Please see entry for Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
Please see entry for General Directors of Immigration Services Conference
Please see entry for Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group, Migration Experts Sub-Group
The socially constructed attributes, roles, activities, responsibilities and needs predominantly connected to being male or female in given societies or communities at a given time.
Related Term: sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, social group, LGB(TI)
1. People fleeing human rights violations and persecution due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity may qualify for international protection. Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) refers in Art. 10 'Reasons for persecution' to gender related aspects, including gender identity, which shall be given due consideration for the purposes of determining membership of a particular social group or identifying a characteristic of such a group.
2. UNHCR and EASO use the following definition of 'gender identity': '"Each person's deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the personal sense of the body - which may involve, if chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means - and other expressions of gender, including of dress, speech and mannerism (see ICJ, Yogyakarta Principles - Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, ('Yogyakarta Principles'), March 2007. .
The causal relationship between gender and persecution i.e. when the reason for persecution is related to a person's gender.
Synonym(s): gender-related persecution
Narrower Term: gender-specific violence
Related Term: gender, social group, female genital mutilation
1. Gender-based persecution is a term that has no legal meaning per se. It is used to encompass the range of different claims in which gender is a relevant consideration in the determination of refugee status. Gender-related claims may be brought by either women or men, although they are more commonly brought by women.
2. Although gender is not specifically referenced as one of the grounds on which an individual can be recognized as a refugee and given protection, it is widely accepted that it can influence or dictate the reasons for persecution and as such there is no need to add an additional ground to the Refugee Convention definition. A gender-sensitive interpretation should be given to each of the Convention grounds 'race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion' although gender-based persecution is predominantly interpreted within the parameters of the particular social group ground.
Source: Crawley, Heaven: Gender-Related Persecution and Women’s Claims to Asylum and UNHCR: Guidelines on international protection: Gender-related persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Regfuees - May 2002
Different types and forms of harm and human right violations which are gender-specific but which do not necessarily constitute persecution because of gender.
Synonym(s): gender-specific harm, gender-based violence, GBV
Broader Term: gender-based persecution
Related Term: gender, female genital mutilation
1. Such forms of harm are more frequently used against women or affect women in a manner which is different to men and include, for example, sexual violence, rape, female genital mutilation, domestic abuse, forced abortion and sterilisation and denial of access to contraception.
2. The Recast Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95/EU) recognises that gender-specific acts may amount to persecution.
3. Gender-specific violence is understood as a narrower term to gender-based persecution.
A network established in order to facilitate practical cooperation in the field of asylum and migration between the Immigration Services of the different member countries.
Related Term: European Asylum Support Office
1.The GDISC was initiated in 2004. 2. Member countries comprise the 28 EU Member States, the three EU candidate countries (Iceland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey), the potential EU candidate Bosnia and Herzegovina and two Schengen associated countries (Norway and Switzerland).
3. For more information, see: http://www.gdisc.org/
The UN multilateral treaty which is the key legal document defining who is a refugee and who is not, the rights of refugees and the legal obligations of States towards them.
Synonym(s): Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the status of refugees and its New York Protocol of 31 January 1967, CRSR, Geneva Convention and Protocol, The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol, Refugee Convention, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 Geneva Convention, 1967 Geneva Protocol
Related Term: Convention refugee , international protection, refugee law, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1. The 1967 Protocol removed geographical and temporal restrictions from the Convention. The 1951 Convention consolidates previous international instruments relating to refugees and provides the most comprehensive codification of the rights of refugees at international level. In contrast to earlier international refugee instruments, which applied to specific groups of refugees, the 1951 endorses a single definition of the term 'refugee' in Art. 1.
2. The Convention is both a status and rights-based instrument and is underpinned by a number of fundamental principles, most notably non-discrimination, non-penalisation and non-refoulement.
An act committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.
Related Term: ethnic cleansing
Please see entry for Global Forum on Migration and Development
The overarching framework of the European Union's external migration policy based on genuine partnership with non-EU countries and addressing all aspects of migration and mobility issues in an integrated, comprehensive and balanced manner.
Synonym(s): GAMM, Global Approach to Migration,GAM
Narrower Term: migration profile,migration routes initiative
Related Term: Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration, Asia-Europe Meeting, Bali Process, Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Cotonou Agreement, 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean, Global Forum on Migration and Development, High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration, migration profile, Migration, asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative, mobility partnership, Prague Process
1. The Global Approach to Migration (GAM) was first defined by the European Council in December 2005 (COM(2007) 247) and further developed in 2007 and 2008. It has constituted the framework for the cooperation of the EU with third countries in the area of migration and asylum. The Stockholm Programme adopted in 2009 also acknowledged the importance of consolidating, strengthening and implementing the GAM.
2.The approach comprises the whole migration agenda, including legal and irregular migration, combating trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, strengthening protection for refugees, enhancing migrant rights and harnessing the positive links that exist between migration and development.
3. In 2011, the global approach was evaluated. As a result of this, the Commission highlighted the need for further strengthening the external migration policy and published in November 2011 the Communication on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743 final on a new impetus to the EU's external migration policy. The renewed GAMM focuses on four main priorities: improving the organisation of legal migration and facilitated mobility, preventing and reducing irregular migration in an efficient, yet humane way, strengthening the synergies between migration and development, and strengthening international protection systems and the external dimension of asylum.
An initiative of the UN Member States to address the migration and development interconnections in practical and action-orientated ways.
Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Cotonou Agreement, migration profile
1.The first session of the GFMD was held in 2007. 2. The GFMD is a voluntary, informal, non-binding and government-led process open to all States and Observers of the UN, to advance understanding and cooperation on the mutually reinforcing relationship between migration and development. 3. For more information, see the website of GFMD
Please see entry for Convention grounds for persecution
A practice by which all persons forming part of a large-scale influx are regarded as refugees on a prima facie basis, ensuring that protection and assistance needs are met without prior individual determination of refugee status.
Synonym(s): prima facie determination of refugee status
Related Term: group persecution, prima facie refugee
refugee statusmust normally be determined on an individual basis, but when large populations are displaced under circumstances that indicate that most members of the population could individually be considered refugees, and where the need to provide protection and assistance is urgent and/or where it may not be possible for practical reasons to carry out an individual determination of refugee status, each member of that population in question can be regarded prima facie (in the absence of evidence to the contrary) as a refugee. In other words, the presumption is that individual members of the population concerned would be considered as refugees in need of protection. For more information, see UNHCR: Refugee status determination 2005 .
A working group within the framework of G8 countries which tackles irregular migrationand trafficking in the broader context of combating terrorism and transnational crime.
Synonym(s): G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group, Roma-Lyon Group
1. The G8 Roma-Lyon Group mainly focuses on strategies relating to public security in an effort to combat terrorism and transnational crime. It gathers experts who are all civil servants from the G8 members, mainly from justice, foreign affairs and law enforcement services and intelligence agencies. The Group consists of several sub-groups dealing with different aspects of transnational crime.
2. G8 countries are Canada, FR, DE, IT, Japan, Russia, UK and the United States of America, with the European Commission also attending meetings.
A concept which recognises that persecutioncan be enacted against members of a section of the population (a 'group') that is suffering oppression or is threatened as a whole in its home country according to one of the criteria defined in the Geneva Convention of 1951to an extent that the members of such a group are not only covertly or potentially at risk, but quite tangibly and imminently requiring thus a certain intensity of persecution to warrant the general assumption of the individual persecution of each group member, irrespective of whether an individual has indeed been the victim of such persecution. In any case, whilst a group may be persecuted, an application for international protectionmust be examined on an individual basis in the Member States, and not all together as one group.
Broader Term: persecution
Related Term: group determination of refugee status, prima facie refugee
1. This concept has no legal definition in the Member States.
2. 'Group' is interpreted broadly as referring to persons of a particular religious belief, social (e.g. homosexuals), and/or coming from a particular region within a country.
3. An assumption of group persecution requires a certain intensity of persecution to warrant the general assumption of the individual persecution of each group member, irrespective of whether an individual has indeed been the victim of such persecution. This requires a threat emanating from so large a number of violations of rights protected by asylum law that it goes beyond separate individual infringements or a large number of individual infringements, but rather constitutes acts of persecution in the specific territory aimed at the group as a whole which increase, are repeated and spread to such an extent that there is not only a possibility, but a direct imminent danger of becoming a victim oneself for any member of such a group.
4. With consideration to the general principle of subsidiarity in refugee law, group persecution will only entitle a refugee to protection abroad, if the danger is present in the entire territory of the country of origin, i.e. if there is no internal alternative for protection. For the purposes of the danger of persecution after return, such an internal alternative must be reasonable and accessible from the country of refuge.
5.For more information on group persecution, see the European Database of Asylum Law( EDAL), i.e. German Federal Administrative Court, ruling of 12 April 2009 - 10 C 11.08.
Please see entry for migrant worker