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AT/DE/LU: Belästigung
BG: тормоз
CS: obtěžování
EE: ahistamine
ES: acoso
FI: häirintä
FR/BE/LU: harcèlement
GR: παρενόχληση
HU: zaklatás
IE: ciapadh
IT: molestia
LT: priekabiavimas
LV: uzmākšanās
MT: Molestja / Fastidju
NL/BE: intimidatie
NO: trakassering/mobbing
PL: molestowanie
PT: perseguição
RO: persecuţie, hărţuire
SE: trakasserier
SI: nadlegovanje
SK: obťažovanie

Unwanted conduct related to racial or ethnic origin with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person and of creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment.


Source:Art. 2 (3) of Council Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive)

habitual residence

Please see entry for usual residence

harmful onward movement

AT/DE/LU: gefährliche Weiterwanderung
BG: no translation
CS: no translation
EE: ohtlik (edasi) liikumine
ES: movimientos irregulares peligrosos
FI: vaarallisin keinoin siirtyminen (uudistermi)
FR/BE/LU: mouvement secondaire dangereux
HU: két hely közötti veszélyes átjutás
IE: athghluaiseacht dhainséarach
IT: spostamento pericoloso
LT: pavojingas judėjimas pirmyn
LV: bīstama pārvietošanās
MT: Mogħdija ’l quddiem dannuża / ta’ ħsara
NL/BE: no translation
NO: risikabel viderereise (b) / risikabel vidarereise (n)
PL: niebezpieczne dalsze przemieszczanie się
PT: rotas perigosas: rotas perigosas
RO: mişcare de avansare periculoasă
SE: No translation
SI: škodljivo gibanje, ki gre dalje / Škodljivo gibanje, ki se nadaljuje
SK: riskantné presúvanie sa utečencov a migrantov

The movement of Refugees and migrants by dangerous means from one location to another.

1. Harmful movement may include movement that risks people's lives (e.g. by sea) or which puts them at risk of trafficking.
2. This term has only been recently put into use by practitioners.

Source:Derived by EMN from UNHCR: Draft Proposal for a Central Mediterranean Sea Initiative: EU solidarity for rescue-at-sea, protection and comprehensive responses, 2013

healthcare benefits

Please see entry for access to healthcare

High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration

AT/DE/LU: Hochrangige Arbeitsgruppe Asyl und Einwanderung
BG: Работна група на високо равнище "Убежище и миграция"
CS: pracovní skupina na vysoké úrovni pro azyl a migraci
EE: kõrgetasemine varjupaiga ja rände töörühm
ES: grupo de trabajo de alto nivel sobre migración y asilo
FI: turvapaikka- ja maahanmuuttoasioiden korkean tason työryhmä
FR/BE/LU: Groupe de haut niveau “Asile et Migration”
GR: Ομάδα Εργασίας Υψηλού Επιπέδου για το 'Ασυλο και την Μετανάστευση
HU: Magas Szintű Menekültügyi és Migrációs Munkacsoport
IE: Grúpa Oibre Ardleibhéil ar Thearmann agus Imirce
IT: Gruppo di lavoro ad alto livello in materia di asilo e migrazione
LT: Prieglobsčio ir migracijos aukšto lygio darbo grupė
LV: Augsta līmeņa darba grupa migrācijas un patvēruma jautājumos
MT: Grupp ta' Ħidma ta' Livell Għoli dwar l-Ażil u l-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: Werkgroep op hoog niveau voor asiel en migratie
NO: høynivågruppen for asyl og migrasjon (b) / høgnivågruppa for asyl og migrasjon (n)
PL: Grupa Robocza Wysokiego Szczebla ds. Azylu i Migracji
PT: grupo alto nível asilo e migração
RO: Grupul de lucru la nivel înalt în domeniul migraţiei şi azilului
SE: Högnivågruppen för asyl och migration
SI: Delovna skupina visokih predstavnikov za azil in migracije
SK: Pracovná skupina na vysokej úrovni pre azyl a migráciu / HLWG

A strategic group which works under the auspices of the European Council and which was set up to establish a comprehensive and integrated strategy for the EU’s cooperation with third countries in the area of asylum and migration.

Synonym(s): HLWG

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, Strategic Committee on Immigration Frontiers and Asylum

1. The HLWG was set up in December 1998 to prepare cross-pillar Action Plans for the countries of origin and transit of asylum seekers and migrants.
2. The HLWG's focus is on external relations with third countries, particularly within the context of the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility. Its objective is to strengthen the external dimension of the EU’s asylum and migration policies based on dialogue, cooperation and partnership with countries of origin and transit in the areas of legal migration, irregular migration, migration and development. The Group also prepares conclusions and recommendations on asylum and migration to be adopted by the Council. They carry out an assessment of the political, economic and human rights situation in countries of origin and provide a joint analysis of the causes and consequences of migration.

Source:Conclusions of the General Affairs Council, December 1998

highly qualified employment

AT/DE/LU: hochqualifizierte Beschäftigung
BG: висококвалифицирана заетост
CS: zaměstnání vyžadující vysokou kvalifikaci
EE: kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud töö
ES: empleo altamente cualificado
FI: korkeaa pätevyyttä vaativa työ
FR/BE/LU: emploi hautement qualifié
HU: Magasan képzett személy / Munkavállaló foglalkoztatása
IE: fostaíocht ardoilte
IT: lavoro altamente qualificato
LT: aukštos profesinės kvalifikacijos darbas
LV: augsti kvalificēta nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: hooggekwalificeerde baan
NO: sysselsetting av høyt kvalifisert arbeidskraft (b) / sysselsetjing av høgt kvalifisert arbeidskraft (n)
PL: zatrudnienie pracowników wysoko wykwalifikowanych
PT: emprego altamente qualificado
RO: loc de muncă înalt calificat
SE: högkvalificerad anställning
SI: visoko kvalificirana zaposlitev
SK: vysokokvalifikované zamestnanie

The employment of a person who:

  1. in the Member State concerned, is protected as an employee under national employment law and/or in accordance with national practice, irrespective of the legal relationship, for the purpose of exercising genuine and effective work for, or under the direction of, someone else;
  2. is paid; and,
  3. has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher professional qualifications.

Related Term: EU Blue Card, highly qualified migrant

In some Member States, there is a distinction between 'highly skilled', referring to someone who has the required adequate and specific competence as proven by higher educational qualifications and/or extensive (vocational) experience; and 'highly qualified', referring to someone who has required adequate and specific competence as proven by higher educational qualifications only. In the EU context, however, these terms are considered to be interchangeable, e.g. the definition for 'highly skilled' used in the Migratory Statistics Regulation (862/2007) uses the definition for 'highly qualified'.

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

highly qualified migrant

AT/DE/LU: hochqualifizierter Migrant
BG: висококвалифициран миграант
CS: vysoce kvalifikovaný zaměstnanec; vysoce kvalifikovaný pracovník
EE: kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante altamente cualificada
FI: korkeasti koulutettu maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant hautement qualifié
GR: μετανάστης υψηλης εξειδίκευσης
HU: magasan képzett migráns
IE: imirceach ardoilte
IT: migrante altamente qualificato
LT: aukštos profesinės kvalifikacijos migrantas
LV: augsti kvalificēts migrants
MT: Migrant(a) bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: hooggekwalificeerde migrant
NO: høyt kvalifisert migrant (b) / høgt kvalifisert migrant (n)
PL: migrant wysoko wykwalifikowany
PT: Migrante altamente qualificado
RO: migrant înalt calificat
SE: högkvalificerad migrant
SI: visoko kvalificiran migrant
SK: vysokokvalifikovaný migrant

In the global context, a person falling within ILO ISCO-88 Classes 1, 2 and 3, e.g. a person qualified as a manager, executive, professional, technician or similar, who moves within the internal labour markets of transnational corporations and international organisations, or who seeks employment through international labour markets for scarce skills.

In the EU context, a third-country national who seeks employment in a Member State and has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher professional qualifications.

Synonym(s): business migrant, highly qualified migrant worker, highly skilled migrant

Broader Term: migrant worker

Related Term: EU Blue Card, highly qualified employment

1. In some Member States, there is a distinction between 'highly skilled', referring to someone who has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher educational qualifications, and/or extensive (vocational) experience; and 'highly qualified', referring to someone who has required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher educational qualifications only. In the EU context, however, these terms are considered to be interchangeable, e.g. the definition for 'highly skilled' used in the Migratory Statistics Regulation (862/2007) uses the definition for 'highly qualified'.
2. The understanding of who is a 'highly qualified' and a 'qualified third-country national' varies in the Member States, with different definitions and concepts existing. Often these depend on national labour market demands and other national criteria. For more information, see EMN: Attracting highly qualified and qualified third-country nationals, 2013 .

Source: Global context: UNESCO Glossary of Migration-related Terms
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

highly qualified migrant worker

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant

highly skilled migrant

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant


host country

AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmeland
BG: приемаща страна
CS: hostitelský stát
EE: vastuvõttev riik
ES: país de acogida
FI: vastaanottava maa
FR/BE/LU: pays d’accueil
GR: χώρα υποδοχής
HU: fogadó ország
IE: tír aíochta
IT: paese ospitante
LT: priimančioji valstybė
LV: uzņēmējvalsts
MT: Pajjiż li jilqa'
NL/BE: gastland
NO: vertsland
PL: kraj przyjmujący
PT: país de acolhimento
RO: ţară gazdă
SE: värdland
SI: država gostiteljica
SK: hostiteľská krajina / prijímajúca krajina

The Member State/country in which a third-country national/non-national takes up residence.

Synonym(s): receiving country

Narrower Term: host Member State

Related Term: host society, right of residence

Source: Developed by EMN

host Member State

AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmemit- gliedstaat
BG: приемаща държава членка
CS: hostitelský členský stát
EE: vastuvõttev liikmesriik
ES: Estado Miembro de acogida
FI: vastaanottava jäsenvaltio
FR/BE/LU: Etat membre d'accueil
GR: κ-μ υποδοχής
HU: befogadó tagállam
IE: ballstát aíochta
IT: Stato membro ospitante
LT: priimančioji valstybė narė
LV: uzņēmējdalībvalsts
MT: Stat Membru Ospitanti
NL/BE: gastlidstaat
NO: vertsmedlemsland
PL: przyjmujące państwo członkowskie
PT: estado membro de acolhimento
RO: Stat Membu gazdă
SE: mottagande medlemsstat
SI: gostujoča država članica
SK: hostiteľský členský štát / prijímajúci členský štát

The Member State to which a union citizen moves in order to exercise their right to free movement and residence.

Broader Term: host country

Source: Art. 2(3) of Council Directive 2004/38/EC (Free Movement Directive)

host society

AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmegesellschaft
BG: приемащо общество
CS: hostitelská společnost
EE: vastuvõttev ühiskond
ES: sociedad de acogida
FI: vastaanottava yhteiskunta
FR/BE/LU: société d’accueil
GR: κοινωνία υποδοχής
HU: befogadó társadalom
IE: sochaí aíochta
IT: società di accoglienza
LT: priimančioji visuomenė
LV: vietējā sabiedrība
MT: Soċjetà li tilqa'
NL/BE: gastsamenleving (syn.: gastmaatschappij)
NO: vertssamfunn
PL: społeczeństwo przyjmujące
PT: sociedade de acolhimento
RO: societate gazdă
SE: värdsamhälle
SI: gostujoča družba
SK: hostiteľská spoločnosť / prijímajúca spoločnosť

In the EU context, residents (both nationals and non-nationals) of a national/regional/local community within a Member State.

Broader Term: host Member State

Related Term: Common Basic Principles, host country, integration

In accordance with integrationbeing a dynamic, two-way process, the activities undertaken by the host society serve to facilitate the integration of a third-country nationalaccording to the Common Basic Principles.

Source: Developed by EMN

Hotspot Approach

AT/DE/LU: Hotspot-Konzept; Brennpunkt-System (EU acquis)
BG: Подход за създаване на горещи точки
CZ: přístup s využitím Hotspotů
FI: järjestelykeskus-toimintamalli
FR/BE/LU: approche des hotspots
IE: Cur Chuige Ball Te
HU: Hotspot megközelítés
IT: sistema basato sui punti di crisi
LV: "karsto punktu" sistēma
PL: podejście Hotspot / system Hotspot (w kontekście wsparcia państw członkowskich, które zmagają się z presją migracyjną na granicach zewnętrznych UE)
SE: Hotspotmetod (Krisplatsmetod, Akutstrategi)
SK: koncepcia krízových vstupných centier a problémových oblastí (EU acquis) / systém hotspotov / systém migračných hotspotov
SL: pristop "hotspot"
NO: helhetlig prosedyre (b) / helheitleg prosedyre (n)

Approach where EASO, Frontex , Europol and Eurojust work on the ground with the authorities of the frontline Member
States which are facing disproportionate migratory pressures at the EU’s external borders to help to fulfil their obligations under EU law and swiftly identify, register and fingerprint incoming migrants. The work of the agencies will be complementary to one another.

Synonym(s): Hotspots System


1. The Hotspot Approach was developed by the European Commission as part of the immediate action to assist Member States located at the external EU border and presented in the European Agenda on Migration in May 2015.
2. The operational support provided under the Hotspot Approach will concentrate on registration, identification, fingerprinting and debriefing of asylum seekers, as well as return operations. Those claiming asylum will be immediately channelled into an asylum procedure where EASO support teams will help to process asylum applications as quickly as possible. For those who are not in need of protection, Frontex will help Member States by coordinating the return of irregular migrants. Europol and Eurojust will assist the host Member State with investigations to dismantle smuggling and trafficking networks.
3. Italy and Greece are the first two Members States where this Hotspot approach is currently being implemented. Other Member States will also be able to benefit from the Hotspot Approach upon request.
4. The Hotspot Approach will also contribute to the implementation of the temporary relocation schemes proposed by the European Commission on 27 May and 9 September 2015: people in clear need of international protection will be identified in frontline Member States for relocation to other EU Member States where their asylum application will be processed.


Source: European Commission: The Hotspot approach to managing exceptional migratory flows - 11 September 2015

human rights

AT/DE/LU: Menschenrechte
BG: човешки права
CS: lidská práva
EE: inimõigused
ES: derechos humanos
FI: ihmisoikeudet
FR/BE/LU: droits de l'homme
HU: emberi jogok
IE: cearta an duine
IT: diritti umani
LT: žmogaus teisės
LV: cilvēktiesības
MT: Drittijiet (Id-) tal-bniedem
NL/BE: mensenrechten
NO: menneskerettigheter (b) / menneskerettar (n)
PL: prawa człowieka
PT: direitos humanos: direitos humanos
RO: drepturile omului
SE: mänskliga rättigheter
SI: človekove pravice
SK: ľudské práva

Agreed international standards that recognise and protect the dignity and integrity of every individual, without any distinction.

Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Human rights form part of customary international law and are stipulated in a variety of national, regional and international legal documents generally referred to as human rights instruments.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of terms

human rights law

AT/DE/LU: Menschenrechte, internationale Menschenrechts-normen
BG: закон за човешките права
CS: zákony o lidských právech
EE: inimõiguste õigus
ES: legislación de derechos humanos
FI: ihmisoikeuslainsäädäntö
FR/BE/LU: droit relatif aux droits de l'homme
HU: emberi jogok
IE: na dlíthe i leith Chearta an Duine, reachtaíocht i leith Chearta an Duine
IT: diritto dei diritti umani
LT: žmogaus teisių teisė
LV: cilvēktiesības
MT: Liġi (Il-) dwar id-drittijiet tal-bniedem
NL/BE: humanitair recht
NO: menneskerettslovgivning (b) / menneskerettslovgjeving (n)
PL: prawo praw człowieka
PT: legislação de direitos humanos: legislação de direitos humanos
RO: legislaţia privind drepturile omului
SE: lagstiftning till skydd för mänskliga rättigheter
SI: pravo o človekovih pravicah
SK: právo v oblasti ľudských práv

The body of customary international law, human rights instruments and national law that recognises and protects human rights.

Related Term: refugee law

Refugee law and human rights law complement each other.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of terms

humanitarian protection

AT/DE/LU: humanitärer Schutz
BG: хуманитарен статут
CS: humanitární ochrana
EE: humanitaarkaitse
ES: protección humanitaria
FI: humanitaarinen suojelu
FR/BE/LU: protection humanitaire
GR: προστασία για ανθρωπιστικούς λόγους
HU: humanitárius védelem
IE: cosaint dhaonnúil
IT: protezione umanitaria
LT: humanitarinė apsauga
LV: humānā aizsardzība
MT: Protezzjoni umanitarja
NL/BE: bescherming op humanitaire gronden
NO: beskyttelse på humanitært grunnlag (b) / vern på humanitært grunnlag (n)
PL: ochrona o charakterze humanitarnym
PT: protecção humanitária
RO: protecţie umanitară
SE: humanitärt skydd
SI: humanitarna zaščita
SK: humanitárna ochrana

A form of non-EU harmonised protection nowadays normally replaced by subsidiary protection, except in some Member States (see Notes).

Broader Term: international protection

Related Term: de facto refugee, resettled refugee, subsidiary protection

1. The UK has opted into the Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) but does not (legally) use the term 'subsidiary protection'. The inclusion of humanitarian protection within the UK immigration rules fully transposes the subsidiary protection provisions of the Qualification Directive into UK law, as it is defined as protection given to someone under the terms of the European Convention on Human Rights.
2. IE has also opted-into the Qualification Directive, and uses the term 'leave to remain'.
3. In DE, FI and IT, humanitarian protection and subsidiary protection are different concepts. In DE and IT, humanitarian protection is the reception and residence of refugees under international law or on humanitarian or political (DE only) grounds, and in FI, humanitarian protection is granted to foreign nationals who cannot return to their country of origin or country of former habitual residence as a result of an environmental catastrophe or a bad security situation, which may be due to an international or internal armed conflict or a poor human rights situation.
4. In EE, LV, this term is not used.
5. AT and ES use a similar expression, namely 'residence permit on humanitarian grounds'.
6. In BG, humanitarian protection encompasses subsidiary protection as well as protection granted for other humanitarian reasons (see Art. 9, SG No 52 of 2007).
7. In NO, a residence permit may be granted, even if the other conditions laid down in the Act are not satisfied, provided there are strong humanitarian considerations or the foreign national has a particular connection with the realm. To determine whether there are strong humanitarian considerations, an overall assessment shall be made of the case. Importance may be attached, inter alia, to whether the foreign national is an unaccompanied minor who would be without proper care if they were returned; the foreign national needs to stay in the realm due to compelling health circumstances; there are social or humanitarian circumstances relating to the return situation that give grounds for granting a residence permit; the foreign national has been a victim of human trafficking. (For further information, see Immigration Act of May 2008, Chaper 5, Section 38).

Source: Developed by EMN

human trafficking

Please see entry for trafficking in human beings