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labour market test

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitsmarkttest
BG: тест на пазара на труда
CS: test trhu práce
EE: tööturu test
ES: Catálogo de ocupaciones de difícil cobertura
FI: työvoiman saatavuusharkinta
FR/BE/LU: examen du marché de l'emploi/du travail
HU: munkaerőpiaci felmérés
IE: tástáil sa mhargadh fostaíochta
IT: analisi del mercato del lavoro
LT: darbo rinkos testas
LV: darba tirgus tests
MT: Test dwar is-suq tax-xogħol
NL/BE: arbeidsmarkttoets
NO: arbeidsmarkedsvurdering (b) / arbeidsmarknadsvurdering (n)
PL: test rynku pracy
RO: testarea pieţei forţei de muncă
SE: arbetsmarknadsprövning
SI: pregled trga dela
SK: skúmanie situácie na trhu práce

Mechanism that aims to ensure that migrant workers are only admitted after employers have unsuccessfully searched for national workers, EU citizens (in EU Member States this also means EEA workers) or legally residing third-country nationals with access to the labour market according to national legislation.

Broader Term: union preference

1. The labour market test (LMT) is implemented and applied widely in most Member States. Where the LMT is applied, some categories of workers can be exempt, reflecting the specific national situations and priorities.
2. Member States apply different methodologies in undertaking LMTs. In general, a considerable role is left to employers and public employment services. Duration of the verification process varies among Member States.
3. For further information, see EMN: Satisfying labour demand through migration, June 2011 .

Source:Derived by EMN from Oxford Migration Observatory response to Call for Evidence

labour migration

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitsmigration
BG: трудова миграция
CS: pracovní migrace
EE: tööränne
ES: migración laboral
FI: työvoiman muuttoliike, työperusteinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration de travail; migration de main-d'oeuvre
GR: οικονομική μετανάστευση; μετανάστευση για εργασία
HU: munkavállalási célú migráció
IE: imirce lucht oibre
IT: migrazione per motivi di lavoro
LT: darbo migracija
LV: darbaspēka migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni għal raġunijiet ta' xogħol
NL/BE: arbeidsmigratie
NO: arbeidsmigrasjon
PL: migracja pracownicza
PT: migração laboral
RO: migraţie în scop de muncă
SE: arbetskraftsmigration
SI: delovna migracija
SK: pracovná migrácia

Movement of persons from one state to another, or within their own country of residence, for the purpose of employment.

Narrower Term: immigration quota

Broader Term: economic migration

Related Term: migrant worker , labour market test

Labour migration is addressed by most States in their migration laws. In addition, some States take an active role in regulating outward labour migration and seeking opportunities for their nationals abroad.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011

legal entry

AT/DE/LU: legale Einreise
BG: законно влизане
CS: oprávněný vstup
EE: seaduslik (riiki) sisenemine
ES: entrada legal
FI: laillinen maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: entrée légale
GR: νόμιμη είσοδος
HU: legális beutazás / belépés
IE: iontráil dhleathach
IT: ingresso autorizzato
LT: teisėtas atvykimas
LV: likumīga ieceļošana
MT: Dħul legali
NL/BE: legale binnenkomst
NO: lovlig innreise (b) / lovleg innreise (n)
PL: legalny wjazd
PT: legalne przekroczenie granicy,
RO: intrare legală
SE: laglig inresa
SI: zakonit vstop
SK: oprávnený vstup (national law) / legálny vstup

In the global context, the entry of an alien into a foreign country in compliance with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.

In the Schengen context, and for a stay not exceeding three months per six-month period, the entry of a third-country national into a Schengen Member State in compliance with Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code.

Narrower Term: admission onto the territory

Related Term: border control, irregular entry

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'entry' in IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011 and the definition of 'illegal entry' in the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols
Schengen context: Derived by EMN from Art. 5 of Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

legal migration

AT/DE/LU:  legale Migration
BG: законна миграция
CS: legální migrace
EE: seaduslik ränne
ES: inmigración legal
FI: laillinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU:  migration légale
HU: legális migráció
IE: imirce dhleathach
IT: migrazione autorizzata
LT: teisėta migracija
LV: legāla migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni legali
NL/BE: legale migratie
NO: lovlig migrasjon) (b) / lovleg migrasjon (n)
PL: legalna migracja
PT: migração legal
RO: migraţie legală
SE:  laglig migration
SI: zakonita migracija
SK: legálna migrácia

Migration in accordance with the applicable legal framework.

Synonym(s): regular migration

Related Term: irregular migration

DG HOME e-Library Glossary defines the term as follows: Migration that occurs through recognised, authorised channels (based on IOM).

Source: Developed by EMN

Lisbon Treaty

AT/DE/LU: Vertrag von Lissabon
BG: Договорът от Лисабон
CS: Lisabonská smlouva
EL: Η Συνθήκη της Λισαβόνας
ES: Tratado de Lisboa
FI: Lisbonin sopimus
FR/BE/LU: Traité de Lisbonne
HU: Lisszaboni Szerződés
IE: Conradh Liospóin
IT: Trattato di Lisbona
LT: Lisabonos sutartis
LV: Lisabonas līgums
MT: Trattat (It-) ta’ Lisbona
NL/BE: Verdrag van Lissabon 
NO: Lisboa-traktaten
PL: Traktat Lizboński
SE: Lissabonfördraget
SI: Lizbonska pogodba
SK: Lisabonská zmluva

An international agreement – initially known as the Reform Treaty – which amends the two treaties that form the constitutional basis of the European Union and which aims to enhance the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the European Union and to improve the coherence of its actions.

Synonym(s): Reform Treaty, Treaty of Lisbon

Related Term: Common European Asylum System

1. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the 27 Member States on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009. It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), which is also known as the Treaty on European Union, and the Treaty of Rome (1952), which is also known as the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEEC). At Lisbon, the Treaty of Rome was renamed the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
2. Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU, and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding.
3. The Treaty of Lisbon broadened the competences of the EU in asylum issues. According to Art. 78 TFEU, a common policy on asylum is developed through the ordinary legislative procedure. There is no mentioning of minimum standards as before which sets the aim to convergence. The Article provides for the legal basis for the CEAS. For further information, see the entry for 'Common European Asylum System' in this EMN Glossary.
4. For more information see the Website of the Lisbon Treaty.

Source:Derived by EMN from Website on the Lisbon Treaty

local border traffic

AT/DE/LU: kleiner Grenzverkehr
BG: местен граничен трафик
CS: malý pohraniční styk
EE: kohalik piiriliiklus
ES: tráfico fronterizo local
FI: paikallinen rajaliikenne
FR/BE/LU: trafic frontalier local
GR: τοπική διασυνοριακή κυκλοφορία
HU:  kishatárforgalom
IE: trácht teorann áitiúil
IT: traffico frontaliero locale
LT: vietinis eismas per sieną
LV: vietējā pierobežas satiksme
MT: Traffiku lokali mal-fruntiera / mal-konfini
NL/BE: klein grensverkeer
NO: lokal grensetrafikk
PL: mały ruch graniczny
PT: pequeno tráfego fronteiriço
RO: mic trafic de frontieră
SE:  lokal gränstrafik
SI: lokalni obmejni promet
SK: malý pohraničný styk

The regular crossing of an external land border by border residents in order to stay in a border area , for example for social, cultural or substantiated economic reasons, or for family reasons, for a period not exceeding three months.

Related Term: border area, border resident frontier worker

Source:Art. 3(3) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation)

long-term migrant

AT/DE/LU: langfristig aufhältiger Migrant, Langzeit-Migrant
BG: дългосрочен мигрант
CS: dlouhodobý migrant
EE: pikaajaline sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante de carácter permanente
FI: pitkään oleskellut maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant de longue durée
GR: μετανάστης επί μακρόν διαμένων
HU: huzamos tartózkodói jogállással rendelkező személy (not commonly used, ’letelepedett’ is used for persons who have the right to stay for an indefinite period)
IE:  imirceach fadtéarmach
IT:  migrante di lungo termine
LT: ilgalaikis migrantas
LV: ilgtermiņa migrants
MT: Viża għal żjara/miġja/waqfa fit-tul
NL/BE: langverblijvende migrant (syn.: langdurige migrant)
NO: migrant med langvarig opphold (b) / migrant med langvarig opphald (n)
PL: migrant długookresowy
PT: migrante de longa duração
RO: migrant pe termen lung
SE: långtidsmigrant
SI: migrant za daljše obdobje
SK: dlhodobý migrant

A person who moves to a country other than that of their usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country of destination effectively becomes their new country of usual residence.

Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: long-term migration, short-term migrant

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

long-term migration

AT/DE/LU: langfristige Migration, Langzeit-Migration
BG: дългосрочна миграция
CS: dlouhodobá migrace
EE: pikaajaline sisseränne
EL: μακροχρόνια μετανάστευση
ES: migración de larga duración
FI: pitkäaikainen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration de longue durée
GR: μακροχρόνια μετανάστευση
HU: huzamos idejű tartózkodási céllal történő migráció
IE: imirce fhadtéarmach
IT: migrazione di lungo termine
LT: ilgalaikė migracija
LV: ilgtermiņa migrācija
MT: Migrant(a) fit-tul / għal żmien twil
NL/BE: lange-termijnmigratie
NO: langtidsmigrasjon
PL: migracja długookresowa
PT: migração de longa duração
RO: migraţie pe termen lung
SE: långtidsmigration
SI: migracija za daljše obdobje
SK: dlhodobá migrácia

Movement of individuals who change their country of usual residencefor a period of at least one year, so that the country of destinationeffectively becomes their new country of usual residence.

Synonym(s): permanent-type migration, permanent migration

Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: long-term migrant, short-term migration

Long-term migration' and 'permanent migration' are often understood as quasi-synonyms. The OECD defines permanent migration as 'a concept relating to undertaking migration with a view to, or which results in, settling on a permanent basis in the country of destination.

Source: Derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration and OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

long-term resident

AT/DE/LU: langfristig Aufenthaltsberechtigter
BG: дългосрочно пребиваващ
CS: dlouhodobě pobývající rezident
EE: pikaajaline elanik
ES: residente de larga duración
FI: pitkään oleskellut
FR/BE/LU: résident de longue durée
GR: επί μακρών διαμένων
HU: huzamos tartózkodás jogával rendelkező személy
IE: cónaitheoir fadtéarmach
IT: residente di lungo termine
LT: ilgalaikis gyventojas
LV: pastāvīgais iedzīvotājs
MT: Migrazzjoni fit-tul
NL/BE: langdurig ingezetene
NO: person med permanent oppholdtillatelse (b) / person med permanent opphaldsløyve (n)
PL: rezydent długoterminowy
PT: residente de longa duração
RO: rezident pe termen lung
SE: varaktigt bosatt
SI: rezident za daljše obdobje
SK:  osoba s dlhodobým pobytom

A third-country national who has long-term resident status as provided for under Arts. 4 to 7 of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long-Term Residents Directive) or as provided for under national legislation.

Related Term: right of residence

1.EU Member States must recognise long-term resident status after five years of uninterrupted legal residence. This is however dependent upon the person having a stable and regular source of income, health insurance and, when required by the EU Member State, having complied with integration measures. The applicant must also not constitute a threat to public security or public policy.
2. Directive 2011/51/EU of 11 May 2011 amended Directive 2003/109/EC to extend its scope of application to beneficiaries of international protection.
3. The UN Recommendations on Statistics on International Migration set one year of intended residence as the lower threshold.

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive)

long-stay visa

AT/DE/LU: Visum für den längerfristigen Aufenthalt, (EU acquis), Langzeit-Visum
BG: виза за дългосрочно пребиваване
CS: dlouhodobé vízum
EE: pikaajaline viisa
EL: θεώρηση για διαμονή μακράς διαρκείας
ES: visado para estancia de larga duración
FI: pitkäaikainen viisumi
FR/BE/LU: visa de long séjour
GR: θεώρηση για διαμονή μακράς διαρκείας
HU: hosszú távú tartózkodásra jogosító vízum
IE: víosa fadchuairte
IT: visto per soggiorno di lunga durata
LT: ilgalaikė viza
LV: ilgtermiņa vīza
MT: Resident(a) fit-tul
NL/BE: visum voor verblijf van langere duur
NO: oppholdstillatelse (b) / opphaldsløyve (n)
PL: wiza długoterminowa
PT: visto de longa duração
RO: viză de lungă şedere
SE: visering för längre vistelse
SI: vizum za dolgoročno bivanje
SK: dlhodobé vízum

The authorisation or decision issued by one of the Member States in accordance with its national law or Union law required for entry for an intended stay in that Member State of more than three months.

Broader Term: visa

Related Term: airport transit visa, short-stay visa, transit visa

Source:Art. 2(m) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

loss of citizenship

AT/DE/LU: Verlust der Staatsangehörigkeit/Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: загуба на гражданство
CS: pozbytí státního občanství
EE: kodakondsuse kaotamine
ES: pérdida de nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuuden menettäminen
FR/BE/LU: perte de la citoyenneté
GR:  απώλεια ιθαγένειας
HU: állampolgárság elvesztése
IE: cailleadh saoránachta
IT: perdita di cittadinanza
LT: pilietybės netekimas
LV: pilsonības zaudēšana
MT: Telf ta' ċittadinanza
NL/BE: verlies van het staatsburgerschap
NO: tap av statsborgerskap (b) / tap av statsborgarskap (n)
PL: utrata obywatelstwa
PT: perda de nacionalidade
RO: pierderea cetăţeniei
SE: förlust av medborgarskap
SI: izguba državljanstva
SK: strata štátneho občianstva

Any mode of loss of the status as citizen of a country , voluntarily or involuntarily, automatically or by an act by the public authorities.

Synonym(s): loss of nationality
Broader Term: citizenship

Note :
The main types of loss are renunciation, withdrawal and lapse of citizenship.

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

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