Please see entry for Eastern Partnership
Please see entry for Eastern Partnership
Please see entry for European Asylum Support Office
An institutionalised forum for EU cooperation with its Eastern neighbours whose main goal is to create the necessary conditions to accelerate political association and further economic integration.
Synonym(s): EAP, Söderköping Process
Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy
Related Term: Black Sea synergy, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
1.Within the context of the Eastern Partnership Platform 1 (democracy, good governance and stability), the Eastern Partnership Panel on Migration and Asylum (EaP) was created in 2011. The overall objective of the Panel is to strengthen the asylum and migration systems of Eastern partners and advance the dialogue on migration and asylum issues between the Eastern partners and the EU, as well as amongst the Eastern partners.
2. The precursor of the EaP was the Söderköping Process, which was launched in May 2001 as a cross-border cooperation on asylum and migration in order to respond to new challenges due to the EU's enlargement eastwards. With the establishment of the Panel on Migration and Asylum within the Eastern Partnership’s Platform 1, the work of the Söderköping Process is being carried on within the multilateral dimension of the Eastern Partnership.
3. For more information, see the website of the EAP.
A person who leaves their country of origin purely for economic reasons that are not in any way related to the refugee definition, in order to seek material improvements in their livelihood.
Synonym(s): economic refugee
Narrower Term: guest worker , migrant worker
Broader Term: migrant
Related Term: economic migration, managed migration
1. Economic migrants do not fall within the criteria for refugee statusand are therefore not entitled to benefit from international protectionas refugees.
2. Economic migrants are sometimes referred to as economic refugees, but this is a misuse of the term 'refugee'.
Please see entry for economic migrant
Please see entry for third-country national
In the global context, a resident (national or alien) departing or exiting from one State intending to remain abroad for a period exceeding one year.
In the EU context, a person who, having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.
Broader Term: migrant
Related Term: immigrant, emigration
National legislation might understand different time limits in their definitions.
Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(c) and (g) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)
In the global context, the act of departing or exiting from one State with the intention to remain abroad for a period exceeding one year.
In the EU context, the action by which a person, having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State or another Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.
Broader Term: Migration
Related Term: emigrant, immigration
Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(c) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)
Provisional measures in the event of Member State(s) being confronted with an emergency situation characterised by a sudden inflow of third-country nationals including a distribution mechanism for asylum-seekers in clear need of international protection to ensure a fair and balanced participation of all Member States.
Synonym(s): emergency relocation
Narrower Term: emergency relocation system, contingency plan
Related Term: relocation
1. These provisional measures are envisaged under Art.78 (3) of the Treaty of the European Union.
2. Under the distribution mechanism the receiving Member State will be responsible for the examination of an application for international protection in accordance with established rules and guarantees. The EU Commission has defined a redistribution key based on criteria such as GDP, size of population, unemployment rate and
past numbers of asylum seekers.
3. EASO uses the term ‘contingency plan’ to refer to national plans detailing special measures to be taken in the event of a massive influx of migrants. This may be limited to the national asylum system or to migrants more generally.
4. Art. 33 of the Dublin Regulation provides for two types of Member State emergency responses: “preventative action plans”, which should be operationalised when particular pressure on a Member State’s asylum system and/or problems in its functioning may jeopardise the application of the Dublin Regulation, and 'crisis management action plans', which should be operationalised if the 'preventative action plan' does not remedy the problem.
Derived by EMN from Art. 78(3) TFEU and the European Agenda on Migration: Glossary, facts and figures
Please see entry for European Migration Network
In the context of migration, penalties, including fines, repayments to victims/the State and incarceration, imposed on employers by the Member State for breaking employment and/or migration rules.
The exercise of activities covering whatever form of labour or work regulated under national law or in accordance with established practice for or under the direction and/or supervision of an employer.
Related Term: Employee, employer , occupation
Any measure taken by the enforcing Member State with a view to implementing an expulsion decision.
Related Term: expulsion, expulsion decision
Note:In IE and UK, this phrase is used in a more global sense for all forms of removal . For example, for UK, this refers to any action that is taken to enable the implementation of the immigration law.
Please see entry for European Neighbourhood Policy
An administrative or judicial decision or act prohibiting entry into and stay in the territory of the Member States for a specified period, accompanying a return decision.
Synonym(s): re-entry ban
Please see entry for environmentally-displaced person
Related Term: internally displaced person
Environmentally displaced persons are sometimes referred to as environmental refugees, but this is a misuse of the term 'refugee' as they are not refugees in the strict sense of Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951, although their migration is forced.
Please see entry for environmentally displaced person
Please see entry for principle of equal treatment
Rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group, which is contrary to international law.
Related Term: genocide
1. General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to 'the abhorrent policy of "ethnic cleansing"'.
2. Trial Chamber Judgment of 2 August 2001 of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (Krstić, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 2 August 2001, para. 562) has observed, while "there are obvious similarities between a genocidal policy and the policy commonly known as 'ethnic cleansing'", yet "[a]" clear distinction must be drawn between physical destruction and mere dissolution of a group. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide".
3. These legal documents thus state that crimes committed during an ethnic cleansing are similar to those of genocide, but while genocide includes an intent at complete or partial destruction of the target group, ethnic cleansing may involve murder only to the point of mobilising the target group out of the territory. Hence, there may be varied degrees of mass murder in an ethnic cleansing, often subsiding when the target group appears to be leaving the desired territory, while during genocide the mass murder is ubiquitous and constant throughout the process, continuing even while the target group tries to flee.
A synonym of ethnicity or nationality, used in some Member States in addition to citizenship.
Synonym(s): ethnicity, nationality
Related Term: citizenship, minority
1. Ethnic nationality is often a self-declared adhesion to a specific ethnic group and this information is collected at a census but also sometimes in administrative registration.
2. This concept should not be confused with citizenship.
Please see entry for ethnic nationality
The body of common rights and obligations that is binding on all EU Member States and that is constantly evolving, which comprises:
Narrower Term: asylum acquis
The term is used in the context of asylum and migration and refers to all rights and obligations that are binding on EU Member States with regard to asylum and migration.
Source:DG Home e-Library Glossary
The authorisation bearing the term 'EU Blue Card' entitles its holder to reside and work in the territory of a Member State under the terms of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive).
Related Term: highly qualified employment, highly qualified migrant, residence permit
A third-country nationalwho has acquired the authorisation bearing the term ‘EU Blue Card’ entitling them to reside and work in the territory of a Member State under the terms of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive).
Please see entry for union citizen
A website with hands-on information for foreign nationals interested in moving to the EU acting as a first point of entry. It provides up-to-date, practical information on EU and national immigration procedures and policies.
Broader Term: immigration
Related Term: European Migration Network, European Website on Integration
1. The EU Immigration Portal was launched in November 2011 (see European Commission Press Release IP/11/1370 of 18 November 2011).
2. The website can be accessed at: http://ec.europa.eu/immigration/
Source: Developed by the EMN
Please see entry for intra-EU mobility
Please see entry for EU Immigration Portal
A forum for the identification of common challenges and areas for mutual cooperation, as well as building a stronger evidence base for EU-LAC (Latin America and the Caribbean) migration in order to better understand its realities, based on the principle of shared responsibility, strengthening the commitment and willingness of both sides to discuss migration issues.
Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
1. In June 2009, the European Union and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) formally launched the Structured and Comprehensive bi-regional Dialogue on Migration.
2. In the framework of the Dialogue, parties will exchange views in the following main areas: link between migration and development; regular migration and irregular migration; migration and the issue of human rights, including protection of migrants in accordance with international obligations; the fight against all forms of discrimination, racism and xenophobia; legislative and administrative measures applicable to migrants in an irregular situation; issues related to return on a dignified basis and voluntary return; measures to combat trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, and the prevention of document fraud.
3. For more information, see the website of the EU-LAC Dialogue
A European Union Network for asylum practitioners providing a forum for the exchange of country of origin information, best practices and a variety of policy-related matters among EU Member States, asylum adjudicators and the European Commission, which aims to improve and maximise convergence on approaches to, and assessment of, the protection needs of asylum seekers.
Related Term: Common European Asylum System, European Asylum Support Office
1. Eurasil was established by the European Commission in July 2002 following the decision of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives (Coreper II) on 6 March to cease the activities of the CIREA group (Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on Asylum).
2. EURASIL meetings were attended by representatives of the national ministries and asylum authorities of the 28 Member States, as well as of CH, NO and IS. Depending on the topics of the meeting, international organisations such as UNHCR or IOM attended Eurasil as external experts.
3. With the establishment of the European Asylum Support Office, EASO has taken over responsibility for Eurasil and further developed EURASIL activities (EASO Practical Cooperation).
A framework for dialogue and consultation between EU Member States and African countries from North, West and Central Africa, as well as the European Commission and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), focusing on regional cooperation in the field of migration between countries of origin, transit and destination along current migration routes and within which concrete, practical initiatives are implemented.
Synonym(s): Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development, Rabat Process
Related Term: 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean,Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
1. The Euro-African Migration and Development process started with a ministerial conference in Rabat in 2006.
2. For more information, see the website of the Euro-African Dialogue.
Please see entry for Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development
The name given to an informatic system, the purpose of which, via the collection, transmission and comparison of fingerprints, is to assist in determining which Member State is to be responsible pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation) for examining an application for international protection lodged in a Member State by a third-country national or a stateless person, and otherwise to facilitate the application of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 under the conditions set out in the Regulation establishing Eurodac.
Related Term: Dublin Convention, Dublin Regulation
Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
A Union of the EU Member States and 16 Southern Mediterranean countries built on cooperation agreements that aims to promote economic integration and democratic reform across the EU's neighbours to the south in North Africa and the Middle East.
Synonym(s): Barcelona Process, EUROMED, Union for the Mediterranean, UfM
Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy
Related Term: Black Sea synergy, Eastern Partnership
1. The Partnership was established 13 July 2008.
2. For more information, see the webpage of the Euro-Med Partnership on the website of the European Union's External Action Services
A European Union agency tasked to coordinate the operational cooperation between Member States in the field of border security.
Related Term: Rapid Border Intervention Team, European Asylum Support Office, European Migration Network, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights , Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration , European Border Surveillance System , Immigration Liaison Officer , Information and Coordination Network for Member States' Migration Management Services
1. Frontex promotes, coordinates and develops European border management in line with the EU fundamental rights charter applying the concept of Integrated Border Management.
2. Its tasks, in accordance with Article 2 of Council Regulation 2007/2004, include assisting Member States on training of national border guards and the establishment of common training standards (Art. 2(b)); carrying out risk analysis (Art. 2(c)); following up the development of research relevant for the control and surveillance of external borders (Art. 2(d)); assistance to Member States in circumstances requiring increased technical and operational assistance at external borders (Art. 2(e)); and providing Member States with the necessary support in organising joint return operations.
3. Frontex also works closely with the border-control authorities of non-EU/Schengen countries — mainly those countries identified as a source or transit route of irregular migration — in line with general EU external relations policy.
4. For further information, see website of FRONTEX.
A European Union agency mandated to focus on three major responsibilities: to contribute to the coherent implementation and development of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), to support and strengthen practical cooperation among Member States on asylum and to provide and/or coordinate the provision of operational support to Member States, subject to particular pressure on their asylum and reception systems.
Related Term: Common European Asylum System, General Directors of Immigration Services Conference, Eurasil, European Migration Network, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union
1. The Support Office acts as a European centre of expertise on asylum, responsible for facilitating, coordinating and strengthening practical cooperation among Member States on the many aspects of asylum, so that Member States are better able to provide international protection to those entitled to it, while dealing fairly and efficiently with those who do not qualify for international protection, where appropriate.
2. Its mandate should be focused on three major duties: namely contributing to the implementation of the CEAS, supporting practical cooperation among Member States on asylum and supporting Member States that are subject to particular pressure.
3. The Support Office should work closely with the Member States' asylum authorities, with national immigration and asylum services and other national services and with the Commission. Furthermore, it should also carry out its duties without prejudice to those assigned to other relevant bodies of the Union and shall work closely with these bodies as well as with the UNHCR.
However, it does not have any powers in relation to the taking of decisions by Member States' asylum authorities on individual applications for international protection.
4. For further information, see the website of EASO.
A common framework for the exchange of information and for the cooperation between EU Member States and Frontex to improve situational awareness and to increase reaction capability at the external bordersfor the purpose of detecting, preventing and combating irregular immigrationand cross-border crime, and contributing to ensuring the protection and saving the lives of migrants.
Related Term: border control, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union
1. EUROSUR was set up under Council Regulation (EU) No 1052/2013 (EUROSUR Regulation).
2. For more information, see: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/border-crossing/index_en.htm
A regional human rights instrument giving effect to certain rights stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, offering individuals the possibility of applying to the courts for the enforcement of their rights.
Synonym(s): European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, ECHR
Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Agency for Fundamental Rights , human rights, human rights law
More formally referred to as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
International court established by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) which rules on individual or State applications alleging violations of the civil and political rights set out in the ECHR.
1. The ECtHR was set up in 1959, it is based in Strasbourg.
2. It hears applications alleging that a contracting state has breached one or more of the human rights provisions concerning civil and political rights set out in the Convention and its protocols. An application can be lodged by an individual, a group of individuals or one or more of the other contracting states, and, besides judgments, the Court can also issue advisory opinions.
3. The court has delivered more than 10.000 judgments which are binding on the countries concerned and have led governments to alter their legislation and administrative practice in a wide range of areas.
A body established by Council Decision 2008/381/EC that serves to meet the information needs of Union institutions and of Member States’ authorities and institutions, by providing up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information on migration and asylum, with a view to supporting policy-making in the European Union in these areas. It also serves to provide the general public with information on these subjects.
Related Term: Africa Carribean Pacific Observatory on Migration, EU Immigration Portal, European Asylum Support Office, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, National Contact Points on Integration , Eurostat
1.The EMN was set up in 2003 by the European Commission on behalf of the European Council in order to satisfy the need of a regular exchange of reliable information on migration and asylum related issues on a European level.
2.The EMN is co-ordinated by the European Commission, assisted by service providers, in co-operation with EMN National Contact Points (EMN NCPs) in each EU Member State. A Steering Board, consisting of representatives from each Member State, the European Commission and the European Parliament serves to provide the political guidance on the activities of the EMN.
3. For more information, see the website of the EMN.
A bilateral policy between the EU and 16 partner countries (the EU's closest neighbouring countries), further enriched and complemented by three regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives.
Narrower Term: Black Sea synergy, Eastern Partnership, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
Note:1. The ENP was developed in 2004, with the objective of avoiding the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all. It is based on the values of democracy, rule of law and respect of human rights.
2. The three regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives of the ENP are: the Eastern Partnership(launched in Prague in May 2009), the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED), formerly known as the Barcelona Process, re-launched in Paris in July 2008), and the Black Sea synergy(launched in Kiev in February 2008).
3. The Lisbon Treatyhas allowed the EU to strengthen the delivery of its foreign policy: cooperation with neighbouring countries can now be broadened to cover the full range of issues in an integrated and more effective manner. This was a key driver for initiating a review of the ENP in summer 2010.
4. For up-to-date information on the ENP, see: http://eeas.europa.eu/enp/about-us/index_en.htm
An EU agency which provides independent, evidence-based advice on fundamental rights to the relevant institutions and authorities of the Union and its Member States in order to support them when implementing Union law, taking measures or formulating courses of action within their respective spheres of competence to fully respect fundamental rights.
Synonym(s): Fundamental Rights Agency, FRA
Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, European Asylum Support Office, European Migration Network, human rights , European Convention on Human Rights
1. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights was inaugurated on 1 March 2007. It was established by Council Regulation (EC) No 168/2007 of 15 February 2007 as the successor to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMCI).
2. Its tasks, which are laid down in Art. 4 of the Regulation, include information and data collection, research and analysis; advice to EU institutions and Member States; cooperation with civil society and awareness raising.
3. For more information, see the website of FRA.
The European Union’s law enforcement agency which assists Member States’ police forces in improving their cooperation on the prevention and fight against the most serious forms of international crime, such as terrorism, drug trafficking and people smuggling, focusing on the targeting of criminal organisations.
Synonym(s): European Police Office
1. The establishment of the European Police Office was agreed to in the Treaty on the European Union (TEU) that came into effect in November 1993. The agency started limited operations on 3 January 1994, as the Europol Drugs Unit (EDU). The Europol Convention was signed on 26 July 1995, and came into force in October 1998 after being ratified by all Member States. Europol commenced its full activities on 1 July 1999. Europol came under the EU's competence with the Lisbon Treaty, and the Convention was replaced by a Council Decision in 2009.It was reformed as a full EU agency on 1 January 2010.
2. Europol which is based in The Hague serves as an EU centre of expertise, providing a central platform for law enforcement experts from the European Union countries.
3. Europol has no executive powers. Europol officers are not entitled to conduct investigations in the Member States nor do they have direct powers of arrest; they support EU law enforcement colleagues by gathering, analysing and disseminating information and coordinating operations.
The Statistical Office of the European Union within the European Commission.
Related Term: European Migration Network
1. Eurostat was established in 1953.
2. Its task is to provide the European Union with statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions.
3. The EMN cooperates with Eurostat by harmonising statistics from the European Statistical System (ESS) to a single methodology, making the statistics comparable.
4. Council Regulation No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation) establishes common rules for the collection and compilation of Community statistics (for submission to Eurostat) on:
5. For more information, see the website of Eurostat
Source:Website of Eurostat
Please see entry for European Border Surveillance System
Primary method of establishing the facts of an individual case through the process of examining and comparing available pieces of evidence.
The term is not only relevant in the context of international protection and asylum but in other migration procedures such as visa application procedures as well.
Any examination of, or decision or ruling concerning, an application for international protection by the competent authorities in accordance with Directive 2013/32/EU and Directive 2011/95/EU, except for procedures for determining the Member State responsible in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 604/2013.
Broader Term: application for international protection
Specifically, any of the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 1951and Protocol of 1967, such as articles 1D, 1E and 1F, which mandatorily deny the benefits of refugee status to persons who already receive UN or national protection, or to persons about whom there are good reasons to believe that they have committed a war crime, a crime against humanity, a serious non-political crime, or acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the UN (e.g. the persecution of others).
Related Term: crime against humanity, war crime
The EU asylum acquis (see for example Art. 12 and 17 of Directive 2011/95/EU) has incorporated these Geneva Convention of 1951clauses whilst additionally stipulating exclusion clauses in relation to subsidiary protection.
Movements in groups (isolated and sporadic) out of a country of origin in large numbers or of a section of the community at a given time.
A similar definition is also used in the UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology definition.
The act of taking advantage of something or someone, in particular the act of taking unjust advantage of another for one’s own benefit (e.g. sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs).
Related Term: forced labour, trafficking in human beings
Art. 2(3) of Directive 2011/36/EU (Trafficking Directive) states that exploitation includes, as a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, including begging, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the exploitation of criminal activities, or the removal of organs.
The removal of:
In FI, the preferred English translation is ‘removal from the country’.
Any decision which orders an expulsion taken by a competent administrative (or judicial) authority of an issuing Member State.
Synonym(s): expulsion order
Broader Term: expulsion
Related Term: enforcement measure, removal order
1. In DE, only expulsion order is used, while expulsion decision and expulsion order are understood in the same way.
2. In RO, expulsion is decided by the courts only, not by administration.
Please see entry for expulsion decision
The parts of a Schengen Member State's border, including land borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports, that are not common borders with another Schengen Member State.
Related Terms: border control, internal EU border, irregular entry, legal entry, refusal of entry, schengen borders code
1. IE and UK do not participate in the Schengen Area.
2. BG, HR and RO are Schengen candidate countries.
3. IS, LI, NO and CH are also Schengen Member States, although they are not EU Member States.
4. For updated information on membership to the Schengen Area, see the website of DG HOME.