)
PL: nielegalna migracja
PT: migração ilegal
RO: migraţie ilegală
SK: nelegálna migrácia

Migration using irregular or illegal means, without valid documents or carrying false documents.


Synonyms: irregular migration, clandestine immigration, unauthorised migration


Narrower Term: illegal immigration

Related Term: Illegal Entry

Note:
Referring to Resolution 1509 (2006) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, ‘illegal’ is preferred when referring to a status or process, whereas 'irregular' is preferred when referring to a person.

Source:ILO Thesaurus

Migration (Irregular)

AT/DE/LU: irreguläre Migration
BG: Миграция (незаконна)
ES: inmigración irregular
FI: sääntöjen vastainen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration irrégulière
HU: irreguláris migráció
IE: imirce (neamhrialta)
IT: migrazione irregolare
LV: nelegālā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (Irregolari)
NL/BE: irreguliere migratie (not currently used; more common is 'illegale migratie', BE Syn.: niet-reguliere migratie)
NO: irregulær migrasjon
PL: nieregularna migracja ("nielegalna migracja" is more common)
PT: migração irregula
RO: migraţie ilegală
SE: irreguljär migration
SK: nelegálna migrácia

Movement that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries.


Synonyms: illegal migration, clandestine migration, unauthorised migration


Notes:
1. According to the IOM, there is no clear or universally accepted definition of irregular migration. From the perspective of destination countries it is entry, stay or work in a country without the necessary authorization or documents required under immigration regulations. From the perspective of the sending country, the irregularity is for example seen in cases in which a person crosses an international boundary without a valid passport or travel document or does not fulfil the administrative requirements for leaving the country. There is, however, a tendency to restrict the use of the term “illegal migration” to cases of smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons.
2. Referring to Resolution 1509 (2006) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, ‘illegal’ is preferred when referring to a status or process, whereas 'irregular' is preferred when referring to a person.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration

Migration (Labour)

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitsmigration
EE: tööränne
ES: migración laboral
FI: työvoiman muuttoliike / työvoiman maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration de travail; migration professionnelle (FR)
GR: οικονομική μετανάστευση; μετανάστευση για εργασία
HU: munkavállalási célú migráció
IE: imirce saothair
IT: migrazione per motivi di lavoro
LT: migracija (darbo)
LV: darba migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (għal Raġunijiet ta' Xogħol)
NL/BE: arbeidsmigratie
NO: arbeidsmigrasjon
PL: migracja pracownicza
PT: migração laboral
RO: migraţie în scop de muncă
SE: arbetskraftsmigration
SI: delovna migracija
SK: pracovná migrácia

Movement of persons from one State to another, or within their own country of residence, for the purpose of employment.


Broader Term: Economic Migration

Related Terms: Immigration Quota, Migrant Worker, Contract Migrant Worker, Seasonal Worker, Intra-Corporate Transferee, Remunerated Trainees


Note:
Labour migration is addressed by most States in their migration laws. In addition, some States take an active role in regulating outward labour migration and seeking opportunities for their nationals abroad.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration

Migration (Legal)

AT/DE/LU: legale Migration
BG: Миграция (законна)
ES: inmigración legal
FI: laillinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration légale
HU: legális migráció
IE: imirce dhleachtach
IT: migrazione autorizzata
LV: legālā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (Legali)
NL/BE: legale migratie
NO: lovlig inn- eller utvandring (migrasjon)
PL: legalna migracja
PT: migração legal
RO: migraţie legală
SE: laglig migration
SK: legálna migrácia

Migration in accordance with the applicable legal framework.


Synonym: Regular Migration


Related Terms: illegal migration, irregular migration

Source:Derived by EMN

Migration (Managed)

AT/DE/LU: gesteuerte Migration
BE(NL): geplande migratie (Syn.: georganiseerde migratie)
EE: rände haldamine
ES: gestión integral de la migración
FI: maahanmuuton hallinta / hallittu maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: gestion des migrations
GR: ελεγχόμενη μετανάστευση
HU: migráció kezelés / migráció menedzsment (+ well-managed migration = megfelelően kezelt migráció)
IE: imirce bhainistithe
IT: migrazione gestita
LT: migracija (valdoma)
LV: pārvaldīta migrācija
MT: Ġestjoni ta' Flussi Migratorji
NL: gereguleerde migratie
NO: styrt migrasjon
PL: migracja zarządzana
PT: migração assistida/ Gestão de Migrações
RO: migraţie controlată
SE: reglerad migration
SI: upravljanje migracij
SK: riadená migrácia

A term used to encompass both EU and Member States' efforts for the structured management of all aspects of migration into and within the EU of both Third-Country Nationals and EU nationals, particularly managing the entry, admission, residence, integration and return, as well as of refugees and others in need of protection.


Synonym: Migration Management


Related Terms: Economic Migrant, Economic Migration

Source:Derived by EMN in context of EU Asylum and Immigration policy development

Migration (Net)

AT/DE/LU: Nettomigration
EE: rände saldo
ES: saldo migratorio
FI: nettomuutto
FR/BE/LU: solde migratoire
GR: δίκτυο μετανάστευσης
HU: nettó migráció
IE: imirce ghlan
IT: migrazione netta (o saldo migratorio)
LT: migracija (saldo)
LV: migrācijas saldo
MT: Migrazzjoni (Netta)
NL/BE: migratiesaldo (Syn.: netto migratie)
NO: netto migrasjon
PL: migracja netto
PT: saldo migratório
RO: migraţia netă
SE: nettomigration
SI: neto migracija
SK: čistá migrácia

The difference between immigration into and emigration from a given area during the year.


Related Terms: Migration Flow, Total Migration, Crude Net Rate of Migration, Population Stock

Notes:
1. Net migration is negative when the number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants.
2. Since many countries either do not have accurate figures on immigration and emigration or have no figures at all, net migration is frequently estimated as the difference between total population change and natural increase between two dates (in Eurostat’s database it is then called corrected net migration). The statistics on net migration are therefore affected by any statistical inaccuracies in any of the components used for their derivation.

Source:EUROSTAT Glossary on Population Statistics

Migration (Permanent)

AT/DE/LU: permanente/auf Dauer ausgerichtete Migration
EE: alaline ränne
ES: migración de carácter permanente
FI: pysyvä muutto
FR/BE/LU: migration permanente
GR: μόνιμη μετανάστευση
HU: letelepedés (but not used as a term)
IE: imirce bhuan
IT: migrazione permanente
LT: migracija (pastovioji / nuolatinė)
LV: pastāvīgā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (Permanenti)
NL/BE: permanente migratie
NO: permanent migrasjon
PL: migracja na stałe
PT: migração Permanente
RO: migraţie permanentă
SE: permanent migration
SI: stalna migracija
SK: trvalá migrácia

A concept relating to undertaking migration with a view to, or which results in, settling on a permanent basis in the country of destination.


Related Terms: Long-Term Migrant, Temporary Migration

Note:
It is different from the legal concept of the “long-term resident” given in Article 8 of Council Directive 2003/109/EC.

Source:Derived by EMN

Migration (Spontaneous)

AT/DE/LU: spontane Migration
EE: spontaanne ränne
ES: migración espontánea
FI: spontaani / oma-aloitteinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration spontanée
GR: προσωρινή μετανάστευση
HU: spontán migráció
IE: imirce spontáineach
IT: migrazione spontanea
LT: migracija (spontaniška)
LV: spontānā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni (Spontanja)
NL/BE: spontane migratie
NO: spontan migrasjon
PL: migracja spontaniczna
PT: migração espontânea
RO: migraţie spontană
SI: spontana migracija
SK: spontánna migrácia

Term added for the sake of completeness, but it is not in common use.


An individual or group who initiate and proceed with their migration plans without any outside assistance.


Note:
Spontaneous migration is usually caused by push-pull factors and is characterised by the lack of State assistance or any other type of international or national assistance.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration

Migration (Temporary)

AT/DE/LU: temporäre Migration
BG: Временна миграция
EE: ajutine ränne
ES: migración temporal
FI: tilapäinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration temporaire
GR: προσωρινή μετανάστευση
HU: ideiglenes migráció
IE: imirce shealadach
IT: migrazione temporanea
LT: migracija (laikinoji)
LV: īslaicīgā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni Temporanja
NL/BE: tijdelijke migratie
NO: midlertidig migrasjon
PL: migracja tymczasowa
PT: migração Temporária
RO: migraţie temporară
SE: tillfällig migration
SI: začasna migracija
SK: dočasná migrácia

Migration for a specific motivation and/or purpose with the intention that afterwards there will be a return to country of origin or onward movement.


Related Terms: Short-Term Migrant, Permanent Migration

Note:
With regard to the development of EU policy, this may be seen in the context of inter alia circular migration and/or seasonal workers.

Source:Derived by EMN

Migration (Total)

AT/DE/LU: Wanderungsvolumen
EE: rände koguarv
ES: migración total
FI: kokonaismuutto
FR/BE/LU: volume migratoire
GR: καθολική μετανάστευση
HU: teljes migráció
IE: imirce iomlán
IT: migrazione totale
LT: migracija (bendra)
LV: migrācijas saldo
MT: Migrazzjoni (Totali)
NL/BE: totale migratie
NO: samlet (total) migrasjon
PL: migracja (brutto)
PT: migração bruta
RO: migraţie totală
SE: bruttomigration
SI: bruto migracije
SK: celková migrácia

Migration Flow

AT/DE/LU: Wanderungsbewegung, Migrationsbewegung
BG: Миграционен поток
EE: rändevoog
ES: flujo migratorio
FI: muuttovirta
FR/BE/LU: flux migratoire
GR: μεταναστευτική ροή
HU: migrációs áramlat
IE: sreabhadh imirce
IT: flusso migratorio
LT: migracijos srautas
LV: migrācijas plūsma
MT: Fluss Migratorju
NL/BE: migratiestroom
NO: migrasjonsstrøm
PL: strumień migracyjny
PT: fluxo migratório
RO: fluxuri de migraţie
SE: migrationsströmmar
SI: migracijski tok
SK: migračný tok

The number of migrants crossing a boundary, within a specific time period, for the purpose of establishing residence.


Synonym: Migratory Flow


Related Terms: Net Migration, Population Stock, Total Migration, Crude Rate of Net Migration

Notes:
1. The boundary can range from within national borders, within the EU and international boundaries and can range from international migration flows (crossing national borders) and internal migration flows (within the same national border).
2. UN statistics in particular also refer to "inflows" (flow of migrants entering into a particular boundary) and "outflows" (flow of migrants leaving a particular boundary).

Source:Derived by EMN

Migration Profile

AT/DE/LU: Migrationsprofil
BG: Миграционен профил
EE: rändeprofiil
ES: perfil migratorio
FI: muuttoprofiili
FR/BE/LU: profil migratoire
GR: μεταναστευτικό προφίλ
HU: migrációs profil
IE: próifíl imirce
IT: profilo migratorio
LT: migracijos profilis
LV: migrācijas profili
MT: Profil Migratorju
NL/BE: migratieprofiel
NO: migrasjonsprofil
PL: profile migracyjne
PT: perfil migratório/profiling
RO: profil de migraţie
SE: migrationsprofil
SI: migracijski profil
SK: migračný profil

Reports on the migration situation of a country for the purpose of increasing the evidence-base for their own policy development, as well as for dialogue with partners plus to serve as a basis for more coherent migration and development policies.


Broader Term: Global Approach to Migration

Related Terms: Mobility Partnership, Co-operation Platform

Notes:
1. Such reports contain data and analysis on current migration patterns, labour market trends, remittance flows, information on diasporas and other development-related data.
2. Such profiles have been produced by the IOM and by CARIM - Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration.
3. See also Communication on Applying the Global Approach to Migration to the Eastern and South-Eastern Regions Neighbouring the European Union (COM(2007) 247).

Source:Public consultation on the Global Approach to Migration: Background document (April 2011)

Migration Routes Initiative

AT/DE/LU: Migrationsrouten-Initiative
EE: rändeteede meede
ES: iniciativa de rutas migratorias
FI: muuttoreittejä koskeva aloite
FR/BE/LU: initiative relative aux routes migratoires
GR: πρωτοβουλία μεταναστευτικών οδών
HU: migrációs útvonalak kezdeményezés
IE: Tionscnamh um Bhealaí Imirce
IT: Iniziativa "Rotte migratorie"
LT: migracijos maršrutų iniciatyva
LV: "migrācijas ceļu" iniciatīva
MT: Inizzjattiva fir-Rigward tar-Rotot Migratorji
NL/BE: migratie-routes initiatief
NO: initiativ i tilknytning til migrasjonsruter / Migration Routes Initiative
PL: Inicjatywa ds. Szlaków Migracyjnych
PT: Iniciativa sobre rotas migratórias
RO: iniţiativa cu privire la rutele de migraţie
SI: pobuda glede migracijskih poti
SK: iniciatíva migračných trás

An initiative by which work along the main migratory routes through a particular region and towards the EU is identified and which takes into account the need to work in close collaboration with the third countries along these routes.


Broader Term: Global Approach to Migration

Related Terms: Migration Profile, Mobility Partnership, Co-operation Platform

Source:Annex I of COM(2007) 247

Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative (MARRI)

AT/DE/LU: Regionale Migrations-, Asyl- und Flüchtlingsinitiative (MARRI-Initiative)
EE: MARRI
ES: iniciativa regional para la migración, el asilo y los refugiados (MARRI)
FI: maahanmuuttoa, turvapaikkaa ja pakolaisia koskeva alueellinen aloite (MARRI)
FR/BE/LU: Initiative régionale en matière de migration, asile et réfugiés (MARRI)
GR: Περιφερειακή Πρωτοβουλία για τη Μετανάστευση, το Άσυλο και τους Πρόσφυγες
HU: Migráció és Menekültügyi Regionális Kezdeményezés (MARRI)
IE: Tionscnamh Réigiúnach um Imirce, Thearmann, Dhídeanaithe (MARRI)
IT: Iniziativa Regionale Migrazione, Asilo, Rifugiati (MARRI)
LT: Migracijos, prieglobsčio ir pabėgėlių regioninė iniciatyva
LV: Migrācijas, patvēruma, bēgļu reģionālā iniciatīva
MT: Inizzjattiva Reġjonali dwar il-Migrazzjoni, l-Ażil, u r-Rifuġjati (MARRI)
NL/BE: Regionaal Migratie-, Asiel- en Vluchtelingeninitiatief (MARRI)
NO: regionalt initiativ for asyl og flyktninger (MARRI) for Vest-Balkan / Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative (MARRI)
PL: Inicjatywa na rzecz Migracji, Azylu i Uchodźców (MARRI)
PT: iniciativa regional sobre migração, asilo e refugiados (MARRI)
RO: Iniţiativa Regională cu privire la Migraţie, Azil şi Refugiaţi (MARRI)
SE: regionala initiativet för migration, asyl och flyktingar (MARRI)
SI: Regionalna pobuda na področju migracij, azila in beguncev (MARRI)
SK: Regionálna inicitíva pre migráciu, azyl a utečencov

An initiative which deals with the issues of migration management in the Western Balkans by promoting closer regional cooperation and a comprehensive, integrated, and coherent approach to the issues of migration, asylum, border management, visa policies and consular cooperation, refugee return and settlement in order to meet international and European standards.


Related Term: Global Approach to Migration,


Notes:
1. MARRI's top priority is the enhancement of regional cooperation in its fields of activities among countries in the region, as a vital part of EU integration process and in line with the Thessaloniki Agenda for the Western Balkans.
2. Participating states are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
3. Since 2004, MARRI came to function through two mechanisms: the MARRI Regional Forum - providing political and framework support to the Initiative and the MARRI Regional Centre in Skopje - carrying out practical cooperation and activities of MARRI and supporting the implementation of the decisions reached by the Regional Forum.

Source:http://www.marri-rc.org/

Minor

AT/DE/LU: Minderjähriger
BG: Непълнолетен
EE: alaealine
ES: menor
FI: alaikäinen
FR/BE/LU: mineur
GR: ανήλικος
HU: kiskorú
IE: mionaoiseach
IT: minorenne
LT: nepilnametis
LV: nepilngadīgais
MT: Minorenni
NL/BE: minderjarige
NO: mindreårig
PL: małoletni
PT: menor
RO: minor
SE: underårig
SI: mladoletnik
SK: maloletý

Person who, according to the law of their respective country, is under the age of majority, i.e. is not yet entitled to exercise specific civil and political rights.


Related Terms: Adult, Child

Note:
This is the preferred term to use when referring to an individual. The term Child should then be used to describe relationship with other family members.

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

Minor (Unaccompanied)

AT/DE/LU: unbegleiteter Minderjähriger
BE(NL): niet-begeleide minderjarige vreemdeling (NBMV)
BG: Непридружен непълнолетен
CZ: nezletilá osoba bez doprovodu
DK: uledsaget mindreårig
EE: saatjata alaealine
ES: menor no acompañado (MENA)
FI: yksin/ilman huoltajaa tullut alaikäinen
FR/BE/LU: mineur non accompagné (BE, LU); mineur isolé étranger (FR)
GR: ασυνόδευτος ανήλικος
HU: kísérő nélküli kiskorú
IE: mionaoiseach neamhthionlactha
IT: minore straniero non accompagnato
LT: nepilnametis (nelydimas)
LV: nepavadītais nepilngadīgais
MT: Minorenni (Mhux Akkumpanjat)
NL: alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdeling (AMV)
NO: enslig mindreårig
PL: osoby małoletnie bez opieki
PT: menor desacompanhado
RO: minor neînsoţit
SE: ensamkommande barn
SI: mladoletnik brez spremstva
SK: maloletý bez sprievodu

A third-country national or stateless person below the age of eighteen, who arrives on the territory of the Member States unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them whether by law or custom, and for as long as they are not effectively taken into the care of such a person, or minors who are left unaccompanied after they have entered the territory of the Member States.


Broader Term: Separated Child

Note:
This term specifically refers to a third-country national or stateless person, but not an unaccompanied EU national minor moving within the EU, see Separated Child for this latter situation.

Source:Council Directive 2001/55/EC

Minority

AT/DE/LU: Minderheit
EE: Vähemus
ES: minoría
FI: vähemmistö
FR/BE/LU: minorité
HU: kissebbség
IE: mionlach
IT: minoranza
LV: minoritāte
MT: Minoranza / f'Minoranza
NL/BE: minderheid
NO: minoritet
PL: mniejszość
PT: Minoria
RO: minoritate
SE: minoritet
SK: menšina

A group numerically less than the rest of the population of a State, in a non-dominant position, whose members – being nationals of the State – possess ethnic, religious or linguistic characteristics differing from those of the rest of the population and show, if only implicitly, a sense of solidarity, directed towards preserving their cultures, traditions, religion or language.


Related Terms: Ethnicity, Ethnic Minority, National Minority


Notes:
1. This definition has been added because of its relevance to Integration related aspects.
2. Definitions for the Related Terms are not provided, but have been added in order to highlight that they are understood to be within the same context as Minority.

Source:Study on the Rights of Persons Belonging to Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, Francesco CAPOTORTI (New York: United Nations, 1979)

Mobility Partnership

AT/DE/LU: Mobilitätspartnerschaft
BG: Партньорство за мобилност
EE: rändepartnerlus
ES: asociación de movilidad
FI: liikkuvuuskumppanuus
FR/BE/LU: partenariat pour la mobilité
GR: σύμπραξη κινητικότητας
HU: mobilitási partnerség
IE: comhpháirtíocht soghluaisteachta
IT: partenariato per la mobilità
LT: mobilumo/judumo partnerystė
LV: mobilitātes partnerība
MT: Sħubija għall-Mobbilità
NL/BE: mobiliteitspartnerschappen
NO: mobilitetspartnerskap
PL: partnerstwa dla mobilności
PT: parcerias para a mobilidade
RO: parteneriat de mobilitate
SE: partnerskap för rörlighet
SI: partnerstvo za mobilnost
SK: partnerstvo v oblasti mobility/mobilitné partnerstvo

Co-operation arrangements, on the basis of political declarations, which aim to provide the overall framework for dialogue and practical co-operation between a third country and a number of EU Member States on a voluntary basis.


Broader Term: Global Approach to Migration

Related Terms: Re-admission Agreement, Circular Migration, Co-operation Platform

Notes:
1. See also Communication on Circular migration and mobility partnerships between the European Union and third countries (COM(2007) 248) and Communication on Applying the Global Approach to Migration to the Eastern and South-Eastern Regions Neighbouring the European Union (COM(2007) 247).
2. Co-operation usually covers the main themes of legal and irregular migration plus migration and development.
3. As of December 2011, Pilot Mobility Partnerships have been signed with Moldova (see Commission Press Release IP/08/893 of 5th June 2008); Cape Verde (see Commission Press Release IP/08/894 of 5th June 2008); Georgia (see Commission Press Release IP/09/1853 of 30th November 2009) and Armenia (see Commission Press Release IP/11/1257 of 27th October 2011). Negotiations with Ghana were ongoing and it was proposed to open discussions with some Southern Mediterranean countries, notably Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia.

Source:Public consultation on the Global Approach to Migration: Background document (April 2011)

Mutual Information Mechanism (MIM)

AT/DE/LU: Mechanismus zur gegenseitigen Information über asyl- und einwanderungspolitische Maßnahmen der Mitgliedstaaten
EE: MIM
ES: Mecanismo de Información Mutua
FI: keskinäinen tiedottamisjärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: méchanisme d’information mutuelle
GR: μηχανισμός αμοιβαίας πληροφόρησης
HU: kölcsönös tájékoztatási mechanizmus
IE: Meicníocht um Fhaisnéis Fhrithpháirteach (MIM)
IT: Meccanismo di Informazione Reciproca (MIM)
LT: Tarpusavio keitimosi informacija mechanizmas (MIM)
LV: Savstarpējās informācijas apmaiņas mehānisms
MT: Mekkaniżmu għal Informazzjoni Reċiproka (MIR)
NL/BE: Wederzijds Informatiemechanisme
NO: ordning for gjensidig informasjonsutveksling
PL: mechanizm wymiany informacji (MIM)
PT: Mecanismo de Informação Mútua
RO: mecanismul de informare mutuală (MIM)
SE: system för ömsesidigt informationsutbyte
SI: Mehanizem vzajemnega obveščanja
SK: mechanizmus vzájomnej výmeny informácií

A mechanism for the mutual exchange of information concerning national measures in the areas of asylum and immigration that are likely to have a significant impact on several Member States or on the European Union as a whole. The mechanism also allows for the preparation of exchanges of views and debates on such measures.


Related Term: Information and Coordination Network for Member States’ Migration Management Services (ICONet)

Source:Council Decision 2006/688/EC

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