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Please see entry for Eastern Partnership


Please see entry for European Asylum Support Office

Eastern Partnership

AT/DE/LU: Östliche Partnerschaft
BG: Източно партньорство
CS: Východní partnerství
EE: idapartnerlus
EL: Aνατολική Εταιρική Σχέση
ES: Asociación Oriental
FI: itäinen kumppanuus
FR/BE/LU: Partenariat Oriental
HU: Keleti Partnerség
IE: Comhpháirtíocht an Oirthir
IT: Partenariato Orientale
LT: Rytų partnerystė
LV: Austrumu partnerība
MT: Sħubija mal-Lvant
NL/BE: Oostelijk Partnerschap
NO: Det østlige partnerskapet (b) / Det austlege partnarskapet (n)
PL: Partnerstwo Wschodnie
PT: parceria oriental
RO: Parteneriatul Estic
SE: Östra partnerskapet
SI: Vzhodno partnerstvo
SK: Východné partnerstvo

An institutionalised forum for EU cooperation with its Eastern neighbours whose main goal is to create the necessary conditions to accelerate political association and further economic integration.

Synonym(s): EAP, Söderköping Process

Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy

Related Term: Black Sea synergy, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

1.Within the context of the Eastern Partnership Platform 1 (democracy, good governance and stability), the Eastern Partnership Panel on Migration and Asylum (EaP) was created in 2011. The overall objective of the Panel is to strengthen the asylum and migration systems of Eastern partners and advance the dialogue on migration and asylum issues between the Eastern partners and the EU, as well as amongst the Eastern partners.
2. The precursor of the EaP was the Söderköping Process, which was launched in May 2001 as a cross-border cooperation on asylum and migration in order to respond to new challenges due to the EU's enlargement eastwards. With the establishment of the Panel on Migration and Asylum within the Eastern Partnership’s Platform 1, the work of the Söderköping Process is being carried on within the multilateral dimension of the Eastern Partnership.
3. For more information, see the website of the EAP.

Source:Website of the European Neighbourhood Policy


economic migrant

AT/DE/LU: Migrant aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen, Wirtschaftsmigrant
BG: иконимически мигрант
CS: ekonomický migrant
EE: majandusmigrant
ES: persona migrante por motivos económicos
FI: taloudellisten syiden vuoksi muuttava henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant économique
GR: οικονομικός μετανάστης
HU: gazdasági migráns
IE: imirceach eacnamaíoch
IT: migrante economico
LT: ekonominis migrantas
LV: ekonomiskais migrants
MT: Migrant(a) għal raġunijiet ekonomiċi
NL/BE: economische migrant
NO: økonomisk migrant
PL: migrant ekonomiczny
PT: migrante económico
RO: migrant economic
SE: ekonomisk migrant
SI: ekonomski migrant
SK: ekonomický migrant

A person who leaves their country of origin purely for economic reasons that are not in any way related to the refugee definition, in order to seek material improvements in their livelihood.

Synonym(s): economic refugee

Narrower Term: guest worker migrant worker

Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: economic migration, managed migration

1. Economic migrants do not fall within the criteria for refugee statusand are therefore not entitled to benefit from international protectionas refugees.
2. Economic migrants are sometimes referred to as economic refugees, but this is a misuse of the term 'refugee'.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

economic migration

AT/DE/LU:  Wirtschaftsmigration, Migration aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen
BG: икономическа миграция
CS: ekonomická migrace
EE: majandusränne
ES:  migración económica
FI: taloudellisista syistä tapahtuva maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration économique
GR:  οικονομική μετανάστευση
HU: gazdasági (célú) migráció
IE:  imirce eacnamaíoch
IT: migrazione economica
LT: ekonominė migracija
LV: ekonomiskā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni għal raġunijiet ekonomiċi
NL/BE: economische migratie
NO: økonomisk migrasjon
PL: migracja ekonomiczna
PT: migração económica
RO:  migraţie economică
SE: ekonomisk migration
SI: ekonomska migracija
SK: ekonomická migrácia

Migration mainly for economic reasons or in order to seek material improvements to livelihood.

Narrower Term: labour migrationBroader Term: Migration

Related Term: economic migrant, forced migration, managed migration

Source: Developed by EMN

economic refugee

Please see entry for economic migrant

EEA national

Please see entry for third-country national


AT/DE/LU: Abwanderer, Auswanderer, Emigrant
BG: емигрант
CS: vystěhovalec; emigrant
EE: väljarändaja
ES: emigrante
FI: maastamuuttaja/maastamuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: émigrant 
GR: απόδημος/ μετανάστης
HU: emigráns
IE: eisimirceach
IT: emigrante
LT: emigrantas
LV: emigrants
MT: Emigrant(a)
NL/BE: emigrant
NO: utvandrer
PL: emigrant
PT: emigrante
RO: emigrant
SE: utvandrare
SI: izseljenec /emigrant
SK: vysťahovalec (national law) / emigrant

In the global context, a resident (national or alien) departing or exiting from one State intending to remain abroad for a period exceeding one year.

In the EU context, a person who, having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.

Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: immigrant, emigration

National legislation might understand different time limits in their definitions.

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(c) and (g) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)


AT/DE/LU: Abwanderung, Auswanderung, Emigration
BG: емиграция
CS: vystěhovalectví; emigrace
EE: väljaränne
ES: emigración
FI: maastamuutto
FR/BE/LU: émigration
GR: αποδημία/ μετανάστευση
HU: emigráció/ kivándorlás
IE: eisimirce
IT: emigrazione
LT: emigracija
LV: emigrācija
MT: Emigrazzjoni
NL/BE: emigratie
NO: utvandring
PL: emigracja
PT: emigração
RO: emigraţie
SE: utvandring
SI: izselitev /emigracija
SK: vysťahovalectvo (national law) / emigrácia

In the global context, the act of departing or exiting from one State with the intention to remain abroad for a period exceeding one year.

In the EU context, the action by which a person, having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State or another Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.

Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: emigrant, immigration

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(c) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

emergency response system

AT/DE/LU: Notfallsystem; Notfallklausel (EU acquis)
BG: система за реакция при кризи
CS: systém reakce na mimořádné události
FI: hätäapujärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: mécanisme d'intervention d'urgence
HU: válságreagálási mechanizmus
IT: sistema di risposta all’emergenza
IE: córas freagartha éigeandála
LV: ārkārtas reaģēšanas sistēma
PL: mechanizm interwencji kryzysowej
SE: Nödsituationssystem (Provisoriska åtgärder i en nödsituation med plötslig tillströmning av medborgare från tredjeländer)
SK: systém núdzovej pripravenosti
SL: Sistem odzivanja na izredne razmere
NO: nødinnsatssystem

Provisional measures in the event of  Member State(s) being confronted with an emergency situation characterised by a sudden inflow of third-country nationals  including a distribution mechanism for asylum-seekers in clear need of international protection to ensure a fair and balanced participation of all Member States. 

Synonym(s): emergency relocation

Narrower Term: emergency relocation system, contingency plan

Related Term: relocation


1. These provisional measures are envisaged under Art.78 (3) of the Treaty of the European Union.
2. Under the distribution mechanism the receiving Member State will be responsible for the examination of an application for international protection in accordance with established rules and guarantees. The EU Commission has defined a redistribution key based on criteria such as GDP, size of population, unemployment rate and
past numbers of asylum seekers.
3. EASO uses the term ‘contingency plan’ to refer to national plans detailing special measures to be taken in the event of a massive influx of migrants. This may be limited to the national asylum system or to migrants more generally.
4. Art. 33 of the Dublin Regulation provides for two types of Member State emergency responses: “preventative action plans”, which should be operationalised when particular pressure on a Member State’s asylum system and/or problems in its functioning may jeopardise the application of the Dublin Regulation, and 'crisis management action plans', which should be operationalised if the 'preventative action plan' does not remedy the problem.



Derived by EMN from Art. 78(3) TFEU and the European Agenda on Migration: Glossary, facts and figures



Please see entry for European Migration Network


AT/DE/LU: Arbeitnehmer
BG: работник
CS: zaměstnanec
EE: töötaja
ES: empleado
FI: työntekijä
FR/BE/LU: salarié
GR:  εργαζόμενος; υπάλληλος
HU: alkalmazott / munkavállaló
IE: fostaí
IT: lavoratore dipendente
LT: darbuotojas
LV: darba ņēmējs / darbinieks
MT: Impjegat(a)
NL/BE: werknemer
NO: ansatt (b) / tilsett (n)
PL: pracownik
PT: empregado
RO: angajat
SE: anställd
SI: zaposleni / delavec
SK: zamestnanec

Worker holding an explicit or implicit employment contract, which gives them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Related Term: employer, employment , self-employed person

Source:ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed., 2008


AT/DE/LU: Arbeitgeber
BG: работодател
CS: zaměstnavatel
EE: tööandja
ES: empleador
FI: työnantaja
FR/BE/LU: employeur
GR: εργοδότης
HU: munkáltató
IE: fostóir
IT: datore di lavoro
LT: darbdavys
LV: darba devējs
MT: Min iħaddem // Min jimpjega
NL/BE: werkgever
NO: arbeidsgiver (b) / arbeidsgjevar (n)
PL: pracodawca
PT: empregador
RO: angajator
SE: arbetsgivare
SI: delodajalec
SK: zamestnávateľ

Any natural person or any legal entity, including temporary work agencies, for or under the direction and/or supervision of whom the employment is undertaken.

Related Term: Employee, employment

Source:Art. 2(e) of Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

employer sanction

AT/DE/LU: Arbeitgebersanktion, Sanktion gegen einen Arbeitgeber
BG: санкция на работодателя
CS: sankce vůči zaměstnavateli
EE: sanktsioonid tööandjale
EL: κυρώσεις κατά των εργοδοτών
ES: sanción al empleador
FI: työnantajalle määrättävä seuraamus
FR/BE/LU: sanction à l'encontre d'un employeur
HU: munkáltatók elleni szankciók
IE: smachtbhanna in aghaidh fostóra
IT: sanzione nei confronti del datore di lavoro
LT: sankcijos darbdaviui
LV: darba devējam piemērojamās sankcijas
MT: Sanzjoni fuq min iħaddem/jimpjega
NL/BE: sancties tegen werkgevers
NO: sanksjon mot arbeidsgiver (b) / sanksjon mot arbeidsgjevar (n)
PL: sankcja wobec pracodawcy
PTRO: sanção ao empregador RO: sancţiune aplicată angajatorului
SE: sanktion mot arbetsgivare
SI: sankcije zoper delodajalca
SK: sankcie voči zamestnávateľovi

In the context of migration, penalties, including fines, repayments to victims/the State and incarceration, imposed on employers by the Member State for breaking employment and/or migration rules.

Related Term:  illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 5 and 7 of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employers Sanctions Directive)


AT/DE/LU: Beschäftigung
BG: заетост
CS: zaměstnání
EE: töötamine
EL: πρόσληψη/ εργασία
ES: empleo
FI: työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi
HU: foglalkoztatás
IE: fostaíocht
IT: lavoro
LT: darbas/užimtumas
LV: nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg
NL/BE: tewerkstelling
NO: sysselsetting (b) / sysselsetjing (n)
PL: zatrudnienie
PT: emprego
RO: angajare
SE: anställning
SI: zaposlitev
SK: zamestnanie

The exercise of activities covering whatever form of labour or work regulated under national law or in accordance with established practice for or under the direction and/or supervision of an employer.

Related Term: Employee, employer , occupation

Source:Art. 2 (c) of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

enforcement measure

AT/DE/LU: Vollstreckungsmaßnahme
BG: принудителна мярка
CS: výkon rozhodnutí/výkonné opatření
EE: sunnimeede
ES: medida de ejecución
FI: täytäntöönpanotoimenpide
FR/BE/LU: mesure d’exécution
GR: μέτρο εκτέλεσης; μέτρο επιβολής
HU: végrehajtási intézkedés
IE: beart forfheidhmiúcháin
IT: misura di esecuzione
LT: vykdymo priemonė
LV: izpildes pasākums
MT: Miżura ta' infurzar
NL/BE: uitvoeringsmaatregel
NO: iverksettelsestiltak (b) / iverksetjingstiltak (n)
PL: środek wykonawczy
PT: medida de execução
RO: măsură de aplicare
SE: verkställighetsåtgärd
SI: ukrep za uveljavitev / ukrep za izvršitev
SK: vykonávacie opatrenie

Any measure taken by the enforcing Member State with a view to implementing an expulsion decision.

Related Term: expulsion, expulsion decision

Note:In IE and UK, this phrase is used in a more global sense for all forms of removal . For example, for UK, this refers to any action that is taken to enable the implementation of the immigration law.


Source:Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)


Please see entry for European Neighbourhood Policy

entry ban

AT/DE/LU: Einreiseverbot
BG: забрана за влизане
CS: zákaz vstupu
EE: sissesõidukeeld
ES: prohibición de entrada
FI: maahantulokielto
FR/BE/LU: interdiction du territoire
GR: απαγόρευση εισόδου
HU: beutazási tilalom
IE:  toirmeasc ar iontráil
IT: divieto di ingresso
LT: draudimas atvykti
LV: ieceļošanas aizliegums
MT: Dħul miżmum // Inibizzjoni fuq id-dħul
NL/BE: inreisverbod
NO: innreiseforbud (b) / innreiseforbod (n)
PL: zakaz wjazdu
PT: interdição de entrada
RO: interdicţie de intrare
SE: inreseförbud
SI: prepoved vstopa
SK: zákaz vstupu

An administrative or judicial decision or act prohibiting entry into and stay in the territory of the Member States for a specified period, accompanying a return decision.

Synonym(s): re-entry ban

Source:Art. 3(6) of Council Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

environmental refugee

Please see entry for environmentally-displaced person

environmentally displaced person

AT/DE/LU: Umweltvertriebener
BG: разселено лице по екологични причини
CS: environmentální uprchlík
EE: keskkonnapõhjustel ümberasustatud isik
EL: εσωτερικώς εκτοπισμένο άτομο (για περιβαλλοντικούςλόγους)
ES: población desplazada por motivos medioambientales
FI: ympäristötekijöiden vuoksi siirtymään joutunut
FR/BE/LU: personne déplacée pour des raisons environnementales
GR: εσωτερικώς εκτοπισμένο άτομο (για περιβαλλοντικούς λόγους)
HU: lakóhelyét környezeti okból elhagyni kényszerült személy
IE: duine easáitithe ar chúiseanna timpeallachta
IT: sfollato per motivi ambientali
LT: perkeltasis asmuo dėl ekologinių priežasčių
LV: vides faktoru ietekmē pārvietota persona
MT: Persuna sfollata għal raġunijiet ambjentali
NL/BE: door milieufactoren verdreven ontheemde (not commonly used in NL)
NO: person fordrevet på grunn av miljøskader (b) / person fordriven på grunn av miljøskadar (n)
PL: osoba przesiedlona z powodu środowiska naturalnego,
PT: deslocado ambiental
RO: persoană strămutată din cauze legate de mediul înconjurător
SE: fördriven person (på grund av miljökatastrof)
SI: okoljsko razseljena oseba
SK: osoba vysídlená z environmentálnych dôvodov

A person subject to forced migrationas a result of sudden, drastic environmental changes.

Synonym(s): environmental refugee, environmentally-driven migrant

Broader Term: displaced person

Related Term: internally displaced person

Environmentally displaced persons are sometimes referred to as environmental refugees, but this is a misuse of the term 'refugee' as they are not refugees in the strict sense of Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951, although their migration is forced.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition for 'environmental refugee' in the UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

environmentally-driven migrant

Please see entry for environmentally displaced person

equal opportunities

Please see entry for principle of equal treatment

ethnic cleansing

AT/DE/LU: ethnische Säuberung
BG: етничеко прочистване
CS: etnická čistka
EE: etniline puhastus
ES:  limpieza étnica
FI: etninen puhdistus
FR/BE/LU: nettoyage ethnique
GR: εθνική εκκαθάριση
HU: etnikai tisztogatás
IE: glanadh eitneach
IT:  pulizia etnica
LT: etninis valymas
LV: etniskā tīrīšana
MT: Tindif etniku
NL/BE: etnische zuivering
NO: etnisk rensing (b) / etnisk reinsing (n)
PL: czystki etniczne
PT: limpeza étnica
RO: purificare etnică
SE: etnisk rensning
SI: etnično čiščenje
SK:  etnické čistky

Rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group, which is contrary to international law.

Related Term: genocide

1. General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to 'the abhorrent policy of "ethnic cleansing"'.
2. Trial Chamber Judgment of 2 August 2001 of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (Krstić, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 2 August 2001, para. 562) has observed, while "there are obvious similarities between a genocidal policy and the policy commonly known as 'ethnic cleansing'", yet "[a]" clear distinction must be drawn between physical destruction and mere dissolution of a group. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide".
3. These legal documents thus state that crimes committed during an ethnic cleansing are similar to those of genocide, but while genocide includes an intent at complete or partial destruction of the target group, ethnic cleansing may involve murder only to the point of mobilising the target group out of the territory. Hence, there may be varied degrees of mass murder in an ethnic cleansing, often subsiding when the target group appears to be leaving the desired territory, while during genocide the mass murder is ubiquitous and constant throughout the process, continuing even while the target group tries to flee.

Source:UN Security Council: Final Report of the Commission of Experts established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)

ethnic nationality

AT/DE/LU: ethnische Zugehörigkeit
BG: етническа националност
CS: národnost
EE: rahvus
ES: origen étnico
FI: etninen tausta
FR/BE/LU: origine ethnique
GR: εθνικότητα
HU: nemzetiség
IE: náisiúntacht eitneach
IT: nazionalità etnica
LT: tautybė/etninė kilmė
LV: tautība
MT: Nazzjonalità etnika
NL/BE: etniciteit (syn.: etnische achtergrond, etnische afkomst)
NO: etnisk tilhørighet (b) / etnisk tilhøyrsle (n)
PL: narodowość etniczna
PT: origem étnica
RO: naţionalitate/ origine etnică
SE: tillhörighet till etnisk grupp
SI: nacionalna pripadnost / etnična pripadnost
SK: národnosť

A synonym of ethnicity or nationality, used in some Member States in addition to citizenship.

Synonym(s): ethnicity, nationality

Related Term: citizenship, minority

1. Ethnic nationality is often a self-declared adhesion to a specific ethnic group and this information is collected at a census but also sometimes in administrative registration.
2. This concept should not be confused with citizenship.

Source:Towards Harmonised European Statistics on International Migration (THESIM) project


Please see entry for ethnic nationality

EU acquis

AT/DE/LU: EU-Besitzstand
BG: право на Общността
CS: EU acquis
EE: Euroopa Liidu õigustik
ES: acervo comunitario
FI: säännöstö
FR/BE/LU: acquis
HU: Közösségi vívmányok
IE: acquis (fágtha sa Laidin Fhraincis i leaganacha Gaeilge de reachtaíocht na hEorpa)
IT: acquis
LT: acquis
LV: acquis
MT: Acquis (L-) Komunitarju
NL/BE: gemeenschapsrecht
NO: rettsregler (b) / rettsreglar (n)
PL: acquis (no usual translation)
RO: acquis a UE
SE: unionens regelverk
SI: acquis
SK: právo Európskej únie / právo EÚ (national law) / acquis EÚ / súbor právnych predpisov EÚ

The body of common rights and obligations that is binding on all EU Member States and that is constantly evolving, which comprises:

  • the content, principles and political objectives of the Treaties;
  • legislation adopted pursuant to the Treaties and the case law of the Court of Justice;
  • declarations and resolutions adopted by the Union;
  • instruments under the Common Foreign and Security Policy;
  • instruments under Justice and Home Affairs;
  • international agreements concluded by the European Union and those entered into by its Member States among themselves within the sphere of the Union's activities.

Synonym(s): acquis
Narrower Term: asylum acquis

The term is used in the context of asylum and migration and refers to all rights and obligations that are binding on EU Member States with regard to asylum and migration.

Source:DG Home e-Library Glossary

EU Blue Card

AT/DE/LU: Blaue Karte EU
BG: синя карта на ЕС
CS: Modrá karta EU
EE: Euroopa Liidu sinine kaart
ES: tarjeta azul UE
FI: EU:n sininen kortti
FR/BE/LU: Carte bleue européenne
GR: μπλε κάρτα Ε.Ε.
HU: EU kék kártya
IE: cárta gorm an AE
IT: Carta Blu UE
LT: ES mėlynoji kortelė
LV: ES zilā karte
MT: Karta (Il-) Blu tal-UE
NL/BE: Europese blauwe kaart (syn. "Blue Card")
NO: EU-blåkort
PL: Niebieska Karta UE
PT:  cartão azul UE
RO: Cartea Albastră a UE
SE: EU-blåkort
SI: EU Modra karta
SK: modrá karta Európskej únie (national law) / modrá karta EÚ

The authorisation bearing the term 'EU Blue Card' entitles its holder to reside and work in the territory of a Member State under the terms of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive).

Related Term: highly qualified employment, highly qualified migrant, residence permit

Source:Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

EU Blue Card holder

AT/DE/LU: Inhaber einer Blauen Karte EU
BG: притежател на синя карта на ЕС
CS: držitel modré karty EU
EE: Euroopa Liidu sinise kaardi omanik
ES: titular de la Tarjete Azul
FI: EU:n sinisen kortin haltija
FR/BE/LU: titulaire d'une carte bleue européenne
HU: EU Kék Kártya tulajdonos
IE: sealbhóir chárta gorm an AE
IT: titolare di Carta Blu UE
LT: ES mėlynosios kortelės turėtojas
LV: ES zilās kartes turētājs
MT: Portatur(-triċ) (Il-) tal-Karta Blu tal-UE
NL/BE: houder van een Europese Blauwe Kaart
NO: innehaver av EU-blåkort (b) / innehavar av EU-blåkort (n)
PL: posiadacz Niebieskiej Karty UE
RO: posesorul Cărţii Albastre a UE
SE: innehavare av EU-blåkort
SI: imetnik EU Modre karte
SK: držiteľ modrej karty Európskej únie / držiteľ modrej karty EÚ

A third-country nationalwho has acquired the authorisation bearing the term ‘EU Blue Card’ entitling them to reside and work in the territory of a Member State under the terms of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive).

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

EU citizen

Please see entry for union citizen

EU Immigration Portal

AT/DE/LU: EU-Zuwanderungsportal
BG: Имиграционен портал на ЕС
CS: Imigrační portál EU
EE: EL sisserändeportaal
ES: Portal de la Inmigración de la UE
FI: EU:n maahanmuuttoportaali
FR/BE/LU: Portail de l'UE sur l'immigration
GR: Διαδικτυακή Πύλη της ΕΕ για τη Μετανάστευση
HU: uniós bevándorlási portált
IE: Tairseach Inimirce an AE
IT: Portale europeo dell'immigrazione
LT: ES imigracijos portalas
LV: ES Imigrācijas portāls
MT: Portal (Il-) tal-UE dwar l-Immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: EU-portaalsite over immigratie
NO: Informasjonsportal om innvandring til EUs medlemsland
PL: Portal Imigracyjny UE
PT: Portal da Imigração da UE
RO: Portalul UE privind imigrația
SE: EU:s invandringsportal
SI: EU Portal o priseljevanju
SK: Imigračný portál EÚ

A website with hands-on information for foreign nationals interested in moving to the EU acting as a first point of entry. It provides up-to-date, practical information on EU and national immigration procedures and policies.

Synonym(s): EUIP

Broader Term: immigration

Related Term: European Migration Network, European Website on Integration

1. The EU Immigration Portal was launched in November 2011 (see European Commission Press Release IP/11/1370 of 18 November 2011).
2. The website can be accessed at:

Source: Developed by the EMN

EU mobility

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility


Please see entry for EU Immigration Portal

EU-LAC Structured Dialogue on Migration

AT/DE/LU: Strukturierter Dialog über Migrationsfragen zwischen der EU und den Ländern Lateinamerikas und der Karibik
BG: Структурен диалог по въпросите на миграцията между ЕС и страните от Латинска Америка
CS: Strukturální dialog o migraci mezi EU a Latinskou Amerikou
EE: (EL ja Lõuna-Ameerika ning Kariibi) või EL ja LAC rände struktureeritud dialoog
ES: Diálogo estructurado UE-ALC sobre migración
FI: EU:n ja Latinalaisen Amerikan ja Karibian maiden välinen rakenteellinen vuoropuhelu muuttoliikkeestä
FR/BE/LU: Dialogue structuré sur les migrations entre l'UE et les pays d'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (ALC)
HU: EU-LAC strukturális migrációs párbeszéd
IE: Idirphlé Struchtúrtha idir an AE agus tíortha Mheiriceá Laidinigh agus Mhuir Chairib (MLC) maidir leis an Imirce
IT: Dialogo strutturato UE-ALC sulla migrazione
LT: ES-Lotynų Amerikos ir Karibų jūros regiono valstybių struktūrinis dialogas migracijos klausimais
LV: Eiropas Savienības, Latīņamerikas un Karību jūras reģiona valstu strukturēts dialogs par migrāciju
MT: Djalogu Strutturat fuq il-Migrazzjoni - UE u ALK
NL/BE: EU-LAC gestructureerde dialoog over migratie
NO: EU–LACs strukturerte dialog om migrasjon
PL: EU-LAC Strukturalny dialog na rzecz migracji
PT:  diálogo estruturado sobre migrações EU-ALC
RO: dialogul structurat cu privire la migraţie EU-LAC
SE: EU-LAC strukturerad dialog om migration
SI: EU - LAC Strukturni dialog o migracijah
SK: Štruktúrovaný dialóg EÚ - Latinská Amerika a Karibik o migrácii

A forum for the identification of common challenges and areas for mutual cooperation, as well as building a stronger evidence base for EU-LAC (Latin America and the Caribbean) migration in order to better understand its realities, based on the principle of shared responsibility, strengthening the commitment and willingness of both sides to discuss migration issues.

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

1. In June 2009, the European Union and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) formally launched the Structured and Comprehensive bi-regional Dialogue on Migration.
2. In the framework of the Dialogue, parties will exchange views in the following main areas: link between migration and development; regular migration and irregular migration; migration and the issue of human rights, including protection of migrants in accordance with international obligations; the fight against all forms of discrimination, racism and xenophobia; legislative and administrative measures applicable to migrants in an irregular situation; issues related to return on a dignified basis and voluntary return; measures to combat trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, and the prevention of document fraud.
3. For more information, see the website of the EU-LAC Dialogue

Source:European Council Press Release on launching of EU-LAC dialogue


AT/DE/LU: Netzwerk für Asylpraktiker der Europäischen Union (Eurasil)
BG: Евроазил
CS: Eurasil
EE: Eurasil
ES: Eurasil
FI: Eurasil
FR/BE/LU: Eurasil
GR: Ομάδα στο πλαίσιο της Ε.Επιτροπής για την ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών για τις χώρες καταγωγής αιτούντων άσυλο
HU: Eurasil
IE: Eurasil
IT: Eurasil
LT: Eurasil
LV: Eurasil
MT: Eurasil
NL/BE: Eurasil
NO: Eurasil
PL: Eurasil
PT: Eurasil
RO: Eurasil
SE: No usual translation
SI: Eurasil
SK: Eurasil
SV: Eurasil

A European Union Network for asylum practitioners providing a forum for the exchange of country of origin information, best practices and a variety of policy-related matters among EU Member States, asylum adjudicators and the European Commission, which aims to improve and maximise convergence on approaches to, and assessment of, the protection needs of asylum seekers.

Related Term: Common European Asylum System, European Asylum Support Office

1. Eurasil was established by the European Commission in July 2002 following the decision of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives (Coreper II) on 6 March to cease the activities of the CIREA group (Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on Asylum).
2. EURASIL meetings were attended by representatives of the national ministries and asylum authorities of the 28 Member States, as well as of CH, NO and IS. Depending on the topics of the meeting, international organisations such as UNHCR or IOM attended Eurasil as external experts.
3. With the establishment of the European Asylum Support Office, EASO has taken over responsibility for Eurasil and further developed EURASIL activities (EASO Practical Cooperation).

Source:European Commission Staff Working Document, SEC(2006) 189

Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development

AT/DE/LU: Europäisch -afrikanischer Dialog über Migration und Entwicklung, Euro-afrikanischer Dialog über Migration und Entwicklung
BG: Евро-африкански диалог по миграция и развитие
CS: Dialog EU a Afriky k migraci a rozvoj
EE: Euro-Aafrika rände ja arenguabi dialoog
ES: dialogo euroafricano sobre migración y desarrollo
FI: muuttoliikettä ja kehitystä koskeva Euro–Afrikka-dialogi
FR/BE/LU: Dialogue euro-africain sur la migration et le développement
HU: Euro-afrikai Dialógus a migrációról és fejlesztésről
IE: Idirphlé Eora-Afracach maidir le hImirce agus Forbairt
IT: Dialogo Euro-Africano sulla Migrazione e lo Sviluppo
LT: Europos-Afrikos dialogas migracijos ir vystymosi klausimais
LV: Eiropas Savienības un Āfrikas dialogs par migrāciju un attīstību
MT: Djalogu Ewro-Afrikan fuq il-Migrazzjoni u l-Iżvilupp
NL/BE: Europees-Afrikaanse Ministeriële Conferentie over Migratie en Ontwikkeling
NO: Den europeisk-afrikanske dialogen om migrasjon
PL: Euro-Afrykański Dialog na rzecz Migracji i Rozwoju
PT: conferência ministerial euro-africana sobre migração e desenvolvimento
RO: Dialogul EU-Africa în domeniul migraţiei şi dezvoltării
SE: No usual translation
SI: Evro - Afriški dialog o migracijah in razvoju
SK: Euro-africký dialóg o migrácii a rozvoji

A framework for dialogue and consultation between EU Member States and African countries from North, West and Central Africa, as well as the European Commission and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), focusing on regional cooperation in the field of migration between countries of origin, transit and destination along current migration routes and within which concrete, practical initiatives are implemented.

Synonym(s): Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development, Rabat Process

Related Term: 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean,Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

1. The Euro-African Migration and Development process started with a ministerial conference in Rabat in 2006.
2. For more information, see the website of the Euro-African Dialogue.

Source:Website of the Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development

Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development


AT/DE/LU: Eurodac
BG: Евродак
CS: Eurodac
EE: Eurodac
ES: Eurodac
FI: Eurodac
FR/BE/LU: Eurodac
GR: Ευρωπαϊκή Κεντρική Βάση Καταχώρισης αποτυπωμάτων αιτούντων άσυλο και συλληφθέντων για παράνομη εισοδο υπηκόων Τρίτων Χωρών
IE: Eurodac
IT: Eurodac
LT: Eurodac
LV: Eurodac
MT: Eurodac
NL/BE: Eurodac
NO: Eurodac
PL: Eurodac
PT: Eurodac
RO: Eurodac
SE: No usual translation
SI: Eurodac
SK: Eurodac

The name given to an informatic system, the purpose of which, via the collection, transmission and comparison of fingerprints, is to assist in determining which Member State is to be responsible pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation) for examining an application for international protection lodged in a Member State by a third-country national or a stateless person, and otherwise to facilitate the application of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 under the conditions set out in the Regulation establishing Eurodac.

Related Term: Dublin Convention, Dublin Regulation

Source:Art. 1 of Council Regulation (EU) No 603/2013 (Eurodac Regulation)


Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

AT/DE/LU: Europa-Mittelmeer-Partnerschaft, Euro-mediterrane Partnerschaft,
BG: Евро-средиземноморско партньорство
CS: Evropsko-středomořské partnerství
EE: Euroopa-Vahemere partnerlus
ES: Asociación Euromediterránea
FI: Euro–Välimeri-kumppanuus
FR/BE/LU: Union pour la Méditerranée
HU: Euro-mediterrán Partnerség
IE: an Chomhpháirtíocht Eora-Mheánmhara
IT: Partenariato euromediterraneo
LT: Europos-Viduržemio jūros regiono partnerystė
LV: Eiropas un Vidusjūras reģiona valstu partnerība
MT: Sħubija Ewro-Mediterranja
NL/BE: Euro-mediterraan partnerschap (EUROMED)
NO: Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
PL: Partnerstwo Eurośródziemnomorskie
PTRO: Parceria Euro-Mediterrânica RO: Parteneriatul Euro-Mediteraneean
SE: Partnerskapet Europa-Medelhavet
SI: Evro - Sredozemsko partnerstvo
SK: Euro-stredomorské partnerstvo

A Union of the EU Member States and 16 Southern Mediterranean countries built on cooperation agreements that aims to promote economic integration and democratic reform across the EU's neighbours to the south in North Africa and the Middle East.

Synonym(s): Barcelona Process, EUROMED, Union for the Mediterranean, UfM

Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy

Related Term: Black Sea synergy, Eastern Partnership

1. The Partnership was established 13 July 2008.
2. For more information, see the webpage of the Euro-Med Partnership on the website of the European Union's External Action Services

Source:Website of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED)

European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

AT/DE/LU: Europäische Agentur für die operative Zusammenarbeit an den Außengrenzen
BG: Европейска агенция за управление на оперативното сътрудничество по външните граници на държавите членки на ЕС
CS: Evropská agentura pro řízení operativní spolupráce na vnějších hranicích členských států Evropské unie
EE: Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikide välispiiril tehtava operatiivkoostöö juhtimise Euroopa agentuur
ES: Agencia Europea para la Gestión de la Cooperación Operativa en las Fronteras Exteriores de los Estados Miembros de la Unión Europea
FI:  Euroopan unionin rajaturvallisuusvirasto (Euroopan unionin jäsenvaltioiden operatiivisesta ulkorajayhteistyöstä huolehtiva virasto)
FR/BE/LU: Agence européenne pour la gestion de la coopération opérationnelle aux frontières extérieures des États membres de l`Union européenne
GR: Ευρωπαϊκός Οργανισμός για τη Διαχείριση της Επιχειρησιακής Συνεργασίας στα Εξωτερικά Σύνορα
HU:  ( az Európai Unió Tagállamai Külső Határain Való Operatív Együttműködési Igazgatásért Felelős Európai Ügynökség)
IE: an Ghníomhaireacht Eorpach chun Comhar Oibríochtúil a Bhainistiú ag Teorainneacha Seachtracha Bhallstáit an Aontais Eorpaigh
IT: Agenzia Europea per la Gestione della Cooperazione Operativa delle Froniere Esterne dei Paesi membri dell'Unione Europea
LT: Europos operatyvaus bendradarbiavimo prie ES valstybių narių išorės sienų valdymo agentūra
LV: Eiropas Aģentūra operatīvās sadarbības vadībai pie Eiropas Savienības dalībvalstu ārējām robežām
MT: Aġenzija Ewropea għall-Ġestjoni tal- Koperazzjoni Operazzjonali mal-Fruntieri Esterni tal-Istati Membri tal-Unjoni Ewropea
NO: Det europeiske grensekontrollbyrået
PL: Europejska Agencja Zarządzania Współpracą Operacyjną na Zewnętrznych Granicach Państw Członkowskich
PT:  Agência Europeia de Gestão da Cooperação Operacional nas Fronteiras Externas da União Europeia
RO: Agenţia Europeană pentru Managementul Cooperării Operaţionale la Frontierele Externe ale Statelor Membre ale Uniunii Europene
SE: Europeiska byrån för förvaltningen av det operativa samarbetet vid Europeiska unionens medlemsstaters yttre gränser
SI: Evropska agencija za upravljanje operativnega sodelovanja na zunanjih mejah DČ EU
SK: Európska agentúra pre riadenie operačnej spolupráce na vonkajších hraniciach členských štátov Európske únie / FRONTEX

A European Union agency tasked to coordinate the operational cooperation between Member States in the field of border security.

Synonym(s): FRONTEX

Related Term: Rapid Border Intervention Team, European Asylum Support Office, European Migration Network, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights , Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration , European Border Surveillance System , Immigration Liaison Officer , Information and Coordination Network for Member States' Migration Management Services

1. Frontex promotes, coordinates and develops European border management in line with the EU fundamental rights charter applying the concept of Integrated Border Management.
2. Its tasks, in accordance with Article 2 of Council Regulation 2007/2004, include assisting Member States on training of national border guards and the establishment of common training standards (Art. 2(b)); carrying out risk analysis (Art. 2(c)); following up the development of research relevant for the control and surveillance of external borders (Art. 2(d)); assistance to Member States in circumstances requiring increased technical and operational assistance at external borders (Art. 2(e)); and providing Member States with the necessary support in organising joint return operations.
3. Frontex also works closely with the border-control authorities of non-EU/Schengen countries — mainly those countries identified as a source or transit route of irregular migration — in line with general EU external relations policy.
4. For further information, see website of FRONTEX.

Source:Art. 2 of Regulation (EC) 2007/2004 (FRONTEX Regulation)

European Asylum Support Office

AT/DE/LU:  Europäisches Unterstützungsbüro für Asylfragen
BG: Европейска служба за подкрепа в областта на убежището
CS: Evropský podpůrný azylový úřad
EE: Euroopa varjupaigaküsimuste tugiamet
ES:  Oficina Europea de Apoyo al Asilo
FI:  Euroopan turvapaikka-asioiden tukivirasto
FR/BE/LU: Bureau européen d'appui en matière d'asile (BEA)
GR: Ευρωπαϊκό Γραφείο Στήριξης για το Άσυλο
HU: Európai Menekültügyi Támogatási Hivatal
IE: an Oifig Tacaíochta Eorpach do Chúrsaí Tearmainn
IT: Ufficio Europeo di Sostegno per l'Asilo
LT: Europos prieglobsčio paramos biuras
LV: Eiropas Patvēruma atbalsta birojs
MT: Uffiċċju (L-)ta’ Appoġġ Ewropew fil-Qasam tal-Ażil
NL/BE: Europees Ondersteuningsbureau voor Asielzaken  [BE syn.: Europees asielondersteuningsbureau]
NO: Det europeiske støttekontoret på asylfeltet
PL: Europejski Urząd Wsparcia w dziedzinie Azylu
PT: Gabinete Europeu de Apoio ao Asilo
RO: Biroul European de Sprijin în domeniul Azilului
SE: Europeiska byrån för samarbete i asylfrågor
SI: Evropski azilni podporni urad
SK: Európsky podporný úrad pre azyl

A European Union agency mandated to focus on three major responsibilities: to contribute to the coherent implementation and development of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), to support and strengthen practical cooperation among Member States on asylum and to provide and/or coordinate the provision of operational support to Member States, subject to particular pressure on their asylum and reception systems.

Synonym(s): EASO

Related Term: Common European Asylum System, General Directors of Immigration Services Conference, Eurasil, European Migration Network, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

1. The Support Office acts as a European centre of expertise on asylum, responsible for facilitating, coordinating and strengthening practical cooperation among Member States on the many aspects of asylum, so that Member States are better able to provide international protection to those entitled to it, while dealing fairly and efficiently with those who do not qualify for international protection, where appropriate.
2. Its mandate should be focused on three major duties: namely contributing to the implementation of the CEAS, supporting practical cooperation among Member States on asylum and supporting Member States that are subject to particular pressure.
3. The Support Office should work closely with the Member States' asylum authorities, with national immigration and asylum services and other national services and with the Commission. Furthermore, it should also carry out its duties without prejudice to those assigned to other relevant bodies of the Union and shall work closely with these bodies as well as with the UNHCR.
However, it does not have any powers in relation to the taking of decisions by Member States' asylum authorities on individual applications for international protection.
4. For further information, see the website of EASO.

Source:Art. 1 and 2 of Regulation (EU) No. 439/2010

European Border Surveillance System

AT/DE/LU: Europäisches renzüberwachungssystem
BG: Европейска система за наблюдение на външните граници
CS: evropský systém ostrahy vnější hranice
: Europäisches renzüberwachungssystem
EE: Euroopa välispiiride seiresüsteem
ES: Sistema europeo de vigilancia de fronteras
FI: Euroopan rajavalvontajärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: Système européen de surveillance des frontières extérieures
HU: Európai Határőrizeti Rendszer
IE: an Córas Eorpach um Fhaireachas ar Theorainneacha Seachtracha
IT: Sistema europeo di sorveglianza delle frontiere esterne
LT: Europos išorinių sienų stebėjimo sistema
LV: Eiropas ārējo robežu uzraudzības sistēma
MT: Sistema Ewropea għas-Sorveljanza tal-Konfini / tal-Fruntieri
NL/BE: Europees grensbewakingssysteem
NO: Det europeiske overvåkingssystemet for yttergrensene
PL: Europejski system nadzorowania granic
PT: Sistema Europeu de Vigilância das Fronteiras
RO: sistemul de supraveghere a frontierelor UE
SE: Europeiska gränsövervakningssystemet
SI: Evropskega sistema varovanja meja
SK: Európsky systém hraničného dozoru

A common framework for the exchange of information and for the cooperation between EU Member States and Frontex to improve situational awareness and to increase reaction capability at the external bordersfor the purpose of detecting, preventing and combating irregular immigrationand cross-border crime, and contributing to ensuring the protection and saving the lives of migrants.
Synonym(s): EUROSUR

Related Term: border control, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

1. EUROSUR was set up under Council Regulation (EU) No 1052/2013 (EUROSUR Regulation).
2. For more information, see:

Source:Art. 1 of Council Regulation (EU) No 1052/2013 (EUROSUR Regulation)

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

European Convention on Human Rights

AT/DE/LU: Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention
BG: Европейска конвенция за правата на човека
CS: Evropská úmluva o ochraně lidských práv
EE: Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konvetsioon
ES: Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos
FI: Euroopan ihmisoikeussopimus
FR/BE/LU: Convention européenne des droits de l'homme
GR: Ευρωπαϊκή Σύμβαση Δικαιωμάτων του Ανθρώπου
HU: Emberi Jogok Európai Egyezménye
IE: an Coinbhinsiún Eorpach um Chearta an Duine
IT: Convenzione Europea dei Diritti dell'Uomo
LT: Europos žmogaus teisių konvencija
LV: Eiropas Cilvēktiesību konvencija
MT: Konvenzjoni (Il-) Ewropea dwar id-Drittijiet tal‑Bniedem
NL/BE: Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens
NO: Den europeiske menneskerettskonvensjonen
PL: Europejska Konwencja Praw Człowieka / Konwencja o Ochronie Praw Człowieka i Podstawowych Wolności
PT: Convenção Europeia dos Direitos Humanos
RO: Convenţia Europeană a Drepturilor Omului
SE: Europakonventionen om de mänskliga rättigheterna
SI: Evropska konvencija o človekovih pravicah
SK: Európsky dohovor o ochrane ľudských práv a základných slobôd / EDĽP

A regional human rights instrument giving effect to certain rights stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, offering individuals the possibility of applying to the courts for the enforcement of their rights.

Synonym(s): European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, ECHR

Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Agency for Fundamental Rights ,  human rights, human rights law

More formally referred to as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Source:Derived by EMN from the description of the Convention on the website of the European Court of Human Rights

European Court of Human Rights

AT/DE/LU: Europäischer Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte
BG: Европейски съд за правата на човека
CZ: Evropský soud pro lidská práva
FI: Euroopan ihmisoikeustuomioistuin
FR/BE/LU: Cour européenne des droits de l'homme
IE: an Chúirt Eorpach um Chearta an Duine
HU: Emberi Jogok Európai Bírósága
IT: Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo
LV: Eiropas Cilvēktiesību tiesa
PL: Europejski Trybunał Praw Człowieka
SE: Europeiska domstolen för de mänskliga rättigheterna (Europadomstolen)
SK: Európsky súd pre ľudské práva / ESĽP
SI: Evropsko sodišče za človekove pravice
NO:Den europeiske menneskrettsdomstolen

International court established by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) which rules on individual or State applications alleging violations of the civil and political rights set out in the ECHR.

Synonym(s): ECtHR

1. The ECtHR was set up in 1959, it is based in Strasbourg.
2. It hears applications alleging that a contracting state has breached one or more of the human rights provisions concerning civil and political rights set out in the Convention and its protocols. An application can be lodged by an individual, a group of individuals or one or more of the other contracting states, and, besides judgments, the Court can also issue advisory opinions.
3. The court has delivered more than 10.000 judgments which are binding on the countries concerned and have led governments to alter their legislation and administrative practice in a wide range of areas.

Source:Website of the European Court of Human Rights

European Migration Network

AT/DE/LU: Europäisches Migrationsnetzwerk
BG: Европейска мрежа за миграция
CS: Evropská migrační síť
EE: Euroopa rändevõrgustik
ES: Red Europea de Migraciones
FI: Euroopan muuttoliikeverkosto
FR/BE/LU: Réseau européen des migrations (REM)
GR: Ευρωπαϊκό Δίκτυο Μετανάστευσης
HU: Európai Migrációs Hálózat
IE: Gréasán Imirce na hEorpa
IT: Rete Europea sulle Migrazioni
LT: Europos migracijos tinklas
LV: Eiropas migrācijas tīkls
MT: Netwerk (In-) Ewropew tal-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: Europees Migratienetwerk
NO: Det europeiske migrasjonsnettverket
PL: Europejska Sieć Migracyjna
PT: Rede Europeia das Migrações
RO: Reţeaua europeană de migrație („REM”)
SE: Europeiska migrationsnätverket
SI: Evropska migracijska mreža
SK: Európska migračná sieť

A body established by Council Decision 2008/381/EC that serves to meet the information needs of Union institutions and of Member States’ authorities and institutions, by providing up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information on migration and asylum, with a view to supporting policy-making in the European Union in these areas. It also serves to provide the general public with information on these subjects.

Synonym(s): EMN

Related Term: Africa Carribean Pacific Observatory on Migration, EU Immigration Portal, European Asylum Support Office, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, National Contact Points on Integration , Eurostat

1.The EMN was set up in 2003 by the European Commission on behalf of the European Council in order to satisfy the need of a regular exchange of reliable information on migration and asylum related issues on a European level.
2.The EMN is co-ordinated by the European Commission, assisted by service providers, in co-operation with EMN National Contact Points (EMN NCPs) in each EU Member State. A Steering Board, consisting of representatives from each Member State, the European Commission and the European Parliament serves to provide the political guidance on the activities of the EMN.
3. For more information, see the website of the EMN.

Source:Art. 1 of Council Decision 2008/381/EC (European Migration Network Decision)

European Neighbourhood Policy

AT/DE/LU: Europäische Nachbarschaftspolitik
BG: Европейска политика за съседство
CS: Evropská politika sousedství
EE: Euroopa naabruspoliitika
ES: Política Europea de Vecindad
FI: Euroopan naapuruuspolitiikka
FR/BE/LU: Politique européenne de voisinage
HU: Európai Szomszédságpolitika
IE: Beartas Comharsanachta na hEorpa
IT: politica europea di vicinato
LT: Europos kaimynystės politika
LV: Eiropas kaimiņattiecību politika
MT: Politika (Il-) Ewropea tal-Viċinat / tal-Madwar
NL/BE: Europees nabuurschapsbeleid
NO: Den europeiske naboskapspolitikken
PL: Europejska Polityka Sąsiedztwa
PT: Política europeia de vizinhança
RO: Politica europeană de vecinătate
SE: EU:s grannskapspolitik
SI: Evropska sosedska politika
SK: Európska susedská politika / Európska politika susedstva

A bilateral policy between the EU and 16 partner countries (the EU's closest neighbouring countries), further enriched and complemented by three regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives.

Synonym(s): ENP

Narrower Term: Black Sea synergy, Eastern Partnership, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:1. The ENP was developed in 2004, with the objective of avoiding the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all. It is based on the values of democracy, rule of law and respect of human rights.
2. The three regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives of the ENP are: the Eastern Partnership(launched in Prague in May 2009), the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED), formerly known as the Barcelona Process, re-launched in Paris in July 2008), and the Black Sea synergy(launched in Kiev in February 2008).
3. The Lisbon Treatyhas allowed the EU to strengthen the delivery of its foreign policy: cooperation with neighbouring countries can now be broadened to cover the full range of issues in an integrated and more effective manner. This was a key driver for initiating a review of the ENP in summer 2010.
4. For up-to-date information on the ENP, see:

Source:Website of the European Neighbourhood Policy

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

AT/DE/LU: Agentur der Europäischen Union für Grundrechte
BG: Агенция на Европейския съюз за основните права
CS: Agentura Evropské unie pro základní práva (FRA)
EE: Euroopa Liidu Põhiõiguste Amet
ES: Agencia de Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea
FI: Euroopan unionin perusoikeusvirasto
FR/BE/LU: Agence des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne
GR: Οργανισμού Θεμελιωδών Δικαιωμάτων της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης
HU: Az Európai Unió Alapjogi Ügynöksége
IE: Gníomhaireacht an Aontais Eorpaigh um Chearta Bunúsacha
IT: Agenzia dell’Unione Europea per i Diritti Fondamentali (FRA)
LT: Europos Sąjungos pagrindinių teisių agentūra
LV: Eiropas Savienības Pamattiesību aģentūra
MT: Aġenzija tal-Unjoni Ewropea għad-Drittijiet Fundamentali
NL/BE: Bureau van de Europese Unie voor de grondrechten
NO: Den europeiske unions byrå for grunnleggende rettigheter (FRA) (b) / Byrået for grunnleggjande rettar i Den europeiske unionen (FRA) (n)
PL: Agencja Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej (FRA)
PT: Agência para os Direitos Fundamentais
RO: Agenţia pentru Drepturi Fundamentale a Uniunii Europene
SE: Europeiska unionens byrå för grundläggande rättigheter
SI: Agencija Evropske unije za temeljne pravice (FRA)
SK: Agentúra Európskej únie pre základné práva / FRA

An EU agency which provides independent, evidence-based advice on fundamental rights to the relevant institutions and authorities of the Union and its Member States in order to support them when implementing Union law, taking measures or formulating courses of action within their respective spheres of competence to fully respect fundamental rights.

Synonym(s): Fundamental Rights Agency, FRA

Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, European Asylum Support Office, European Migration Network, human rights , European Convention on Human Rights

1. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights was inaugurated on 1 March 2007. It was established by Council Regulation (EC) No 168/2007 of 15 February 2007 as the successor to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMCI).
2. Its tasks, which are laid down in Art. 4 of the Regulation, include information and data collection, research and analysis; advice to EU institutions and Member States; cooperation with civil society and awareness raising.
3. For more information, see the website of FRA.

Source:Art. 2 of Council Regulation (EC) No 168/2007 (FRA Regulation)


CZ: EUROPOL / Evropský policejní úřad
HU: EUROPOL / Európai Rendőrségi Hivatal
LV: Eiropols
PL: EUROPOL / Europejski Urząd Policji
SE: EUROPOL / Europeiska polisbyrån
SK: EUROPOL / Európsky policajný úrad
SI: EUROPOL / Evropski policijski urad

The European Union’s law enforcement agency which assists Member States’ police forces in improving their cooperation on the prevention and fight against the most serious forms of international crime, such as terrorism, drug trafficking and people smuggling, focusing on the targeting of criminal organisations.

Synonym(s): European Police Office



1. The establishment of the European Police Office was agreed to in the Treaty on the European Union (TEU) that came into effect in November 1993. The agency started limited operations on 3 January 1994, as the Europol Drugs Unit (EDU). The Europol Convention was signed on 26 July 1995, and came into force in October 1998 after being ratified by all Member States. Europol commenced its full activities on 1 July 1999. Europol came under the EU's competence with the Lisbon Treaty, and the Convention was replaced by a Council Decision in 2009.It was reformed as a full EU agency on 1 January 2010.
2. Europol which is based in The Hague serves as an EU centre of expertise, providing a central platform for law enforcement experts from the European Union countries.
3. Europol has no executive powers. Europol officers are not entitled to conduct investigations in the Member States nor do they have direct powers of arrest; they support EU law enforcement colleagues by gathering, analysing and disseminating information and coordinating operations.



Derived by EMN from the Website of Europol




AT/DE/LU: Statistisches Amt der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (Eurostat)
BG: Евростат
CS: Eurostat
EE: Eurostat
ES: Eurostat
FI: Eurostat
FR/BE/LU: Eurostat
GR: Eurostat
HU: Eurostat
IE: Eurostat
IT: Eurostat
LT: Eurostatas
LV: Eurostat
MT: Eurostat
NL/BE: Eurostat
NO: Eurostat
PL: Eurostat
PT: Eurostat
RO: Eurostat
SE: No usual translation
SI: Eurostat
SK: Eurostat
SV: Eurostat

The Statistical Office of the European Union within the European Commission.

Related Term: European Migration Network

1. Eurostat was established in 1953.
2. Its task is to provide the European Union with statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions.
3. The EMN cooperates with Eurostat by harmonising statistics from the European Statistical System (ESS) to a single methodology, making the statistics comparable.
4. Council Regulation No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation) establishes common rules for the collection and compilation of Community statistics (for submission to Eurostat) on:

  1. immigration and emigration flows;
  2. citizenship and country of birth of persons usually resident in the territory of the Member States;
  3. administrative and judicial procedures and processes in the Member States relating to immigration, granting of permission to reside, citizenship, asylum and other forms of international protection and prevention of irregular migration.

5. For more information, see the website of Eurostat

Source:Website of Eurostat


evidence assessment

AT/DE/LU: Beweiswürdigung
BG: оценка на доказателствата
CZ: hodnocení důkazů
FI: todisteiden arviointi
FR/BR/LU: évaluation des éléments de preuve
IE: measúnú fianaise
HU: bizonyíték értékelése
IT: valutazione delle prove
LV: pierādījumu izvērtēšana
PL: ocena dowodu
SE: Bevisvärdering
SK: hodnotenie dôkazov
SI: ocena dokazov
NO: bevisvurdering

Primary method of establishing the facts of an individual case through the process of examining and comparing available pieces of evidence.


The term is not only relevant in the context of international protection and asylum but in other migration procedures such as visa application procedures as well. 



EASO: Practical Guide on Evidence Assessment - March 2015



examination of an application for international protection

AT/DE/LU: Prüfung eines Antrags auf internationalen Schutz
BG: разглеждане на молба за международна закрила
CS: rozhodování o žádosti o mezinárodní ochranu
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse taotluse läbivaatamine
EL: εξέταση αίτησης διεθνούς προστασίας
ES: examen de una solicitud de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskevan hakemuksen käsittely
FR/BE/LU: examen d'une demande de protection internationale
HU: menedékkérelem elbírásála
IE: iniúchadh ar iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: esame della domanda di protezione internazionale
LT: prašymo suteikti prieglobstį nagrinėjimas
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikuma izskatīšana
MT: Tgħarbil/Eżami ta’ applikazzjoni għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: behandeling van een verzoek om internationale bescherming
NO: vurdering av søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / vurdering av søknad om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: rozpatrywanie wniosku o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
: análise de um pedido de proteção internacional
RO: soluţionarea unei cereri de protecţie internaţionlă
SE: prövning av ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: obravnavanje prošnje za mednarodno zaščito
SK: posúdenie žiadosti o medzinárodnú ochranu / posúdenie žiadosti o udelenie medzinárodnej ochrany (EU acquis) / posúdenie žiadosti o udelenie azylu (national law)

Any examination of, or decision or ruling concerning, an application for international protection by the competent authorities in accordance with Directive 2013/32/EU and Directive 2011/95/EU, except for procedures for determining the Member State responsible in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 604/2013.

 Broader Term: application for international protection

Source:Art. 2(d) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

exclusion clause

AT/DE/LU: Ausschlussklausel
BG: изключваща клауза
CS: exkluzivní klauzule, vylučovací klauzule
EE: välistav klausel
ES: cláusula de exclusión
FI: poissulkemislauseke
FR/BE/LU: clause d'exclusion
GR: ρήτρες αποκλεισμού
HU: kizáró klauzulák
IE: clásal eisiaimh
IT: clausola di esclusione
LT: prašymo atmetimo pagrindai
LV: izslēgšanas noteikums
MT: Klawsola ta’ tbarrija / t’esklużjoni
NL/BE: uitsluitingsgronden 
NO: unntaksbestemmelse (b) / unntaksføresegn (n)
PL: klauzula wykluczająca
PT: cláusulas de exclusão
RO: cauză de excludere
SE: undantagsklausul
SI: izključitvena klavzula
SK: doložka o vylúčení / vylučovacia klauzula / vylučovacie ustanovenie

Specifically, any of the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 1951and Protocol of 1967, such as articles 1D, 1E and 1F, which mandatorily deny the benefits of refugee status to persons who already receive UN or national protection, or to persons about whom there are good reasons to believe that they have committed a war crime, a crime against humanity, a serious non-political crime, or acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the UN (e.g. the persecution of others).

Related Term: crime against humanity, war crime

The EU asylum acquis (see for example Art. 12 and 17 of Directive 2011/95/EU) has incorporated these Geneva Convention of 1951clauses whilst additionally stipulating exclusion clauses in relation to subsidiary protection.

Source:Art. 1D, 1E and 1F of the Geneva Convention of 1951


AT/DE/LU: Exodus
BG: no usual translation
CS: exodus
EE: massiline väljaränne
ES: éxodo
FI: joukkopako
FR/BE/LU: fuite massive
GR: έξοδος
HU: kivándorlás
IE: imeacht
IT: esodo
LT: egzodas
LV: masveida izceļošana
MT: Eżodu
NL/BE: uittocht (syn.: exodus)
NO: masseutvandring/masseflukt
PL: exodus
PT: exôdo
RO: exod
SE: massflykt
SI: eksodus / množična emigracija
SK: exodus / hromadný odchod

Movements in groups (isolated and sporadic) out of a country of origin in large numbers or of a section of the community at a given time.

A similar definition is also used in the UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology definition.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011


AT/DE/LU: Ausbeutung
BG: експлоатация
CS: vykořisťování
EE: ärakasutamine
ES: explotación
FI: hyväksikäyttö
FR/BE/LU: exploitation
GR: εκμετάλλευση
HU: kizsákmányolás
IE: dúshaothrú
IT: sfruttamento
LT: išnaudojimas
LV: izmantošana
MT: Sfruttament
NL/BE: uitbuiting
NO: utnyttelse (b) / utnytting (n)
PL: wykorzystywanie
PT: exploração
RO: exploatare
SE: utnyttjande
SI: izkoriščanje
SK: vykorisťovanie

The act of taking advantage of something or someone, in particular the act of taking unjust advantage of another for one’s own benefit (e.g. sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs).

Related Term: forced labourtrafficking in human beings

Art. 2(3) of Directive 2011/36/EU (Trafficking Directive) states that exploitation includes, as a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, including begging, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the exploitation of criminal activities, or the removal of organs.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011


AT/DE/LU: Rückführung (EU acquis); Ausweisung (DE)
BG: експулсиране
CS: vyhoštění
EE: väljasaatmine
ES: expulsión
FI: maasta poistaminen
FR/BE/LU: expulsion
GR: απέλαση
HU: kiutasítás (when implemented with official escort: kitoloncolás)
IE: díbirt / ionnarbadh
IT: espulsione
LT: išsiuntimas
LV: piespiedu izraidīšana
MT: Espulsjoni / Tkeċċija
NL/BE: verwijdering (syn.: uitzetting, uitwijzing)
NO: utvisning (b) / utvising (n)
PL: wydalenie
PT: expulsão
RO: (a) expulzare (b) returnare (forţată) sub escortă
SE: Utvisning
SI: izgon / odstranitev
SK: vyhostenie

The removal of:

  1. a third-country nationalsubject to an expulsion decision based on a serious and present threat to public order or to national security and safety taken in the following cases:
    • conviction of a third-country national by the issuing Member State for an offence punishable by a penalty involving deprivation of liberty of at least one year;
    • the existence of serious grounds for believing that a third-country national has committed serious criminal offences or the existence of solid evidence of their intention to commit such offences within the territory of a Member State.
  2. a third-country national subject to an expulsion decision based on failure to comply with national rules on the entry or residence of aliens.

In FI, the preferred English translation is ‘removal from the country’.

Narrower Term: expulsion decision

Broader Term: removal

Source:Art. 3(1) of Council Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)

expulsion decision

AT/DE/LU: Rückführungsentschei-dung (EU acquis); Ausweisungsentschei-dung (DE, LU)
BG: решение за експулсиране
CS: rozhodnutí o vyhoštění
: Rückführungsentscheidung (EU acquis); Ausweisungsentscheidung (DE, LU)
EE: väljasaatmisotsus
ES: decisión de expulsión
FI: maastapoistamispäätös
FR/BE/LU: décision d'éloignement
GR: απόφαση απέλασης
HU: kiutasítást elrendelő határozat
IE: cinneadh ionnarbtha
IT: decisione di espulsione
LT: sprendimas dėl išsiuntimo
LV: izbraukšanas rīkojums/lēmums par piespiedu izraidīšanu
MT: Deċiżjoni ta' espulsjoni / ta' tkeċċija
NL/BE: aanwijzing om het grondgebied te verlaten
NO: utvisningsbeslutning (b) / utvisingsavgjerd (n)
PL: decyzja o wydaleniu
PT: decisão de expulsão
RO: See "expulsion" (a) hotărâre judecătorescă de expulzare (b) decizie de returnare sub escortă
SE: beslut om avvisning eller utvisning
SI: odločitev o izgonu
SK: rozhodnutie o vyhostení

Any decision which orders an expulsion taken by a competent administrative (or judicial) authority of an issuing Member State.

Synonym(s): expulsion order

Broader Term: expulsion

Related Term: enforcement measure, removal order

1. In DE, only expulsion order is used, while expulsion decision and expulsion order are understood in the same way.
2. In RO, expulsion is decided by the courts only, not by administration.

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)

expulsion order

Please see entry for expulsion decision

external EU border

AT/DE/LU: EU-Außengrenze
BG: външна граница на ЕС
CS: vnější hranice EU
EE: EL välispiir
ES: frontera exterior (UE)
FI: EU:n ulkoraja
FR/BE/LU: frontière extérieure de l’UE
GR: εξωτερικά σύνορα
HU: külső határ
IE: teorainn sheachtrach an AE
IT: frontiera esterna UE
LT: išorės siena
LV: ES ārējā robeža
MT: Konfini (Il-) esterni / Fruntiera (Il-) esterna tal-UE
NL/BE: EU buitengrens
NO: ytre grense for Schengen-medlemsland
PL: granica zewnętrzna UE
PT: fronteira externa
RO: frontiere externe UE
SE: yttre gräns
SI: zunanja meja EU
SK: vonkajšia hranica EÚ

The parts of a Schengen Member State's border, including land borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports, that are not common borders with another Schengen Member State.

Related Terms: border control, internal EU border, irregular entry, legal entry, refusal of entry, schengen borders code

1. IE and UK do not participate in the Schengen Area.
2. BG, HR and RO are Schengen candidate countries.
3. IS, LI, NO and CH are also Schengen Member States, although they are not EU Member States.
4. For updated information on membership to the Schengen Area, see the website of DG HOME.

Source:Derived by EMN from Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)