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failed applicant

failed asylum seeker

false declaration of parenthood

AT/DE/LU: falsche Erklärung der Elternschaft/falsche Elternschaftsangabe
BG: невярна декларация за родителство
CS: falešné prohlášení rodičovství
EE: põlvnemise kohta valeandmete esitamine
ES: declaracion falsa de paternidad / maternidad
FI: valheellinen vanhemmuuden ilmoittaminen
FR/BE/LU: fausse déclaration de parentalité
HU: hamis szülői nyilatkozat
IE: bréagdhearbhú tuismíochta
IT: falsa dichiarazione di filiazione
LT: fiktyvus įvaikinimas
LV: vecāku statusa viltus reģistrēšana
MT: Dikjarazzjoni falza ta’ maternità u/jew paternità
NL/BE: valse ouderschapsverklaring
NO: falsk vedgåelse av foreldreskap (b) / falsk vedgåing av foreldreskap (n)
PL: fałszywe oświadczenie o uznaniu rodzicielstwa
: falsas declarações parentesco
RO: declaraţie de paternitate falsă
SE: osant intygande om föräldraskap
SI: lažna izjava o starševstvu
SK: falošné prehlásenie rodičovstva

An untruthful declaration of a relationship of parenthood which does not actually exist either (a) between a Minorwho is an EU citizen or settled third-country nationaland a third-country national adult, where the adult claims to be the parent in order to obtain or legalise their residence in a Member State, or (b) between a third-country national minor and a union citizenadult or a settled third-country national adult where the adult declares themselves parent of the minor in order to obtain or legalise the residence of the child and/or possibly the residence of the other parent.


Narrower Term: false declaration of paternity

Related Term: civil partnership of convenience, marriage of convenience, partnership of convenience

Note:
For more information on false declarations of parenthood, see EMN: Misuse of family reunification, 2012

Source: Developed by EMN

false identity document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

false travel document

family formation

AT/DE/LU: Familienbildung
BG: член на семейство
CS: rodinný příslušník
EE: perekonnaliige
ES: formación de la familia
FI: perheenjäsen
FR/BE/LU: constitution de la famille
GR: No translation
HU: családtag
IE: duine muinteartha
IT: familiare
LT: šeimos kūrimas
LV: ģimenes loceklis
MT: Kompożizzjoni / Tiswira tal-familja
NL/BE: gezinsvorming
NO: familiemedlem
PL: członek rodziny
PT: reagrupamento familiar
RO: reîntregirea familiei
SE: familjemedlem
SI: družinski član
SK: rodinný príslušník / člen rodiny

The entry into and residence in a Member State of a third-country national on the basis of the establishment of a family relationship either

  1. after their third-country national sponsor has gained legal residence in a Member State; or
  2. with an EU national.


Broader Term: family reunification
Related Term: chain migration, family migration, nuclear family, right to family life, right to family unity

Note:
1. This term is specific to some Member States, particularly BE, NL, SE. In UK, this relates to the formation of family between a UK national and a third-country national only.
2. In other Member States, family formation is covered under 'family reunification'.

Source:Developed by EMN

family member

AT/DE/LU: Familienangehöriger
BG: създаване на семейство
CS: sloučení rodiny
EE: pere loomise eesmärgil riiki sisenemine (no usual translation)
ES: Miembro de la familia
FI: perheenmuodostaminen
FR/BE/LU: membre de la famille
GR: μέλος οικογένειας
HU: családalapítás
IE: foirmiú teaghlaigh
IT: componente familiare
LT: šeimos narys
LV: ģimenes apvienošana / ģimenes atkalapvienošana
MT: Membru tal-familja
NL/BE: gezinslid
NO: familiedannelse (b) / familiedanning (n)
PL: założenie rodziny
PT: membros da familia
RO: membru de familie
SE: familjebildning
SI: ustanovitev družine
SK: založenie rodiny

In the general migration context, a person either married to, or having a relationship legally recognised as equivalent to marriage, to a migrant, as well as their dependent children or other dependants who are recognised as members of the family by applicable legislation.

In the context of the Family Reunification Directive, a third-country national, as specified in Art. 4 of Directive 2003/86/EC (normally members of the nuclear family – i.e. the spouse and the minor children), who has entered the territory of the European Union for the purpose of family reunification.

In the context of the Free Movement Directive:

  1. the spouse;
  2. the partner with whom the Union citizen has contracted a registered partnership, on the basis of the legislation of a Member State, if the legislation of the host Member State treats registered partnerships as equivalent to marriage and in accordance with the conditions laid down in the relevant legislation of the host Member State;
  3. the direct descendants who are under the age of 21 or are dependants and those of the spouse or partner as defined in point (b);
  4. the dependent direct relatives in the ascending line and those of the spouse or partner as defined in point (b).

In the context of asylum, and in particular Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation), this means insofar as the family already existed in the country of origin, the following members of the applicant’s family who are present on the territory of the Member States:

  • the spouse of the applicant or their unmarried partner in a stable relationship, where the law or practice of the Member State concerned treats unmarried couples in a way comparable to married couples under its law relating to third-country nationals;
  • the minor children of couples referred to in the first indent or of the applicant, on condition that they are unmarried and regardless of whether they were born in or out of wedlock or adopted as defined under national law;
  • when the applicant is a minor and unmarried, the father, mother or another adult responsible for the applicant, whether by law or by the practice of the Member State where the adult is present;
  • when the beneficiary of international protection is a minor and unmarried, the father, mother or another adult responsible for them whether by law or by the practice of the Member State where the beneficiary is present.



Related Term: dependant, family reunification, nuclear family , sponsor

Source: General: Derived by EMN from Art. 4 of UN Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families
Family reunification: Recital 9 and Art. 4 of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)
Free movement: Art. 2(2) of Council Directive 2004/38/EC (Free Movement Directive)
Asylum: Art. 2 (g) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

family migration

AT/DE/LU: Familienzusammenführung, Familienmigration
BG: миграция с цел създаване или събиране на семейство
CS: rodinná migrace
EE: pereränne
ES: migración por motivos familiares
FI: perheperusteinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration pour des raisons familiales
GR: οικογενειακή μετανάστευση
HU: családegyesítési célú migráció / családegyesítés
IE: imirce teaghlaigh
IT: migrazione familiare
LT: šeimos migracija
LV: ģimenes migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni għal raġunijiet ta' familja
NL/BE: gezinsmigratie
NO: familiemigrasjon
PL: migracja rodzinna
PT: migração familiar
RO: migraţia în scopul reîntregirii familiei
SE: familjemigration
SI: družinska migracija
SK: migrácia z rodinných dôvodov

In the global context, a general concept encompassing family reunification, family formation, and migration of an entire family at the same time.

In the EU context, a concept which refers explicitly to family reunificationand family formation.


Related Term: chain migration, family formation, family reunification, right to family unity

Source: Gobal context: Derived by EMN from the discussion of types of family migration in Chapter 6 of IOM World Migration Report 2008
EU context: Developed by EMN

family reunification

AT/DE/LU: Familienzusammenführung
BG: събиране на семейство
CS: sloučení rodiny
EE: perekonna taasühinemine
ES: reagrupación familiar
FI: perheenyhdistäminen
FR/BE/LU: regroupement familial
GR: οικογενειακή επανένωση
HU: családegyesítés
IE: athaontú teaghlaigh
IT: ricongiungimento familiare
LT: šeimos susijungimas
LV: ģimenes apvienošana / ģimenes atkalapvienošana
MT: Riunifikazzjoni tal-familja
NL/BE: gezinshereniging
NO: familiegjenforening (b) / familiegjenforeining (n)
PL: łączenie rodzin
PT: reagrupamento familiar
RO: reîntregirea familiei, reunificarea familiei
SE: familjeåterförening
SI: združevanje družine
SK: zlúčenie rodiny

The establishment of a family relationship which is either:

  1. the entry into and residence in a Member State, in accordance with Council Directive 2003/86/EC, by family members of a third-country national residing lawfully in that Member State ( 'sponsor' ) in order to preserve the family unit, whether the family relationship arose before or after the entry of the sponsor; or
  2. between an EU national and third-country nationalestablished outside the EU who then subsequently enters the EU.


Synonym(s): family reunion

Narrower Term: family formation
Broader Term: right to family unity

Related Term: chain migration, family migration, nuclear family, right to family life

Note:
Art. 5(3) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive) also covers 'reunification' when a third-country national is already resident in the EU under different permissions (e.g. a residence permit for the purpose of remuneration or study).

Source:Part (a): Art. 2 (d) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)
Part (b): Developed by EMN

family reunion

Please see entry for family reunification

final decision

AT/DE/LU: rechtskräftige Entscheidung
BG: окончателно решение
CS: pravomocné rozhodnutí
EE: jõustunud otsus
ES: resolución definitiva
FI: lainvoimainen päätös
FR/BE/LU: décision finale
GR: οριστική απόφαση
HU: jogerős határozat
IE: cinneadh críochnaitheach
IT: decisione definitiva
LT: galutinis sprendimas
LV: galīgais lēmums
MT: Deċiżjoni finali
NL/BE: onherroepelijke beslissing
NO: endelig vedtak (b) /endeleg avgjerd (n)
PL: ostateczna decyzja
PT: decisão final
RO: decizie finală
SE: slutligt beslut
SI: dokončna odločba / pravnomočna odločba
SK: konečné rozhodnutie

A decision on whether the third-country national or stateless person be granted refugee status or subsidiary protection status by virtue of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and which is no longer subject to a remedy within the framework of Chapter V of this Directive, irrespective of whether such remedy has the effect of allowing applicants to remain in the Member States concerned pending its outcome.

Source:Art. 2(e) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

first asylum principle

Please see entry for first country of asylum

5+5 Dialogue

5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean

AT/DE/LU: 5+5 Dialog über Migration im Westlichen Mittelmeerraum
BG: 5+5 диалог по въпросите на миграцията в Западното Средиземноморие
CS: Dialog 5+5 o migraci v západním Středomoří
EE: 5 +5 Vahemere lääneosa rände dialoog
ES: Diálogo 5+5 sobre migración en el Mediterráneo Occidental
FI: 5+5-vuoropuhelu Välimeren länsiosan maiden välillä
FR/BE/LU: Dialogue 5+5 sur la migration en Méditerranée Occidentale
HU: 5+5 Nyugat- Mediterrán Migrációs Párbeszéd
IE: Idirphlé 5+5 maidir leis an Imirce i réigiún na Meánmhara Thiar
IT: Dialogo 5 +5 sulle Migrazioni nel Mediterraneo Occidentale
LT: Vakarų Viduržemio jūros regiono valstybių dialogas „5+5“ migracijos klausimais
LV: 5 + 5 Vidusjūras rietumu valstu dialogs par migrāciju
MT: Djalogu 5+5 fuq il-Migrazzjoni fil-Punent tal-Mediterran
NL/BE: 5 + 5 dialoog over migratie in het Westelijke Middellandsezeegebied
NO: 5+5-dialog om migrasjon i det vestre Middelhavet
PL: 5+5 Dialog na rzecz migracji w zachodniej części Morza Śródziemnego
PT: diálogo 5+5 para o Mediterrâneo ocidental
RO: 5+5 Dialog cu privire la migraţie în zona vest Mediteraneeană
SE: No usual translation
SI: 5 + 5 Dialog o migracijah v zahodnem Sredozemlju
SK: Dialóg 5+5 o migrácii v západnom Stredomorí

A trans-Mediterranean forum set up as a security initiative to secure closer cooperation between five EU Member States and five Arab Maghreb countries through political dialogue and economic cooperation, and by encouraging more efficient management of resources as a means of enhancing regional interdependence and development.


Synonym(s): 5+5 Dialogue, Western Mediterranean Forum

Broader Term: Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration, Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development , Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. The Western Mediterranean Forum, commonly referred to as the 5+5 Dialogue, was officially launched in Rome in 1990.
2. The forum involves ten partners (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, France, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain) and is facilitated by the IOM. Its areas of activity are information exchange, joint management of international borders, agreed forms of labour migration, migration for development, and protection of the rights of migrants in the Western Mediterranean region.
3. For more information see the website of the 5+5 Dialogue

Source:Website of the 5+5 Dialogue

first country of asylum

AT/DE/LU: erster Asylstaat, erstes Asylland
BG: първа страна на убежище
CS: první země azylu
EE: esmane varjupaigariik
EL: πρώτης χώρας ασύλου
ES: primer país de asilo
FI: ensimmäinen turvapaikkamaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de premier asile
HU: elsődleges befogadó állam
IE: an chéad tír thearmainn
IT: paese di primo asilo
LT: pirmoji prieglobsčio šalis
LV: pirmā patvēruma valsts
MT: L-Ewwel art /pajjiż tal-ażil
NL/BE: eerste land van asiel
NO: første asylland
PL: kraj pierwszego azylu
PT: primeiro país de asilo
RO: prima ţară de azil
SE: första asylland
SI: prva država azila
SK: prvá krajina azylu

A country in which an applicant for international protectionhas either (a) been recognised as a refugee and they can still avail themselves of that protection ; or (b) otherwise enjoys sufficient protection , including benefiting from the principle of non-refoulement , provided that they will be readmitted to that country.


Synonym(s): country of first asylum, first asylum principle

Note:
1. In applying the concept of 'first country of asylum' to the particular circumstances of an applicant, Member States may take into account Art. 38(1) of the Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) ('concept of safe third country').
2. In accordance with relevant legislation, an applicant shall be allowed to challenge the application of the first country of asylum concept in relation to their particular circumstances.

Source:Art. 35 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

forced labour

AT/DE/LU: Zwangsarbeit
BG: принудителен труд
CS: nucená práce
EE: sunnitöö
ES: trabajo forzoso
FI: pakkotyö
FR/BE/LU: travail forcé
HU: kényszermunka
IE: obair éigeantais
IT: lavoro forzato
LT: priverstinis darbas
LV: piespiedu darbs
MT: Xogħol furzat/ta’ bilfors
NL/BE: gedwongen arbeid
NO: tvangsarbeid
PL: praca przymusowa
RO: muncă forţată
SE: tvångsarbete
SI: prisilno delo
SK: nútená práca

All work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered themselves voluntarily.


Synonym(s): compulsory labour, compulsory work

Related Term: exploitation , child labour

Source:Art. 2(1) of ILO Convention No. 29, 1930 (Forced Labour Convention)

forced marriage

AT/DE/LU: Zwangsheirat
BG: брак по принуда
CS: nucený sňatek
EE: sundabielu
ES: matrimonio forzado
FI: pakkoavioliitto
FR/BE/LU: mariage forcé
GR: εξαναγκασμένος γάμος
HU: kényszerházasság
IE: pósadh éigeantais
IT: matrimonio forzato
LT: priverstinė santuoka
LV: piespiedu laulības
MT: Żwieġ sfurzat/ta' bilfors
NL/BE: gedwongen huwelijk
NO: tvangsekteskap
PL: wymuszone małżeństwo
PT: casamento forçado
RO: căsătorie forţată
SE: tvångsäktenskap
SI: prisilna poroka
SK: nútené manželstvo

The union of two persons, at least one of whom has not given their full and free consent to the marriage.

Source:Art. 4 of Council of Europe Resolution 1468 (2005)

forced migrant

AT/DE/LU: Zwangsmigrant
BG: мигрант по принуда
CS: nucený migrant
EE: sundsisserändaja (no usual translation)
ES: migrante forzoso
FI: pakkomuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant forcé
GR: εξαναγκαστική μετανάστευση
HU: kényszerű migráns
IE: imirceach éigeantais
IT: migrante forzato
LT: priverstinis migrantas
LV: piespiedu migrants
MT: Migrant(a) kostrett(a)/sfurzat(a)
NL/BE: gedwongen migrant
NO: tvungen migrant
PL: migrant przymusowy
PT: migrante forçado
RO: migrant forţat
SE: tvångsmigrant
SI: prisilni migrant
SK: nútený migrant

A person subject to a migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects).


Narrower Term: displaced person , refugee

Broader Term: forced migration, migrant

Related Term: de facto refugee, economic migrant, forced migration

Source: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011

forced migration

AT/DE/LU: erzwungene Migration, Zwangsmigration
BG: принудителна миграция
CS: nucená migrace
EE: sundränne
ES: migración forzosa
FI: pakkomuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration forcée
GR: αναγκαστική μετανάστευση
HU: kényszerű migráció
IE: imirce éigeantais
IT: migrazione forzata
LT: priverstinė migracija
LV: piespiedu migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni kostretta / sfurzata
NL/BE: gedwongen migratie
NO: tvangsmigrasjon
PL: migracja przymusowa
PT: migração forçada
RO: migraţie forţată
SE: tvångsmigration
SI: prisilna migracija
SK: nútená migrácia

A migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects).


Narrower Term: displacement

Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: economic migration, forced migrant, managed migration

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011

forced return

In the global context, obligatory returnof an individual to the country of origin, transit or third country (i.e. country of return), on the basis of an administrative or judicial act.

In the EU context, the process of going back – whether in voluntary or enforced compliance with an obligation to return– to:

  • one's country of origin; or
  • a country of transitin accordance with EU or bilateral readmission agreements or other arrangements; or
  • another third country, to which the third-country national concerned voluntarily decides to return and in which they will be accepted.


Synonym(s): compulsory return , removal

Broader Term: return

Related Term: return decision


Note:

1. The term ‘forced return’ is not used at all in EU legislation.
2. Council Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive) which regulates the return of migrants whose stay has been found to be illegal refers to post-return decision return as ‘return’ (not ‘forced return’).
3. In the EU environment (e.g. in the metadata of Eurostat), ‘forced return’ is synonymous with ‘removal’ – i.e. the physical transportation out of the country following a return decision.
4. Outside of EU legislation the term ‘forced return’ is more commonly used and understood as a synonym with ‘compulsory return’ – i.e. return which occurs in compliance with a return decision.

foreign population of a country

AT/DE/LU: ausländische Bevölkerung eines Landes
BG: чуждестранно население на една държава
CS: populace cizinců v zemi
EE: välisriigi kodanikest rahvastik
ES: población extranjera
FI: maan ulkomainen väestö
FR/BE/LU: population étrangère d'un pays
GR: αλλοδαπός πληθυσμός
HU: egy ország külföldi népessége
IE: daonra eachtrannach tíre
IT: popolazione straniera di un paese
LT: šalyje gyvenantys užsieniečiai
LV: ārvalstnieki
MT: Popolazzjoni barranija ta' pajjiż
NL/BE: bevolking van buitenlandse nationaliteit
NO: et lands utenlandske befolkning (b) / den utanlandske folkesetnaden i eit land (n)
PL: populacja cudzoziemców z kraju
PT: população estrangeira
RO: populaţie străină
SE: utländska medborgare
SI: tuje prebivalstvo države
SK: populácia cudzincov v krajine

All persons who have a certain country as their country of usual residence and who are citizens of another country.

Narrower Term: stock of foreigners

Related Term: migrant stock

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

foreign worker

Please see entry for migrant worker

foreigner

Please see entry for alien and admission onto the territory

forged identity document

forged travel document

FRA

fraudulent identity document

fraudulent travel document

fraudulent travel or identity document

AT/DE/LU: gefälschtes/betrügeri-sches Reise-oder Identitätsdokument
BG: подправен документ за пътуване или самоличност
CS: padělaný nebo pozměněný průkaz totožnosti
: gefälschtes / betrügerisches Reise-oder Identitätsdokument
EE: võltsitud reisi- või isikut tõendav dokument
ES: documento de identidad o de viaje fraudulento
FI: väärä/väärennetty matkustusasiakirja/henkilötodistus
FR/BE/LU: document de voyage ou d'identité frauduleux
HU: hamis úti vagy személyazonosságot igazoló okmány
IE: bréagdhoiciméad taistil nó aitheantais
IT: documento di viaggio o di identità fraudolento
LT: suklastotas kelionės ar asmens dokumentas
LV: viltots ceļošanas vai personu apliecinošs dokuments
MT: Dokument tal-ivjaġġar jew tal-identità frodulenti / qarrieqi
NL/BE: frauduleus reis- of identiteitsdocument
NO: falskt reise- eller identitetsbevis
PL: fałszywy dokument podróży lub tożsamości
RO: document de călătorie sau identitate fals, falsificat sau obţinut în mod fraudulos
SE: falsk rese- eller identitetshandling
SI: zlorabljena (lažna) potna listina ali dokument za izkazovanje identitete
SK: falošný alebo pozmenený cestovný alebo identifikačný doklad / falošný alebo pozmenený cestovný doklad alebo doklad totožnosti

Any travel or identity document:

  1. that has been falsely made or altered in some material way by anyone other than a person or agency lawfully authorised to make or issue the travel or identity document on behalf of a State; or
  2. that has been improperly issued or obtained through misrepresentation, corruption or duress or in any other unlawful manner; or
  3. that is being used by a person other than the rightful holder.



Synonym(s): fraudulent travel document, fraudulent identity document, forged travel document, forged identity document, false travel document, false identity document

Related Term: travel document

Source:Art. 3(c) of Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime

free movement

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility

freedom of movement

Please see entry for right to freedom of movement

FRONTEX

frontier worker

AT/DE/LU: Grenzarbeitnehmer (EU acquis, DE)
BG: пограничен работник
CS: přeshraniční pracovník
EE: piiriala töötaja
ES: trabajador transfronterizo
FI: rajatyöntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur frontalier
GR: συνοριακός εργαζόμενος
HU: határmenti ingázó (munkavállaló)
IE: oibrí trasteorann
IT: lavoratore straniero frontaliero
LT: pasienio darbuotojas
LV: pārrobežu darba ņēmējs
MT: Ħaddiem ta' mal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grensarbeider
NO: arbeidstaker som grensependler (b) / arbeidstakar som grensependlar (n)
PL: pracownik przygraniczny
PT: trabalhador fronteiriço
RO: lucrător transfrontalier
SE: gränsarbetare
SI: obmejni delavec
SK: pracovník z prihraničnej oblasti

In the EU context, a worker who is employed in the frontier zone of a Member State but who returns each day or at least once a week to the frontier zone of a neighbouring country in which they reside and of which they are nationals.


Related Term: border resident, cross-border worker, local border traffic

Note:
1. The definition covers in particular third-country nationals entering the EU from the neighbouring third-country in which they reside.
2. Contrary to 'cross-border workers', frontier workers work in the frontier zone of the neighbouring country.

Source:Council Resolution of 20 June 1994 on limitation on admission of third-country nationals to the territory of the Member States for employment

Fundamental Rights Agency