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identification of a victim of trafficking in human beings

AT/DE/LU: Feststellung/ Identifizierung eines Opfers von Menschenhandel
BG: идентификация на жертва на трафик на хора
CS: identifikace oběti obchodování s lidmi
EE: inimkaubanduse ohvri tuvastamine
ES: identificación de víctima de trata de seres humanos
FI: ihmiskaupan uhrin tunnistaminen
FR/BE/LU: identification d'une victime de la traite des êtres humains
HU: emberkereskedelem áldozatának azonosítása
IE: íospartach gáinneála a shainaithint   
IT: identificazione della vittima di tratta di esseri umani
LT: prekybos žmonėmis aukos nustatymas
LV: cilvēku tirdzniecības upura identificēšana
MT: Identifikazzjoni (L-) ta’ vittma fit-traffikar tal-persuni
NL/BE: herkennen van een slachtoffer van mensenhandel
NO: identifisering av offer for menneskehandel
PL: identyfikacja ofiar handlu ludźmi
RO: identificarea unei victime a traficului de fiinţe umane
SE: identifiering av offer för människohandel
SI: prepoznavanje žrtve trgovine z ljudmi
SK: identifikácia obete obchodovania s ľuďmi

The process of confirming and characterising a situation of trafficking in human beings for further implementation of support.


Narrower Term: formal identification of a victim of trafficking in human beings

Broader Term: trafficking in human beings

Related Term: detection of a victim of trafficking in human beings

Source: Derived by EMN from Varandas, I. & J. Martins: Signalling Identification Integration of Victims of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation: Construction of a Guide, 2007

identified victim of trafficking in human beings

AT/DE/LU: identifiziertes Opfer von Menschenhandel
BG: идентифицирана жертва на трафик на хора
CS: identifikovaná oběť obchodování s lidmi
EE: (tuvastatud) inimkaubanduse ohver
ES: victima reconocida de trata de seres humanos
FI: tunnistettu ihmiskaupan uhri
FR/BE/LU: victime identifiée de la traite des êtres humains
HU: emberkereskedelem azonosított áldozata
IE: íospartach gáinneála sainaitheanta
IT: vittima identificata di tratta di esseri umani
LT: nustatyta prekybos žmonėmis auka
LV: identificēts cilvēku tirdzniecības upuris
MT: Vittma identifikata fit-traffikar tal-persuni
NL/BE: geïdentificeerd slachtoffer van mensenhandel
NO: identifisert offer for menneskehandel
PL: zidentyfikowana ofiara handlu ludźmi
RO: victimă a traficului de fiinţe umane identificată
SE: identifierat offer för människohandel
SI: identificirana žrtev trgovine z ljudmi
SK: identifikovaná obeť obchodovania s ľuďmi

A person who has been formally identified as a victim of trafficking in human beings according to the relevant formal authority in Member States.


Broader Term: trafficking in human beings

Source:Derived by EMN from Eurostat: Trafficking in human beings, 2013

illegal employment

AT/DE/LU: illegale Beschäftigung
BG: незаконна заетост
CS: neoprávněné zaměstnávání
EE: ebaseaduslik töötamine
ES: empleo ilegal
FI: laiton työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi illégal
GR: παράνομη απασχόληση
HU: illegális foglalkoztatás
IE: fostaíocht neamhdhleathach
IT:  lavoro illegale
LT: nelegalus darbas
LV: nelikumīga nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg illegali
NL/BE: illegale tewerkstelling (syn.: illegale arbeid, zwart werken)
NO: illegalt arbeid
PL: nielegalne zatrudnienie
PT: emprego ilegal
RO: angajare ilegală, muncă la negru
SE: olaglig anställning/sysselsättning
SI: ilegalna zaposlitev / nezakonita zaposlitev
SK:  nelegálne zamestnávanie

Economic activity carried out in violation of provisions set by legislation.


Synonym(s): clandestine employment

Narrower Term: illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national, illegal employment of a legally staying third-country national

Related Term: irregular migrant

Note:
1. In the EU context, this covers both the illegal employment of a third-country national who is irregularly staying on the territory of a Member State and of a legally resident third-country national working outside the conditions of the residence permit and/or without a work permit.
2. In the context of Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive) this means the employment of an illegally staying third-country national (see Art. 2(d)).

Source:Derived by EMN from definition for 'clandestine employment' in the ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed., 2008

illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national

AT/DE/LU: illegale Beschäftigung eines Drittstaatsangehörigen ohne rechtmäßigen Aufenthalt
BG: незаконно наемане на незаконно пребиваващ гражданин на трета страна
CS: neoprávněné zaměstnávání neoprávněně pobývajícího státního příslušníka třetí země
EE: ebaseaduslikult riigis viibiva kolmanda riigi kodaniku ebaseadusliku töötamise võimaldamine
ES: empleo ilegal de nacional de tercer país en situación irregular
FI:  laittomasti oleskelevan kolmannen maan kansalaisen laiton työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi illegal d'un ressortissant de pays tiers en séjour irrégulier
GR: παράνομη απασχόληση παράνομα διαμένοντος υπηκόου τρίτης χώρας
HU:  illegálisan tartózkodó harmadik országbeli állampolgárok illegális foglalkoztatása
IE:  fostaíocht neamhdhleathach náisiúnaigh tríú tír atá cónaitheach go neamhdhleathach
IT: lavoro illegale di un cittadino di un paese terzo irregolarmente soggiornante
LT: neteisėtai šalyje esančio trečiosios šalies piliečio nelegalus darbas
LV: trešās valsts pilsoņa, kas nelikumīgi uzturas valstī, nelikumīga nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg illegali ta' ċittadin(a) minn pajjiż terz residenti b'mod regolari
NL/BE:  illegale tewerkstelling van illegaal verblijvende derdelanders
NO: ulovlig sysselsetting av tredjestatsborgere uten lovlig opphold (b) / ulovleg sysselsetjing av tredjestatsborgarar utan lovleg opphald (n)
PL:  nielegalne zatrudnienie obywatela państwa trzeciego przebywającego nielegalnie
PT: emprego de imigrantes ilegais
RO: angajarea ilegală a străinilor cu şedere ilegală
SE: olaglig anställning av tredjelandsmedborgare som vistas olagligt
SI: nezakonita zaposlitev državljana tretje države, ki nezakonito prebiva
SK: nelegálne zamestnávanie neoprávnene sa zdržiavajúcich štátnych príslušníkov tretích krajín

The employment of an illegally staying third-country national.


Broader Term: illegal employment

Related Term: third-country national found to be illegally pesent

Note:
The term itself has been slightly modified from the Employer Sanctions Directive definition in order to be more explicit.

Source:Art. 2 (d) of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

illegal employment of a legally staying third-country national

AT/DE/LU:  illegale Beschäftigung eines Drittstaatsangehörigen mit rechtmäßigem Aufenthalt
BG: незаконно наемане на законно пребиваващ гражданин на трета страна
CS: neoprávněné zaměstnávání oprávněně pobývajícího státního příslušníka třetí země
EE: seaduslikult riigis viibiva kolmanda riigi kodaniku ebaseadusliku töötamise võimaldamine
ES: empleo ilegal de nacional de tercer país en situación de residencia legal
FI: laillisesti oleskelevan kolmannen maan kansalaisen laiton työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi illegal d'un ressortissant de pays tiers en séjour régulier
GR:  παράνομη απασχόληση νομίμως διαμένοντος υπηκόου τρίτης χώρας
HU:  jogszerűen / legálisan tartózkodó harmadik országbeli állampolgárok illegális foglalkoztatása
IE: fostaíocht neamhdhleathach náisiúnaigh tríú tír atá i láthair go neamhdhleathach
IT: lavoro illegale di un cittadino di un paese terzo regolarmente soggiornante
LT: teisėtai šalyje esančio trečiosios šalies piliečio nelegalus darbas
LV: trešās valsts pilsoņa, kas likumīgi uzturas valstī, nelikumīga nodarbinātība
MT: Impieg illegali ta' ċittadin(a) minn pajjiż terz residenti b'mod irregolari
NL/BE:  illegale tewerkstelling van legaal verblijvende derdelanders
NO: ulovlig sysselsetting av tredjestatsborgere med lovlig opphold (b) / ulovleg sysselsetjing av tredjestatsborgarar med lovleg opphald (n)
PL: nielegalne zatrudnienie obywatela państwa trzeciego przebywającego legalnie
PT: emprego ilegal
RO: angajarea ilegală a străinilor cu şedere legală
SE:  olaglig anställning av tredjelandsmedborgare som vistas lagligt
SI: nezakonita zaposlitev državljana tretje države, ki prebiva zakonito
SK: nelegálne zamestnávanie oprávnene sa zdržiavajúcich štátnych príslušníkov tretích krajín

Employment of a legally staying third-country national working outside the conditions of their residence permit and/or without a work permit. This is subject to each Member State's national law.


Broader Term: illegal employment

Source:Derived by EMN from definition of 'illegal employment' in Art. 2 (d) of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

immigrant

AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderer (EU acquis), Einwanderer, Immigrant
BG: имигрант
CS: přistěhovalec / imigrant
EE: sisserändaja
ES: inmigrante
FI: maahanmuuttaja/siirtolainen
FR/BE/LU: immigrant
GR: μετανάστης
HU: bevándorló
IE: inimirceach
IT: immigrante
LT: imigrantas
LV: imigrants
MT: Immigrant(a)
NL/BE: immigrant
NO: innvandrer (b) / innvandrar (n)
PL: imigrant
PT: imigrante
RO: imigrant
SE: invandrare
SI: priseljenec
SK: prisťahovalec (national law) / imigrant

In the global context, a non-resident (both national or alien) arriving in a State with the intention to remain for a period exceeding a year.

In the EU context, a person who establishes their usual residence in the territory of a Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country.


Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: emigrant, immigration

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration EU context: Art. 2(b) and (f) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics)

immigration

AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderung (EU acquis), Einwanderung, Immigration
BG: имиграция
CS: přistěhovalectví / imigrace
EE: sisseränne
ES: inmigración
FI: maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: immigration
GR: Имиграция
HU: bevándorlás
IE: inimirce
IT: immigrazione
LT: imigracija
LV: imigrācija
MT: Immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: immigratie
NO: innvandring
PL: imigracja
PT: imigração
RO: imigraţie
SE: invandring
SI: priseljevanje
SK: prisťahovalectvo (national law) / imigrácia

In the global context, the act of arriving in a State with the intention to remain for a period exceeding one year.

In the EU context, the action by which a person establishes their usual residence in the territory of a Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country.


Broader Term: Migration
Related Term: emigration, immigrant

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(b) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics)

Immigration Liaison Officer

AT/DE/LU:  Verbindungsbeamter für Einwanderungsfragen
BG: офицер за връзка по имиграция
CS: imigrační styčný důstojník
EE: Euroopa sisserände sideametnik
ES: oficiales de enlace de inmigración
FI: maahanmuuttoalan yhdyshenkilö
FR/BE/LU: officier de liaison « Immigration »
GR: Σύνδεσμος Μετανάστευσης (αξιωματούχος)
HU:  bevándorlási összekötő tiszt(viselő)
IE: Oifigeach Idirchaidrimh Inimirce (ILO)
IT: funzionario di collegamento incaricato dell'immigrazione
LT: imigracijos ryšių palaikymo pareigūnas
LV: imigrācijas sadarbības koordinators
MT: Uffiċjal tal-Kollegament Responsabbli għall-Immigrazzjoni (UKRI)
NL/BE: immigratieverbindingsfunctionaris, (syn.: immigratieverbindingsambtenaar; in daily practice: ILO)
NO: kontaktperson med ansvar for immigrasjon
PL: oficer łącznikowy ds. imigracji
PT: Oficial de ligação de imigração
RO:  ofiţer de legătură pe probleme de imigraţie (in daily practice ILO)
SE: sambandsman för invandring
SI: Uradnik za zvezo za priseljevanje
SK: imigračný styčný dôstojník

A representative of one of the Member States, posted abroad by the immigration service or other competent authorities in order to establish and maintain contacts with the authorities of the host country with a view to contributing to the prevention and combating of irregular migration, the return of irregular migrants and the management of legal migration.



Synonym(s): ILO, national liaison officer, state liaison officer

Related Term: Information and Coordination Network for Member States’ Migration Management Services, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

Note :
1. Immigration liaison officers are to collect information concerning illegal immigration for use either at operational level or at strategic level, or both. Such information could substantially contribute to the activities of Frontex relating to risk analysis; closer cooperation between different immigration liaison officers networks and Frontex should be established to that effect, as immigration liaison officers shall also be considered the liaison officers who are dealing with immigration issues as part of their duties.
2. The immigration liaison officers could be posted to the national consular authorities of Member States in third countries or to the relevant authorities of other Member States, but also to the competent authorities of the third countries, as well as to international organisations for a reasonable time period to be determined by the posting Member State.
3. An amendment to Regulation (EC) 377/2004 modifying its Articles 3, 4 and 6 was adopted as Regulation (EU) No 493/2011 on 5 April 2011.

Source:Art. 1(1) of Council Regulation (EC) 377/2004 (Immigration Liaison Officer Regulation)

immigration programme

AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderungs-programm, Einwanderungs-programm
BG: имиграционна програма
CS: program migrace
EE: rändetoetusprogramm
ES: programa de inmigración
FI: maahanmuutto-ohjelma
FR/BE/LU: programme d’immigration
GR: μεταναστευτικά προγράμμα
HU: bevándorlási programot
IE: clár inimirce
IT: programma per l'immigrazione
LT: imigracijos programa
LV: imigrācijas programma
MT: Programm ta' immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: immigratieprogramma
NO: program for innvandring
PL: program imigracyjny
PT:  migração assistida
RO: program de imigraţie
SE: invandringsprogram
SI: program priseljevanja
SK: program prisťahovalectva / imigračný program

Programme to facilitate migration which is organised or supported with the assistance of a government, governments or an international organisation, as opposed to spontaneous migration, which is unaided.


Related Term: spontaneous migration

Source: Developed by EMN

immigration quota

AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderungs-quote, Einwanderungs-quote
BG: имиграционна квота
CS: imigrační kvóta
EE: sisserände piirarv
ES: cuota de inmigración
FI: maahanmuuttokiintiö
FR/BE/LU: quota d'immigration
GR: μεταναστευτική αναλογία/μερίδα
HU: bevándorlási kvóta
IE: cuóta inimirce
IT: quota (per immigrati)
LT: imigracijos kvota
LV: imigrācijas kvota
MT: Kwota ta' immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: immigratiequota
NO: innvandringskvote
PL: kwota imigracyjna
PT:  quota de imigração
RO: cotă de imigraţie
SE: invandringskvot
SI: kvota za priseljevanje
SK: prisťahovalecká kvóta / imigračná kvóta

A quota established for and by the country, normally for the purposes of labour migration, for the entry of immigrants.


Broader Term: quota

Related Term: labour migration

Note:
In the EU context, such quotas are primarily used for third-country nationals only.

Source: Developed by EMN

Indirect discrimination

AT/DE/LU: mittelbare Diskriminierung
BG: непряка/ косвена дискриминация
CS: nepřímá diskriminace
EE: kaudne diskrimineerimine
ES: discriminación indirecta
FI: välillinen syrjintä
FR/BE/LU: discrimination indirecte
GR: έμμεση διάκριση
HU: közvetett diszkrimináció
IE: leithcheal indíreach
IT: discriminazione indiretta
LT: netiesioginė diskriminacija
LV: netieša diskrminācija
MT: Diskriminazzjoni indiretta
NL/BE: indirecte discriminatie
NO: indirekte diskriminering
PL: dyskryminacja pośrednia
PT: discriminação indirecta
RO: discriminare indirectă
SE: indirekt diskriminering
SI: posredna diskriminacija
SK: nepriama diskriminácia

A situation in which an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of a racial or ethnic origin at a particular disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.


Related Term: institutional discrimination, principle of equal treatment, structural discrimination

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive)

informal economy

AT/DE/LU:  informelle Wirtschaft, Schattenwirtschaft
BG: неформална икономика
CS: šedá ekonomika
EE: varimajandus
ES:  economía informal
FI: epävirallinen talous / pimeä talous
FR/BE/LU: économie informelle
GR: παραοικονομία
HU: szürke gazdaság
IE: geilleagar neamhfhoirmiúil
IT: economia informale
LT: šešėlinė ekonomika
LV: neformālā ekonomika
MT: Ekonomija informali
NL/BE:  informele economie
NO: uformell økonomi / parallell økonomi
PL: gospodarka nierejestrowana
PT: economia informal
RO: economie informală
SE: informell ekonomi
SI: neformalna (siva) ekonomija
SK: tieňová ekonomika / šedá ekonomika

All economic activities by workers and economic units that are – in law or in practice – not covered or insufficiently covered by formal arrangements.


Synonym(s): black market, clandestine employment

Related Term: informal employment, informal sector

Note:
1. Activities within the informal economy are not covered by law, which means that they are operating outside of the formal reach of relevant legislation; or they are not covered in practice, which means that, although they are operating within the formal reach of the law, the law is not applied or not enforced, or the law discourages compliance because it is inappropriate, burdensome or imposes excessive costs.
2. This applies to third-country nationals, too.

Source:Para. 3 of ILO Resolution concerning Decent Work and the Informal Economy, 2002

Information and Coordination Network for Member States’ Migration Management Services

AT/DE/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Мрежа за информация и координация на службите за управление на миграцията на държавите членки
CS: Informační a koordinační síť pro služby řízení migrace členských států (ICONet)
EE: liikmesriikide migratsiooniteenistuste info-ja koordineerimisvõrgustik
ES: ICONet
FI: tieto- ja koordinointiverkosto maahanmuuton hallinnasta vastaavia jäsenvaltioiden viranomaisia varten (ICONet)
FR/BE/LU: Réseau d'information et de coordination sécurisé connecté à l'internet pour les services des États membres chargés de la gestion des flux migratoires (ICONET)
GR: Δίκτυο Άτυπων Επαγγελματικών Προσόντων
HU: a tagállamok migrációkezelési szolgálatainak információs és koordinációs hálózata
IE: ICONet
IT: Rete di Informazione e Coordinamento per i Servizi di Gestione dell'Immigrazione degli Stati Membri (ICONet)
LT: Informacijos ir koordinavimo tinklas, skirtas valstybių narių migracijos valdymo tarnyboms
LV: Informācijas un koordinācijas tīkls dalībvalstu migrācijas pārvaldes dienestiem
MT: Netwerk ta' Informazzjoni u Koordinazzjoni għas-Servizzi dwar Ġestjoni ta' Migrazzjoni fl-Istati Membri (ICONet)
NL/BE: ICONet
NO: ICONet
PL: ICONet / no usual translation
PT: ICONet
RO: Reţeaua de informare şi coordonare a serviciilor de management al migraţiei din statele membre (ICONet)
SE: Iconet
SI: Informacijska in koordinacijska mreža služb držav članic za upravljanje migracije
SK: Informačná a koordinačná sieť pre služby riadenia migrácie členských štátov / ICONet

A secure web-based information and coordination network for the rapid information exchange between Member States on irregular or illegal migratory flows and phenomena, and the return of illegal residents.



Synonym(s): ICONet

Related Term: European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, Immigration Liaison Officer, Mutual Information Mechanism

Note:
1. The ICONet was established in 2005 within the framework of the Council’s comprehensive plan to combat illegal immigration and trafficking of human beings.
2.The elements for information exchange shall include at least the following:

  1. early warning system on illegal immigration and facilitator networks;
  2. network of immigration liaison officers;
  3. information on the use of visas, borders and travel documents in relation to illegal immigration; and
  4. return-related issues.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 1 of Council Decision 2005/267/EC

integration

AT/DE/LU: Integration
BG: интеграция
CS: integrace
EE: lõimumine
ES: integración
FI: kotouttaminen/kotoutuminen
FR/BE/LU: intégration
GR: ένταξη
HU: integráció
IE: imeascadh
IT: integrazione
LT: integracija
LV: integrācija
MT: Integrazzjoni
NL/BE: integratie
NO: integrering
PL: integracja
PT: integração
RO: integrare
SE: integration
SI: integracija / vključevanje
SK: integrácia

In the EU context, a dynamic, two-way process of mutual accommodation by all immigrants and residents of Member States.


Narrower Term: Common Basic Principles, Handbook on Integration, European Website on Integration, National Contact Points on Integration

Related Term: host society, reintegration

Note:
1. Art. 79(4) of the TFEU gives the legal base for Union activities on integration. The promotion of fundamental rights, non-discrimination and equal opportunities for all are key integration issues.
2. At EU level, integration policy is developed within the framework of Common Basic Principles – CBP (of which the broad definition above is the first one).
3. For more information, see European Website on Integration.

Source:Action 1, section 2 of Communication on a Common Agenda for Integration, COM(2005) 389 final

intercultural dialogue

AT/DE/LU: interkultureller Dialog
BG: междукултурен диалог
CS: mezikulturní dialog
EE: kultuuridevaheline dialoog
ES: diálogo intercultural
FI: kulttuurienvälinen vuoropuhelu
FR/BE/LU: dialogue interculturel
HU: interkulturális párbeszéd
IE: idirphlé idirchultúrtha
IT: dialogo interculturale
LT: tarpkultūrinis dialogas
LV: starpkultūru dialogs
MT: Djalogu interkulturali
NL/BE: interculturele dialoog
NO: interkulturell dialog
PL: dialog międzykulturowy
RO: dialog intercultural
SE: interkulturell dialog
SI: medkulturni dialog
SK: medzikultúrny dialóg / interkultúrny dialóg

An open and respectful exchange of views between individuals and groups with different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic backgrounds and heritage on the basis of mutual understanding and respect.


Note:
1. Intercultural dialogue has long been a principle supported by the European Union and its institutions. The year 2008 was designated 'European Year of Intercultural Dialogue' (EYID) by the European Parliament and the Member States. It aimed to draw the attention of people in Europe to the importance of dialogue within diversity and between diverse cultures.
2. For more information, see the report on the evaluation of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue, 2008.

Source:Section 1.4 of Council of Europe: White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue, May 2008

Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees

AT/DE/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Междуправителствени консултации по миграция, убежище и бежанци
CS: Mezivládní konzultace k migraci, azylu a uprchlictví
EE: valitsustevahelised konsultatsioonid rände-, varjupaiga- ja pagulasteemal
ES: IGC
FI: IGC (Euroopan, Pohjois-Amerikan ja Australian turvapaikka-, pakolais- ja siirtolaispolitiikkoja käsittelevät hallitustenväliset neuvottelut)
FR/BE/LU: Consultations intergouvernementales sur les politiques d'asile, de réfugiés et de migrations (IGC)
HU:  Kormányközi Tanácskozás/Együttműködés a Migrációról és a Menekültügyről /
IE: Comhairliúcháin Idir-Rialtasacha (CIR) maidir le hImirce, Tearmann agus Dídeanaithe
IT: Consultazioni Inter-Governative in materia di Immigrazione, Asilo e Rifugiati (IGC)
LT: Tarpvyriausybinės konsultacijos migracijos, prieglobsčio ir pabėgėlių klausimais
LV: Starpvaldību konsultācijas par migrācijas, patvēruma un bēgļu jautājumiem
MT: Konsultazzjonijiet Intergovernattivi fuq Migrazzjoni, Ażil u Rifuġjati
NL/BE: IGC (BE syn.: Intergouvernementeel Overleg over migratie, asiel en vluchtelingen (IGC))
NO: IGC
PL: międzyrządowe konsultacje nt. migracji, azylu i uchodźców (IGC)
PT: consultas intergovernamentais sobre migrações, asilo e refugiados (IGC)
RO: Consultări interministeriale cu privire la migraţie, azil şi refugiaţi (IGC)
SE: IGC (Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees)
SI: Medvladna posvetovanja o migraciji, azilu in beguncih
SK: Medzivládne konzultácie o migrácii, azyle a utečencoch / IGC

An informal, non-decision making forum for intergovernmental information exchange and policy debate on issues of relevance to the management of international migratory flows, which brings together the participating states, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organization for Migration and the European Commission.



Synonym(s): IGC


Note:
1. The starting point for the IGC was a conference held in May 1985 under the auspices of the UNHCR. While historically focused on asylum issues, IGC has moved towards greater discussion and exchange of data on general migration policies since 2006.
2.For more information on participating states etc., see the IGC website

Source:Website of the IGC

internal EU border

AT/DE/LU: EU-Binnengrenze
BG: вътрешна граница на ЕС
CS: vnitřní hranice EU
EE: Euroopa Liidu sisepiir
ES: frontera interior (UE)
FI: EU:n sisäraja
FR/BE/LU:  frontière intérieure de l’UE
GR:  εσωτερικά σύνορα
HU:  belső határ
IE: teorainn inmheánach an AE
IT:  frontiera interna UE
LT: vidaus siena
LV: ES iekšējā robeža
MT: Konfini (Il-) interni / Fruntiera (Il-) interna tal-UE
NL/BE: EU binnengrens
NO: grense mellom Schengen-medlemsland
PL: granica wewnętrzna UE
PT: fronteira interna
RO: Frontieră internă UE
SE:  inre gräns
SI: notranja meja EU
SK: vnútorná hranica EÚ

Schengen Member States’ common borders, including land borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports.


Synonym(s): internal Schengen border

Related Terms: border control, internal EU border, irregular entry, legal entry, refusal of entry, schengen borders code

Note :
1. IE and UK do not participate in the Schengen Area.
2. BG, HR and RO are Schengen candidate countries.
3. Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland are also Schengen Member States, although they are not EU Member States.
4. For updated information on membership to the Schengen Area, see the DG HOME website 

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 1 of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

internally displaced person

AT/DE/LU: Binnenvertriebener
BG: вътрешно разселено лице
CS: vnitřně přesídlená osoby
EE: riigisiseselt ümberasustatud isikud
ES: población desplazada internamente
FI: maan sisällä siirtymään joutunut henkilö /maan sisäinen pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: personne déplacée à l'intérieure de son propre pays
GR: εσωτερικώς εκτοπισμένο άτομο
HU: belső menekült
IE: duine easáitithe ina thír féin
IT: sfollato interno
LT: viduje perkeltasis asmuo
LV: iekšzemē pārvietota persona
MT: Persuna sfollata internament / f'pajjiżha stess
NL/BE: in eigen land ontheemd persoon
NO: internt fordrevet person (b) / internt fordriven person (n)
PL: osoba przesiedlona wewnętrznie
PT:  deslocado interno
RO: persoană strămutată intern
SE: internflykting
SI: notranje razseljena oseba (NRO)
SK: vnútorne vysídlená osoba

A person or groups of persons who has been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalised violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognised State border.



Synonym(s): IDP

Broader Term: displaced person

Related Term: de facto refugee, environmentally displaced person, refugee

Note:
For more information, see the website of the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC)

Source:Art. 2 of UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement

International Organization for Migration

AT/DE/LU: Internationale Organisation für Migration
BG: Международна организация по миграция
CS: Mezinárodní ogranizace pro migraci (IOM)
EE: Rahvusvaheline Migratsiooniorganisatsioon (IOM)
ES: Organización Internacional para las Migraciones
FI: Kansainvälinen siirtolaisuusjärjestö
FR/BE/LU: Organisation internationale pour les migrations
HU: Nemzetközi Migrációs Szervezet
IE: an Eagraíocht Idirnáisiúnta um Imirce
IT: Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni
LT: Tarptautinė migracijos organizacija
LV: Starptautiskā Migrācijas organizācija
MT: Organizzazzjoni (L-) Internazzjonali għall-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: Internationale Organisatie voor Migratie
NO: Den internasjonale migrasjonsorganisasjonen (IOM)
PL: Międzynarodowa Organizacja do Spraw Migracji (IOM)
RO: Organizaţia Internaţională pentru Migraţie (OIM)
SE: IOM (International Organization for Migration)
SI: Mednarodna organizacija za migracije (IOM)
SK: Medzinárodná organizácia pre migráciu / IOM

An intergovernmental organisation in the field of migration dedicated to ensuring the orderly and humane management of migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, be they refugees, displaced persons or other uprooted people.


Note:
1. The agency was created in 1951.
2. It is one of the main inter-governmental organisations in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.
3. For further information, see the website of IOM.

Source:Website of the International Organisation of Migration

international protection

AT/DE/LU: internationaler Schutz
BG: международна закрила
CS: mezinárodní ochrana
EE: rahvusvaheline kaitse
ES: protección (internacional)
FI: kansainvälinen suojelu
FR/BE/LU: protection internationale
GR: διεθνής προστασία
HU: nemzetközi védelem
IE: cosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT:  protezione internazionale
LT: prieglobstis
LV: starptautiskā aizsardzība
MT: Protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: internationale bescherming
NO: internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: ochrona międzynarodowa
PT: protecção internacional
RO: protecţie internaţională
SE: internationellt skydd
SI: mednarodna zaščita
SK: medzinárodná ochrana

In the global context, the actions by the international community on the basis of international law, aimed at protecting the fundamental rights of a specific category of persons outside their countries of origin, who lack the national protection of their own countries.

In the EU context, protection that encompasses refugee status and subsidiary protection status.


Narrower Term: refugee status, subsidiary protection

Broader Term: protection

Related Term: asylum, Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967, humanitarian protection, temporary protection, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Source: Global context: UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 2(a) of Directive 2011/95/EC (Recast Qualification Directive)

intra-corporate transferee

AT/DE/LU: innerbetrieblich versetzte Person
BG: вътрешно-корпоративен трансфер
CS: vnitropodnikově převáděný pracovník
EE: ettevõttesisene üleviimine
ES:  trabajador transnacional
FI: sisäisen siirron saanut työntekijä / yrityksen tilapäisesti toiseen maahan lähettämä työntekijä
FR/BE/LU: personne faisant l'objet d'un transfert temporaire intragroupe
GR: ενδο-επιχειρησιακή
HU: vállalaton belül áthelyezett személy
IE: aistrí ionchorparáideach
IT: lavoratore straniero distaccato (persona trasferita all'interno della stessa società in un altro paese)
LT: bendrovės viduje perkeliamas asmuo
LV: uzņēmuma ietvaros pārcelts darbinieks
MT: Ħaddiem trasferit minn post għal ieħor tal-istess kumpanija // Trasferiment intra-korporattiv ta' ħaddiem
NL/BE: binnen een onderneming overgeplaatste persoon
NO: utstasjonert arbeidstaker (b) / utstasjonert arbeidstakar (n)
PL: pracownik przenoszony wewnątrz przedsiębiorstwa
PT: pessoas transferidas temporariamente pela empresa
RO: transferat intra-corporaţie
SE: företagsinternt förflyttad person
SI: oseba premeščena znotraj podjetja
SK: pracovník presunutý v rámci spoločnosti

A third-country national subject to a temporary secondment from an undertaking established outside the territory of a Member State and to which the third-country national is bound by a work contract to an entity belonging to the undertaking or to the same group of undertakings which is established inside this territory.



Note:
The World Trade Organisation's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), liberalises trade in services, including the temporary movement of natural persons as service suppliers. Mode 4 refers to the presence of persons of one WTO member in the territory of another for the purpose of providing a service. It does not concern persons seeking access to the employment market in the host member, nor does it affect measures regarding citizenship, residence or employment on a permanent basis. For more information, see http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/mouvement_persons_e/mouvement_persons_e.htm

Source:Derived from Arts. 3(b) and 3(c) of Proposal for a Directive on conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals in the framework of an intra-corporate transfer (COM(2010) 378 final)

intra-EU mobility

AT/DE/LU: EU-Binnen-mobilität, EU-Binnenmigration
BG: движение в рамките на ЕС
CS: mobilita v rámci EU
EE: Euroopa Liidu sisene liikuvus
ES: movilidad intracomunitaria
FI: EU:n sisäinen liikkuvuus
FR/BE/LU: mobilité intra-UE
HU: EU-n belüli mobilitás
IE: gluaisteacht san AE
IT: mobilità intra-UE
LT: judumas ES viduje
LV: ES iekšējā mobilitāte
MT: Intramobbiltà fl-UE
NL/BE: mobiliteit binnen de EU
NO: mobilitet mellom EUs medlemsland
PL: mobilność wewnątrzunijna
RO: mobilitate intra UE
SE: EU-intern rörlighet
SI: notranja mobilnost v EU
SK: mobilita v rámci Európskej únie / mobilita v rámci EÚ

Action of persons (EU nationals or legally resident third-country nationals) undertaking their right to movement by moving from one EU Member State to another.


Synonym(s): EU mobility, free movement, Inter-EU migration, Intra-EU migration, intra EU/EFTA-mobility, third-country national mobility

Related Term: right to free movement

Note:
1. Free movement/intra-EU mobility is available under two different schemes. The first scheme is a very open one and applicable to EU citizens who benefit from full freedom of movement. The second scheme concerns migrant workers. Rules applicable here are less generous and limited to specific categories of third-country nationals, i.e. long-term residents, highly skilled workers, researchers and students.
2. Through separate agreements between the EU and Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, the same rights to free movement apply to their citizens and their territories.

Source: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'right to free movement' in the EMN Glossary

irregular entry

AT/DE/LU: irreguläre Ein- reise
BG: незаконно влизане
CS: neoprávněný vstup na území
EE: ebaseaduslik (riiki) sisenemine
ES: entrada irregular
FI: laiton maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: entrée irrégulière
HU: szabálytalan határátlépés
IE: iontráil aimhrialta
IT: ingresso irregolare
LT: neteisėtas atvykimas
LV: nelikumīga ieceļošana
MT: Dħul irregolari
NL/BE: illegale binnenkomst
NO: irregulær innreise
PL: nieregularny wjazd
SE: olaglig inresa
SI: ilegalen vstop / nedovoljen vstop
SK: nelegálny vstup / neoprávnený vstup

In the global context, crossing borders without complying with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.

In the Schengen context, the entry of a third-country national into a Schengen Member State who does not satisfy Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code.


Synonym(s): illegal entry

Broader Term: irregular migration
Related Term: border control, legal entry

Note:
1. The European Commission favours nowadays the term 'irregular entry (e.g. see: DG HOME e-Library Glossary) instead of 'illegal entry'.
2. Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code states that for stays not exceeding three months per six-month period, the entry conditions for third-country nationals shall be the following:

  1. they are in possession of a valid travel document or documents authorising them to cross the border;
  2. they are in possession of a valid visa, if required pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (17), except where they hold a valid residence permit;
  3. they justify the purpose and conditions of the intended stay, and they have sufficient means of subsistence, both for the duration of the intended stay and for the return to their country of origin or transit to a third country into which they are certain to be admitted, or are in a position to acquire such means lawfully;
  4. they are not persons for whom an alert has been issued in the SIS for the purposes of refusing entry;
  5. they are not considered to be a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any of the Member States, in particular where no alert has been issued in Member States' national data bases for the purposes of refusing entry on the same grounds.

3. For more information, see Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Source: Global context: Definition for 'illegal entry' in Art. 3(b) of the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Schengen context: Developed by EMN

irregular migrant

AT/DE/LU: irregulärer Migrant
BG: незаконен мигрант
CS: nelegální migrant
EE: ebaseaduslik sisserändaja
ES: inmigrante en situación irregular
FI: laittomasti maassa oleskeleva henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant en séjour irrégulier
GR: παράνομος μετανάστης
HU: irreguláris migráns
IE: imirceach aimhrialta
IT: migrante irregolare
LT: neteisėtas migrantas
LV: nelikumīgs migrants
MT: Migrant(a) irregolari
NL/BE:  illegaal verblijvende migrant
NO: irregulær migrant
PL: migrant nieregularny
PT: imigrante irregular
RO: migrant ilegal
SE: irreguljär migrant
SI: ilegaln migrant / nezakonit priseljenec
SK: nelegálny migrant / migrant bez platného povolenia na pobyt

In the global context, a person who, owing to irregular entry, breach of a condition of entry or the expiry of their legal basis for entering and residing, lacks legal status in a transit or host country.

In the EU context, a third-country national present on the territory of a Schengen State who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils, the conditions of entry as set out in the Schengen Borders Code, or other conditions for entry, stay or residence in that Member State.


Synonym(s): clandestine migrant, illegal migrant, insufficiently documented migrant, migrant in an irregular siuation, migrant with irregular status, unauthorised migrant, undocumented migrant

Narrower Term: third-country national to be found to be illegally present

Note:
1. The IOM definition covers inter alia those persons who have entered a transit or host country lawfully but have stayed for a longer period than authorised or subsequently taken up unauthorised employment.
2. The term 'irregular' is preferable to 'illegal' migrant because the latter carries a criminal connotation, entering a country in an irregular manner, or staying with an irregular status, is not a criminal offence but an infraction of administrative regulations. Apart from this, juridically and ethically, an act can be legal or illegal but a person cannot. Thus more and more the term 'migrant in an irregular situation' or 'migrant with irregular status' is preferred.
3. The European Commission has used the term 'third-country national found to be illegally present' or 'illegally resident/staying third-country national' in legislation.
4. The Council of Europe differentiates between illegal migration and irregular migrant. Referring to Resolution 1509 (2006) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, ‘illegal’ is preferred when referring to a status or process, whereas 'irregular' is preferred when referring to a person.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. Ed. 2011
EU context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'illegal stay' in Art. 3 of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

irregular migration

AT/DE/LU: irreguläre Migration
BG: незаконна миграция
CS: nelegální migrace
EE: ebaseaduslik ränne
ES:  inmigración irregular
FI: sääntöjen vastainen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration irrégulière
HU: irreguláris migráció
IE:  imirce aimhrialta
IT:  migrazione irregolare
LT: neteisėta migracija
LV: nelikumīga migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni irregolari
NL/BE:  irreguliere migratie (not currently used; more common is 'illegale migratie')
NO:  irregulær migrasjon
PL: migracja nieregularna
PT: migração irregula
RO: migraţie ilegală
SE:  irreguljär migration
SI: ilegana migracija / neregulirana migracija / nedovoljena migracija
SK: nelegálna migrácia

Movement of persons to a new place of residence or transit that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries.


Synonym(s): clandestine migra-tion, illegal immigration, illegal migration, unauthorised migration, undocumented migration

Note:
1.There is a universally accepted definition of irregular migration. From the perspective of destination countries it is entry, stay or work in a country without the necessary authorisation or documents required under immigration regulations. From the perspective of the sending country, the irregularity is, for example, seen in cases in which a person crosses an international boundary without a valid passport or travel document or does not fulfil the administrative requirements for leaving the country. There is, however, a tendency to restrict the use of the term to cases of smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons.
2. Defining irregular migration has been the subject of considerable debate. Terms such as illegal, undocumented, non-documented, and unauthorised migration can have different connotations in national policy debates. Due to this and the assocation with criminality the term 'illegal migration" should be avoided, as most irregular migrants are not criminals. Being in a country without the required papers is, in most countries, not a criminal offence but an administrative infringement.
3. While the UN use the term 'irregular' or 'undocumented' migration, the European Commission favoured for a long time the term 'illegal immigration', but more recently refers to 'irregular migration' as well.
4. The Council of Europe differentiates between illegal migration and irregular migrant. Referring to Resolution 1509 (2006) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, ‘illegal’ is preferred when referring to a status or process, whereas 'irregular' is preferred when referring to a person.

Source: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011 and DG Home e-Library Glossary

irregular stay

AT/DE/LU: irregulärer Aufenthalt
BG: незаконно пребиваване
CS: neoprávněný pobyt
EE: ebaseaduslik (riigis) viibimine
ES: estancia irregular
FI: laiton oleskelu
FR/BE/LU: séjour irrégulier
HU: szabálytalan tartózkodás
IE: cuairt aimhrialta
IT: soggiorno irregolare
LT: neteisėtas buvimas
LV: nelikumīga uzturēšanās
MT: Qagħda/Waqfa/Żjara irregolari
NL/BE: illegaal verblijf
NO: irregulært opphold (b) / irregulært opphald (n)
PL: nieregularny pobyt
SE: olaglig vistelse
SI: ilegalno prebivanje / nedovoljeno prebivanje
SK: neoprávnený pobyt (national law) / nelegálny pobyt

The presence on the territory of a Member State, of a third-country national who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils the conditions of entry as set out in Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code or other conditions for entry, stay or residence in that Member State.


Synonym(s): illegal stay

Broader Term: irregular migration

Related Term: irregular entry, overstayer, third-country national found to be illegally present

Note:
The European Commission favours nowadays the term 'irregular stay' (e.g. see: DG HOME e-Library Glossary) instead of 'illegal stay' which was the term used in the Directive 2008/115/EU (Return Directive).

Source:Art. 3 (2) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

ius sanguinis

AT/DE/LU: Abstammungsprinzip, Ius sanguinis
BG: no translation
CS: ius sanguinis
EE: vereõigus
ES: ius sanguinis
FI: periytymisperiaate
FR/BE/LU: droit du sang
GR: αρχή του αίματος; ius sanguinis
HU: ius sanguinis (vér szerinti leszármazás elve)
IE: ius sanguinis
IT:  ius sanguinis
LT: kraujo teisė
LV: Ius sanguinis
MT: Ius sanguinis
NL/BE: ius sanguinis / jus sanguinis
NO:  jus sanguinis / nedstammingsprinsippet
PL: prawo krwi
PT: ius sanguinis
RO:  ius sanguinis/ legea sângelui
SE: No usual translation
SI: jus sanguinis
SK: právo krvi / ius sanguinis

The determination of a person's nationality on the basis of the nationality of their parents (or one parent or one particular parent) at the time of the target person's birth and at the time of acquisition of nationality by the target person (the two points in time are different in cases of acquisition after birth).


Synonym(s): jus sanguinis

Related Term: acquisition of citizenship, Ius soli

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

ius soli

AT/DE/LU: Territorialprinzip, Ius soli, Geburtslandprinzip
BG: no translation
CS: ius soli
EE: sünnikohaõigus
ES: ius soli
FI: syntymäperiaate
FR/BE/LU: droit du sol
GR: αρχή του εδάφους; ius soli
HU:  ius soli ( területi elv)
IE: ius soli
IT: ius soli
LT: žemės teisė
LV:  Ius soli
MT: Ius soli
NL/BE: jus soli / territorialprinsippet
NO: jus soli / territorialprinsippet
PL: prawo ziemi
PT: ius soli
RO:  ius soli/ legea locului
SE: No usual translation
SI: jus soli
SK: právo zeme / ius soli

The principle that the nationality of a person is determined on the basis of their country of birth.


Synonym(s): jus soli

Related Term: acquisition of citizenship, Ius sanguinis

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

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