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c

carrier

AT/DE/LU: Transportunternehmer
BG: превозвач
CS: dopravce
EE: vedaja
ES: operador de transporte
FI: liikenteenharjoittaja
FR/BE/LU: transporteur
GR: μεταφορέας
HU: fuvarozó
IE: iompróir
IT: vettore
LT: vežėjas
LV: pārvadātājs
MT: Operatur tat-trasport
NL/BE: vervoerder
NO: transportør
PL: przewoźnik
PT: transportador
RO: transportator
SE: transportör
SI: prevoznik
SK: dopravca

In relation to conveyance (or transport), the owner or charterer of the conveyance.


Note :
1. A carrier usually refers to an airline, bus or rail company, or cruise line. Under the laws of some States, the term includes any owner of a means of conveyance, which carries a person onto its territory.
2. The definition given in Art. 2(a) of Council Directive 2004/82/EC (API Directive) is more restrictive in that it refers explicitly to passenger transport by air and there is uncertainty as to what 'any natural or legal person' actually refers to, e.g. if this is the owner of the company only.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed., 2011

case worker in procedures for international protection

AT/DE/LU: Sachbearbeiter in Verfahren für internationalen Schutz
BG: интервюист
CS: rozhodčí
EE: Rahvusvahelise kaitse taotluse menetleja
ES: trabajador social en procedimientos de protección internacional
FI: päätöksen tekijä/hakemuksen käsittelijä kansainvälisen suojelun menettelyssä
FR/BE/LU: agent responsable du traitement d'une demande de protection internationale
HU: menekültügyi eljárás során eljáró ügyintézők
IE: cásoibrí nósanna imeachta um chosaint idirnáisiúnta   
IT: operatore impegnato nella procedura di protezione internazionale
LT: prašymą nagrinėti ir sprendimą dėl prieglobsčio suteikimo priimti įgaliotas valstybės tarnautojas
LV: ierēdnis, kas izskata starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikumus
MT: Operatur(-triċi) soċjali fi proċeduri għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: hoor- en beslisambtenaar in asielzaken (BE: protection officer)
NO: saksbehandler for søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (asyl) (b) / sakshandsamar for søknad om internasjonalt vern (asyl) (n)
PL: pracownik / urzędnik prowadzący postępowanie w sprawach z zakresu ochrony międzynardowej
RO: ofiter de decizie
SE: handläggare av ansökningar om internationellt skydd
SI: pristojna uradna oseba v postopku za mednarodno zaščito
SK: rozhodovač

Personnel of the determining authority responsible for examining and assessing an application for international protection and competent to take a decision at first instance in such a case.


Synonym(s): asylum case worker, asylum determination officer, case officer, case worker, decision-maker


Note :
This term specifically refers to persons examining and assessing applications for international protection. There are other types of case workers i.e. for processing visa applications, which are not explicitely mentioned in the glossary with an extra term.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'decision maker' in UNHCR: Beyond Proof – Credibility Assessment in EU Asylum Systems, 2013

Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration

AT/DE/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Център за информация, дискусии и обмен оносно преминаването на границите и имиграцията
CS: Centrum pro informace, diskusi a výměnu názorů k překačování hranic a imigraci
EE: CIREFI
ES: CIREFI
FI: Rajanylitys- ja maahanmuuttoasioiden tiedotus-, tarkastelu- ja tietojenvaihtokeskus (CIREFI)
FR/BE/LU: Centre d'information, de réflexion et d'échanges en matière de franchissement des frontières et d'immigration (CIREFI)
GR: Κέντρο Ενημέρωσης, Συζήτησης και Ανταλλαγής για τη Μετανάστευση και την Συνοριακή Διέλευση
HU: Külső Határok Átlépésével és Bevándorlással foglalkozó Információ-,Vita-, és Véleménycsere Központ
IE: Lárionad um Fhaisnéis, Phlé agus Mhalartú i dtaca le Trasnú Imeallchríche agus Inimirce (CIREFI)
IT: Centro di Informazione, di Riflessione e di Scambi in materia di Attraversamento delle Frontiere e di Immigrazione (CIRSFI)
LT: Informacijos, diskusijų ir keitimosi duomenimis sienų kirtimo ir imigracijos klausimais centras
LV: Centrs informācijai, apspriedēm un apmaiņām par robežšķērsošanu un imigrāciju
MT: Ċentru (Iċ-) ta' Informazzjoni, Diskussjoni u Skambji dwar il-Qsim ta' Fruntieri u l-Immigrazzjoni (CIREFI)
NL/BE: Centrum voor informatie, beraad en gegevensuitwisseling inzake grensoverschrijding en immigratie (CIBGGI) [in daily practice: CIREFI]
NO: Senter for informasjon, diskusjon og utveksling om grensepassering og innvandring (CIREFI)
PL: Centrum Wymiany Informacji nt. Przekraczania Granic i Imigracji (CIREFI)
PT: Centro de Informação, Reflexão e Intercâmbio em matéria de Passagem das Fronteiras e Imigração (CIREFI)
RO: Centrul de informare, reflecţie şi schimb de informaţii cu privire la trecerea frontierei şi imigraţie (CIREFI)
SE: Centrum för information, diskussion och utbyte i frågor som rör passage av gränser och invandring (Cirefi)
SI: Center za podatke, razprave in izmenjave glede prečkanja meje in priseljevanja
SK: Centrum pre informácie, diskusiu a výmenu v oblasti prekračovania hraníc a prisťahovalectva / CIREFI

A body assisting the EU Member States in effectively studying legal immigration so as to prevent illegal immigration and unlawful residence, in effectively combating immigration crime, in better detecting forged documents and in improving expulsion practice.


Synonym(s): CIREFI

Related Term: European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union


Note:
1. CIREFI started its work on 1 January 1995 based on the Council conclusions of 30 November 1994.
2. In December 2009, as a consequence of the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, COREPER decided to abolish CIREFI and to transfer its functions to FRONTEX.

Source:Council Conclusions of 30 November 1994

chain migration

AT/DE/LU: Kettenmigration
BG: верижна миграция
CS: řetězová migrace
EE: ahelränne
ES: cadena migratoria
FI: ketjumaahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration en chaîne
HU: lánc-migráció
IE: imirce shlabhrúil
IT: catena migratoria
LT: grandininė migracija
LV: ķēdes migrācija
MT: Katina ta’ migrazzjoni
NL/BE: kettingmigratie
NO: kjedemigrasjon
PL: migracja łańcuchowa
RO: migratie in lant
SE: kedjemigration
SI: verižna migracija
SK: reťazová migrácia

The practice where those who have settled on a family reunification basis can themselves sponsor further family members, consistent with European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) obligations.


Related Term: family formation, family migration, family reunification, right to family life, right to family unity

Note:
1. Originally chain migration refers to a process in which initial movements of migrants lead to further movements from the same area to the same area. In a chain migration system, individual members of a community migrate and then encourage or assist further movements of migration (see Migration, Citizenship, Education Glossary).
2.Chain migration may also be based on ethnic or family ties with members of the same family migrating at different times, usually with primary wage earners migrating first, followed by secondary or non-wage earners. In countries with more or less liberal regulations on the rights of migrants to family reunification usually in accordance with international conventions, family reunification as an incidence of chain migration explains much of the growth in the total migrant population.

Source:EMN: Family Reunification Study, 2008

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

AT/DE/LU: Charta der Grundrechte der Europäischen Union
BG: Харта на основните права на Европейския съюз
CS: Listina základních práv Evropské unie
EE: Euroopa Liidu põhiõiguste harta
ES: Carta de los Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea
FI: Euroopan unionin perusoikeuskirja
FR/BE/LU: Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne
GR: Ευρωπαϊκός Χάρτης Θεμελιωδών Δικαιωμάτων
HU: Az Európai Unió Alapjogi Chartája
IE: Cairt um Chearta Bunúsacha an Aontais Eorpaigh
IT: Carta dei Diritti Fondamentali dell'Unione Europea
LT: ES pagrindinių teisių chartija
LV: Eiropas Savienības Pamattiesību harta
MT: Karta tad-Drittijiet Fundamentali tal-Unjoni Ewropea
NL/BE: Handvest van de grondrechten van de Europese Unie
NO: Den europeiske unions pakt om grunnleggende rettigheter (b) / pakta til Den europeiske unionen om grunnleggjande rettar (n)
PL: Karta Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej
PT: Carta Europeia dos Direitos Fundamentais
RO: Carta Drepturilor Fundamentale a Uniunii Europene
SE: Europeiska unionens stadga om de grundläggande rättigheterna
SI: Listina Evropske Unije o temeljnih pravicah
SK: Charta základných práv Európskej únie

The formal EU document which combines and declares all the values and fundamental rights of individuals (economic and social as well as civil and political) to which Member States are obliged.



Related Term: European Convention on Human Rights, human rights

Note :
1. The Charter was proclaimed in December 2000 and became binding in December 2009 when the Lisbon Treaty came into force.
2. The Charter does not establish new rights, but assembles existing rights that were previously scattered over a range of international sources and thus makes them more visible. The Charter reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and tasks of the Union and for the principle of subsidiarity, the rights as they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and international obligations common to the Member States, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Social Charters adopted by the Union and by the Council of Europe and the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and of the European Court of Human Rights.
3. For more information, see: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf

Source:Derived by EMN from the European Charter of Fundamental Rights

child

AT/DE/LU: Kind
BG: дете
CS: dítě
EE: laps
ES: población infantil
FI: lapsi
FR/BE/LU: enfant
GR: παιδί
HU: gyermek
IE: leanbh
IT: bambino
LT: vaikas
LV: bērns
MT: Tifel (Tifla) / Wild
NL/BE: kind
NO: barn
PL: dziecko
PT: criança
RO: copil
SE: barn
SI: otrok
SK: dieťa

Every human being below the age of 18 years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.


Narrower Term: child labour

Related Term: adult, Minor


Note :
1. There is still no concrete, consistent definition of ‘child’ under EU law. The Treaty of Lisbon introduced an objective for the EU to promote children's rights. Moreover the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union guarantees the protection of children's rights by EU institutions, as well as by EU countries when they implement EU law. For further information, see the webpage of the DG Justice on the Rights of the Child and Fundamental Rights Agency: Developing indicators for the protection, respect and promotion of the rights of the child in the European Union, March 2009.
2. The term should be used to describe relationship with other family members. When referring to an individual and in a more legal context, the term minor should be used.

Source:Art. 1 of UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

child labour

AT/DE/LU: Kinderarbeit
BG: детски труд
CS: dětská práce
EE: lapstööjõu kasutamine
ES: trabajo infantil
FI: lapsityö
FR/BE/LU: travail des enfants
GR: παιδική εργασία
HU: gyerekmunka
IE: fostú leanaí
IT: lavoro infantile
LT: vaikų darbas
LV: bērnu darbs
MT: Tħaddim ta' tfal / ta' minorenni // Sfruttament ta' xogħol it-tfal
NL/BE: kinderarbeid
NO: barnearbeid
PL: praca dzieci
PT: trabalho infantil
RO: munca pentru copii
SE: barnarbete
SI: delo otrok
SK: detská práca

Any work performed by a child which deprives them of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to their physical and mental development.


Broader Term: child

Note :
1. The definition does allow for a child to work (e.g. in a shop outside school hours) as long as it does not conflict with the above. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children and interferes with their schooling by:

  • depriving them of the opportunity to attend school;
  • obliging them to leave school prematurely; or
  • requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.

2. The ILO Convention No 138 specifies 15 years as the age above which, in normal circumstances, a person may participate in economic activity. According to Art. 32 of the Charter of Fundamentals Rights of the European Union, the employment of children is prohibited. The minimum age of admission to employment may not be lower than the minimum school-leaving age, without prejudice to such rules as may be more favourable to young people and except for limited derogations.
3. Not all work done by children should be classified as child labour that is to be targeted for elimination. The ILO distinguishes between 'child work' and 'child labour', the latter being used to describe the more pejorative part of 'child work', whereas 'child work' in itself could include doing light household chores and, as long as it does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, can actually have some learning value.

Source:Webpage of the ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)

circular migration

AT/DE/LU: zirkuläre Migration
BG: циркулярна миграция
CS: cirkulační / cirkulární migrace
EE: korduvränne
ES: migración circular
FI: kiertomuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration circulaire
GR: κυκλική μετανάστευση
HU: körkörös migráció
IE: imirce chiorclach
IT: migrazione circolare
LT: apykaitinė migracija
LV: cirkulārā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni ċirkolari
NL/BE: circulaire migratie
NO:  sirkulær migrasjon
PL: migracja cyrkulacyjna
PT: migração circular
RO: migraţie circulară
SE: cirkulär migration
SI: krožna migracija
SK: okružná migrácia / cirkulárna migrácia

A repetition of legal migration by the same person between two or more countries.


Related Term: brain drain, brain gain, brain circulation, contract migrant worker, Mobility Partnership

Note:
The two main forms of circular migration which could be most relevant in the EU context are:
(1) Circular migration of third-country nationals settled in the EU

This category of circular migration gives people the opportunity to engage in an activity (business, professional, voluntary or other) in their country of origin while retaining their main residence in one of the Member States. This covers various groups, e.g.:

  • business persons working in the EU and wishing to start an activity in their country of origin (or in another third country); and
  • doctors, professors or other professionals willing to support their country of origin by conducting part of their professional activity there.

(2) Circular migration of persons residing in a third country

Circular migration could create an opportunity for persons residing in a third country to come to the EU temporarily for work, study, training or a combination of these, on the condition that, at the end of the period for which they were granted entry, they must re-establish their main residence and their main activity in their country of origin. Circularity can be enhanced by giving migrants the possibility, once they have returned, to retain some form of privileged mobility to and from the Member States where they were formerly residing, for example in the form of simplified admission/re-entry procedures. This category covers a wide array of situations, spanning the whole spectrum of migrants, including:

  • third-country nationals wishing to work temporarily in the EU, e.g. in seasonal employment;
  • third-country nationals wishing to study or train in Europe before returning to their country;
  • third-country nationals who, after having completed their studies, wish to be employed in the EU (e.g. as trainees) to acquire professional experience which is difficult to obtain at home, before returning;
  • third-country researchers wishing to carry out a research project in the EU;
  • third-country nationals, who wish to take part in intercultural people-to-people exchanges and other activities in the field of culture, active citizenship, education and youth (such as, for example, training courses, seminars, events, study visits);
  • third-country nationals who wish to carry out an unremunerated voluntary service pursuing objectives of general interest in the EU.

Source:Communication on Circular Migration and Mobility Partnerships, COM(2007) 248 final

citizenship

AT/DE/LU: Staatsangehörigkeit, Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: гражданство
CS: státní občanství
EE: kodakondsus
ES: nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuus
FR/BE/LU: citoyenneté
GR: ιθαγένεια; υπηκοότητα
HU: állampolgárság
IE: saoránacht
IT: cittadinanza
LT: pilietybė
LV: pilsonība
MT: Ċittadinanza
NL/BE: staatsburgerschap
NO: statsborgerskap (b) / statsborgarskap (n)
PL: obywatelstwo
PT: nacionalidade
RO: cetăţenie
SE: medborgarskap
SI: državljanstvo
SK: štátne občianstvo / štátna príslušnosť

The particular legal bond between an individual and their State, acquired by birth or naturalisation, whether by declaration, choice, marriage or other means according to national legislation.



Synonym(s): nationality

Narrower Term: acquisition of citizenship, dual citizenship, loss of citizenship

Related Term: country of nationality, union citizen

Note :
1. Whilst in some Member States a distinction is made between citizenship and nationality, in the EU context and for the purpose of this glossary, no distinction is made and the two terms are considered to be interchangeable. In countries which distinguish between citizenship and nationality, the term citizenship refers specifically to the legal rights and duties of nationals. The European Convention on Nationality, the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011 and the EUDO Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality prefer the term 'nationality'.
2. According to Art. 1 of the Hague Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Law, 1930, it is for each State to determine under its own laws who are its nationals.
3.The tie of nationality confers individual rights and imposes obligations that a State reserves for its population. Nationality carries with it certain consequences as regards migration, such as the right of a State to protect its nationals against violations of their individual rights committed by foreign authorities (particularly by means of diplomatic protection), the duty to accept its nationals onto its territory, and the prohibition to expel them.

Source:Art. 2(d) ofRegulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

civil partnership of convenience

AT/DE/LU: Schein- partnerschaft
BG: no translation
CS: účelové partnerství
EE: tsiviilpartnerlus (riigis seadusliku viibimise aluse saamiseks)
ES: unión civil de conveniencia
FI: harhautustarkoituksessa solmittu rekisteröity parisuhde
FR/BE/LU: partenariat civil de complaisance
HU: névleges élettársi kapcsolat
IE: páirtnéireacht shibhialta áise
IT: unione civile fittizia
LT: fiktyvi registruota partnerystė
LV: fiktīvas partnerattiecības
MT: Sħubija / Unjoni ċivili ta’ konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnpartnerschap
NO: proformapartnerskap (b) / proformapartnarskap (n)
PL: fikcyjny związek partnerski
RO: parteneriat (civil) de convenienta
SE: skenpartnerskap
SI: partnerska skupnost iz koristoljubja
SK: účelové registrované partnerstvo

A civil partnership contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person concerned to enter or reside in a Member State.


Related Term: adoption of convenience, marriage of convenience, partnership of convenience

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition for 'partnership' in Art. 16(2b) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

(civil) war refugee

AT/DE/LU: (Bürger-)Kriegsflüchtling
BG: бежанец вследствие на (гражданска) война
CS: uprchlík z důvodu (občanské) války
EE: sõjapõgenik
ES: refugiado por conflictos bélicos
FI: ([sisällis]sota)pakolainen
FR/BE/LU:  réfugié de guerre (civile)
GR: πρόσφυγας εμφυλίου πολέμου
HU: (polgár) háborús menekült
IE: dídeanaí cogaidh chathartha
IT: rifugiato a causa di una guerra civile
LT: pabėgėlis dėl pilietinio karo
LV: [pilsoņu] kara bēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a) minħabba gwerra (ċivili)
NL/BE: [burger]oorlogsvluchteling
NO: (borger)krigsflyktning (b) / (borgar)krigsflyktning (n)
PL: uchodźca wojenny
PT: refugiados de guerra
RO: refugiat de razboi (civil)
SE: krigsflykting
SI: (civilni) vojni begunec
SK: utečenec z dôvodu (občianskej) vojny

A person who leaves their country to escape from the effects of armed conflicts (direct effects of fighting, assaults of combat troops, displacements etc.).


Related Term: displaced person, person eligible for subsidiary protection, subsidiary protection, temporary protection

Note:
1. In accordance with the EU acquis (notably Directive 2011/95/EU), such a person could be granted refugee status or subsidiary protection status, depending on the grounds on which their application is based (i.e. depending on whether they were compelled to leave as a result of fear of persecution linked to a Convention ground for persecution or serious harm in the context of indiscriminate violence).
2. If there is a mass influx to the EU of such persons who have been displaced, they may also be eligible for temporary protection in accordance with Council Directive 2001/55/EC (Temporary Protection Directive).

Source: Derived by EMN from the definitions for 'refugee', 'person eligible for subsidiary protection' and 'temporary protection' in the EMN Glossary

Committee on Immigration and Asylum

AT/DE/LU: Ausschuss für Einwanderung und Asyl
BG: Комитет по имиграция и убежище
CS: Výbor pro přistěhovalectví a azyl
EE: sisserände- ja varjupaigakomitee
ES: Comité de Inmigración y Asilo (CIA)
FI: Maahanmuutto- ja turvapaikka-asioiden komitea (CIA)
FR/BE/LU: Comité sur l’immigration et l’asile (CIA)
GR: Επιτροπή για τη Μετανάστευση και το Άσυλο
HU: Bevándorlási és Menekültügyi Bizottság
IE: An Coiste um Inimrice agus Thearmann (CIA)
IT: Comitato Immigrazione e Asilo (CIA)
LT: Imigracijos ir prieglobsčio komitetas
LV: Imigrācijas un patvēruma komiteja
MT: Kumitat dwar l-Immigrazzjoni u l-Ażil (KIA)
NL/BE: Comité voor immigratie en asiel (CIA)
NO: Komiteen for innvandrings- og asylspørsmål (CIA)
PL: Komitet ds. Imigracji i Azylu
PT: Comité Imigração e Asilo (CIA)
RO: Comitetul Imigraţie şi Azil (CIA)
SE: kommittén för frågor om invandring och asyl
SI: Odbor za priseljevanje in azil
SK: Výbor pre prisťahovalectvo a azyl / CIA

A European Commission-led expert group aimed at facilitating an informal exchange of views between Member State administrations and the Commission services on political and legal issues related to migration, border and asylum.



Synonym(s): CIA, Immigration and Asylum Committee

Related Term: European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

Note :
1. Frequently the CIA discusses upcoming legislative or other proposals in order to 'measure the temperature' of Member State feelings before submitting a formal Commission proposal.
2. The CIA is also used as a forum for collecting information on the situation in Member States (via questionnaires) on selected policy-relevant issues and where the Commission can report to Member States on its activities.
3. Participants from Member States are nominated on an ad-hoc basis; normally both 'generalists' from the Permanent Representations and 'specialists' from the capitals are present.Non-governmental organisations ( NGOs) and international organisations such as UNHCR or IOM are sometimes invited to join discussions of the CIA as active observers.
4. For more information, see: http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regexpert/index.cfm

Source: Developed by EMN

Common Basic Principles

AT/DE/LU: Gemeinsame Grundprinzipien
BG: Общи основни принципи
CS: společné základní principy
EE: ühtsed aluspõhimõtted
ES: principios básicos comunes
FI: yhteiset perusperiaatteet
FR/BE/LU: principes de base communs
GR: κοινές βασικές αρχές
HU: közös alapelvek
IE: comhphrionsabail bhunúsacha
IT: Principi Comuni di Base
LT: bendrieji pagrindiniai principai
LV: kopīgie pamatprincipi
MT: Prinċipji Bażiċi Komuni
NL/BE: gemeenschappelijke basisprincipes
NO: felles grunnleggende prinsipper (b) / Felles grunnleggjande prinsipp (n)
PL: Wspólne Podstawowe Zasady
PT: princípios básicos comuns
RO: principii comune de bază
SE: gemensamma grundprinciper
SI: Skupna temeljna načela
SK: spoločné základné princípy / spoločné základné zásady

In the context of EU integration policy, a set of 11 simple, non-binding but thoughtful guidelines intended to assist Member States in formulating their integration policies.


Synonym(s): Common Basic Principles for immigrant integration policy
Broader Term: integration

Related Term: host society, National Contact Points on Integration

Note :
1. The Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the EU were adopted by the Justice and Home Affairs Council in November 2004 and form the foundations of EU initiatives in the field of integration.
2. The Common Basic Principles offer a guide for Member States against which they can judge and assess their own efforts. They can also use these basic principles to set priorities and further develop their own measurable goals. The principles are relevant both for Member States with considerable experience of substantial immigration as well as for those that have more recently become destinations for significant numbers of immigrants.
3. For more information, see the European website on integration.

Source: Derived by the EMN from the European Website on Integration and JHA Council Conclusions of 19 November 2004

Common European Asylum System

AT/DE/LU: Gemeinsames Europäisches Asylsystem
BG: Обща европейска система за убежище
CS: Společný evropský azylový systém
EE: ühtne Euroopa varjupaigasüsteem
ES: Sistema Europeo Común de Asilo
FI: Euroopan yhteinen turvapaikkajärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: régime d'asile européen commun (RAEC)
GR: Κοινό Ευρωπαϊκό Σύστημα Ασύλου (ΚΕΣΑ)
HU: Közös Európai Menekültügyi Rendszer
IE: Comhchóras Tearmainn Eorpach
IT: Sistema europeo comune di asilo
LT: bendra Europos prieglobsčio sistema
LV: Kopējā Eiropas patvēruma sistēma
MT: Sistema Ewropea Komuni għall-Ażil (SEKA)
NL/BE: Gemeenschappelijk Europees Asielstelsel (GEAS)
NO: Det felles europeiske asylsystemet (CEAS)
PL: Wspólny Europejski System Azylowy
PT: Sistema Europeu Comum de Asilo
RO: Sistemul European Comun de Azil
SE: gemensamt europeiskt asylsystem
SI: Skupni evropski azilni sistem
SK: Spoločný európsky azylový systém / CEAS

A framework of agreed rules which establish common procedures for international protection and a uniform status for those who are granted refugee status or subsidiary protection based on the full and inclusive application of the Geneva Convention and which aims to ensure fair and humane treatment of applicants for international protection, to harmonise asylum systems in the EU and reduce the differences between Member States on the basis of binding legislation, as well as to strengthen practical cooperation between national asylum administrations and the external dimension of asylum.


Synonym(s): CEAS

Related Term: Eurasil, European Asylum Support Office, minimum standards, Lisbon Treaty

Note :
According to Art. 78 of Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, the Common European Asylum System shall comprise:

  1. a uniform status of asylum for nationals of third countries, valid throughout the Union;
  2. a uniform status of subsidiary protection for nationals of third countries who, without obtaining European asylum, are in need of international protection;
  3. a common system of temporary protection for displaced persons in the event of a massive inflow;
  4. common procedures for the granting and withdrawing of uniform asylum or subsidiary protection status;
  5. criteria and mechanisms for determining which Member State is responsible for considering an application for asylum or subsidiary protection;
  6. standards concerning the conditions for the reception of applicants for asylum or subsidiary protection;
  7. partnership and cooperation with third countries for the purpose of managing inflows of people applying for asylum or subsidiary or temporary protection.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 78 of TFEU

compulsory return

AT/DE/LU: zwangsweise Rückführung, Zwangsrückführung, erzwungene Rückkehr
BG: принудително връщане
CS: nucený návrat
EE: sunnitud tagasipöördumine
ES: retorno forzoso
FI: pakkopalautus/pakkoon perustuva paluu
FR/BE/LU: obligation de retour
HU: kötelező visszatérés
IE: filleadh éigeantach
IT: ritorno obbligato
LT: priverstinis grąžinimas
LV: piespiedu atgriešana (EU acquis) / piespiedu izraidīšana (national)
MT: Ritorn obbligatorju //Ripatrijazzjoni obbligatorja
NL/BE: gedwongen terugkeer
NO: tvangsretur
PL: przymusowy powrót
RO: returnare (fortata)/returnare sub escortă
SE: tvångsmässigt återvändande
SI: obvezno vračanje
SK: nútený návrat

In the global context, obligatory return of an individual to the country of origin, transit or third country (i.e. country of return), on the basis of an administrative or judicial act.

In the EU context, the process of going back – whether in voluntary compliance with an obligation to return, or enforced – to:

  • one's country of origin; or
  • a country of transit in accordance with EU or bilateral readmission agreements or other arrangements; or
  • another third country, to which the third-country national concerned voluntarily decides to return and in which they will be accepted.


Synonym(s): forced return

Narrower Term: removal

Broader Term: return

Related Term: Voluntary return

Note:
1. It should be noted that Art. 3(3) of the Directive 2008/115/EC refers only to 'return' (not 'compulsory return') and this does not cover the return of migrants based on their free will and without any direction from the State.
2. Outside of EU legislation the term 'forced return' is more commonly used and understood as a synonym with 'compulsory return'. Under EU legislation 'forced return' is synonymous with 'return'; the specific obligation to return is 'the removal'.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'forced return' in the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011
EU context: Art. 3(3) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

contract migrant worker

AT/DE/LU: Vertragsarbeitnehmer 
BG: работник мигрант на трудов договор
CS: smluvní pracovní pohyb
EE: lepinguline võõrtöötaja
ES: No translation
FI: maahanmuuttaja, jolla on rajoitettu työnteko-oikeus
FR/BE/LU: travailleur migrant sous contrat
GR: μισθωτός μετανάστης εργαζόμενος / Εργατικός Μετανάστης
HU: szerződéssel rendelkező / szerződéses migráns munkavállaló
IE: oibrí imirceach conartha
IT:  lavoratore migrante a contratto
LT: migrantas darbuotojas pagal sutartį
LV: līgumdarbinieks migrants
MT: Migrant ħaddiem b'kuntratt tax-xogħol
NL/BE: buitenlandse contractarbeider
NO: migrant med begrenset arbeidsavtale (b) / migrant med avgrensa arbeidsavtale (n)
PL:  migrant / pracownik kontraktowy
PT: trabalhador migrante por conta de outrem
RO: lucrator migrant cu contract
SE: no translation
SI: pogodbeni delavec migrant
SK: pracujúci migrant so zmluvou na dobu určitú

Person working in a country other than their own under contractual arrangements that set limits on the period of employment and on the specific job held by the migrant.


Broader Term: migrant worker

Related Term: circular migration, seasonal worker

Note:
1. Contract migrant workers cannot change jobs without permission granted by the authorities of the receiving State.
2. This full term is not commonly used; 'contract worker', which does not necessarily apply to migrants only, is more common.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Convention grounds for persecution

AT/DE/LU: Verfolgungsgründe (nach) der Genfer Konvention, Konventionsgründe
BG: основания за преследване, посочени в Конвенцията за статута на бежанците
CS: důvody pro udělení azylu dle Ženevské úmluvy
EE: Genfi konventsioonis sätestatud tagakiusamise alused
ES: motivos de persecución Convenio de Ginebra de 1951 y Protocolo de 1967
FI: Geneven yleissopimuksen mukaiset vainon perusteet
FR/BE/LU: Motifs de persécution au sens de la Convention de Genève
IE: bonn géarleanúna de réir Choinbhinsiún na Ginéive
IT: cause di persecuzione ex Convenzione di Ginevra
LT: persekiojimo pagrindai pagal Konvenciją
LV: Ženēvas konvencijas noteiktie vajāšanas pamati
MT: Motivi għall-persekuzzjoni skont il-Konvenzjoni
NL/BE: gronden voor vervolging in de zin van het Vluchtelingenverdrag
NO: konvensjonsgrunnene for forfølgelse (b) / konvensjonsgrunnane for forfølging (n)
RO: motive de persecutie stabilite de Conventia de la Geneva din 1951
SE: konventionsgrunder för förföljelse
SI: konvencijski razlogi za preganjanje / razlogi za preganjanje po Ženevski konvenciji iz 1951
SK: dôvody prenasledovania podľa Ženevského dohovoru

The five enumerated grounds listed in Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951: race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion which must be the reason for persecution.


Synonym(s): grounds for persecution, reasons for persecution

Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967, refugee

Note :
1. Not every person who is outside their own country and has a well-founded fear of persecution is a Convention refugee. One of the conditions for qualification for refugee status within the meaning of Art. 1(A) of the Geneva Convention is the existence of a causal link between the reasons for persecution, namely race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, and the acts of persecution or the absence of protection against such acts. Persecution based on any other ground will not be considered. The risk of being persecuted may sometimes arise in circumstances where two or more Convention grounds combine in the same person, in which case the combination of such grounds defines the causal connection to the well-founded fear of being persecuted.
2.The following definitions come into play when States attempt to determine who is and who is not a refugee:

  • race is used in the broadest sense and includes ethnic and social groups of common descent;
  • religion also has a broad meaning, including identification with a group that tends to share common traditions or beliefs, as well as the active practice of religion;
  • nationality includes an individual’s citizenship. Persecution of ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups within a population also may be termed persecution based on nationality;
  • a particular social group refers to people who share a similar background, habits or social status. This category often overlaps with persecution based on one of the other four grounds. It has applied to families of capitalists, landowners, homosexuals, entrepreneurs and former members of the military;
  • political opinion refers to ideas not tolerated by the authorities, including opinions critical of government policies and methods. It includes opinions attributed to individuals even if the individual does not in fact hold that opinion. Individuals who conceal their political opinions until after they have fled their countries may qualify for refugee status if they can show that their views are likely to subject them to persecution if they return home.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951

Convention refugee

AT/DE/LU: Konventionsflüchtling
BG: бежанец съгласно Конвенцията за статута на бежанците от 1951 г.
CS: azylant
EE: konventsioonipagulane
ES: refugiado (en términos de la Convención de Ginebra)
FI: Geneven yleissopimuksen mukainen pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié au sens de la Convention de Genève
GR: πρόσφυγας (σύμφωνα με την συνθήκη της Γενέυης)
HU: konvenciós menekült
IE: dídeanaí Coinbhinsiúin
IT: rifugiato ex Convenzione di Ginevra
LT: pabėgėlis pagal Konvenciją
LV: bēglis Ženēvas konvencijas izpratnē
MT: Rifuġjat(a) skont il-Konvenzjoni ta' Ġinevra
NL/BE: verdragsvluchteling
NO: konvensjonsflyktning
PL: uchodźca konwencyjny
PT: refugiado (na acepção da Convenção de Genebra de 1951 relativa aos refugiados)
RO: refugiat în baza convenţiei de la Geneva
SE: konventionsflykting
SI: konvencijski begunec /begunec po Ženevski konvenciji
SK: utečenec podľa Ženevského dohovoru

Person recognised as a refugee by States under the criteria in Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951, and entitled to the enjoyment of a variety of rights under that Convention.


Synonym(s): recognised refugee

Broader Term: beneficiary of international protection

Related Term: refugee, refugee status

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development

AT/DE/LU: Kooperationsplatt-form für Migration und Entwicklung
BG: Платформа за сътрудничество по въпросите на миграцията и развитието
CS: Platforma pro spolupráci - migrace a rozvoj
EE: rände ja arenguabi koostööplatvorm
ES: Plataforma de Cooperación sobre Migración y Desarrollo
FI: muuttoliikettä ja kehitystä käsittelevä yhteistyöfoorumi
FR/BE/LU: Plate-forme de coopération sur la migration et le développement
GR: πλατφόρμες συνεργασίας
HU: Együttműködési Platform a migráció és jejlesztés területén
IE: Clár Comhoibrithe um Imirce agus Fhorbairt
IT: Piattaforma di cooperazione sulla migrazione e lo sviluppo
LT: Migracijos ir vystymosi bendradarbiavimo platforma
LV: sadarbības platforma par migrāciju un attīstību
MT: Pjattaforma ta’ Kooperazzjoni fuq il-Migrazzjoni u l-Iżvilupp
NL/BE: samenwerkingsplatform
NO: Samarbeidsplattform om migrasjon og utvikling
PL: Platforma Współpracy na rzecz Migracji i Rozwoju
PT: plataformas de cooperação
RO: Platforma de cooperare cu privire la Migratie si dezvoltare
SE: samarbetsplattform för migration och utveckling
SI: Platforma za sodelovanje na področju migracij in razvoja
SK: Platforma spolupráce v oblasti migrácie a rozvoja

A concept in the framework of the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility whichs bring together migration and development actors in a country or region to manage migration more effectively, in the interests of all, along specific migratory routes.


Synonym(s): cooperation platform

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, migration profile, mobility partnership

Note :
1. This concept was proposed in the Communication on the Global Approach (COM(2006)735) and endorsed by the December 2006 European Council.
2. Such platforms bring together representatives of the country or countries concerned with Member States, the Commission and international organisations.

Source: Derived by EMN from Annex I of Communication on the Global Approach to Migration, COM(2006) 735 final and the Communication on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743 final

Cotonou Agreement

AT/DE/LU: Cotonou-Abkommen
BG: Споразумението от Котону
CS: Dohoda z Cotonou
EE: Cotonou leping
ES: Acuerdo de COTONOU
FI: Cotonoun sopimus
FR/BE/LU: Accord de Cotonou
GR: Συμφωνία Κοτονού
HU: Cotonou-i Egyezmény
IE: Comhaontú COTONOU
IT: Accordo di Cotonou
LT: Kotonu susitarimas
LV: Kotonū nolīgums
MT: Ftehim (Il-) ta' Cotonou
NL/BE: overeenkomst van Cotonou
NO: Cotonou-avtalen
PL: Porozumienie z Cotonou
PT: Acordo de Cotonou
RO: Acordul COTONOU
SE: Cotonou-avtalet
SI: Kotonoujski sporazum
SK: Dohoda z Cotonou

The Partnership Agreement between the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States of the one part and the European Union and its Member States of the other part, in order to promote and expedite the economic, cultural and social development of the ACP States, with a view to contributing to peace and security and to promoting a stable and democratic political environment.



Synonym(s): ACP-EC Partnership Agreement, Cotonou Partnership Agreement

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note :
1. The Cotonou Agreement is the most comprehensive Partnership Agreement between developing countries and the EU. It was signed on 23 June 2000 in Cotonou, Benin as a global agreement, introducing important changes and ambitious objectives while preserving the 'acquis' of 25 years of ACP-EC cooperation. It was revised in Luxembourg on 25 June 2005.
2. Art. 13 of this agreement refers to the issue of migration which shall be the subject of in-depth dialogue in the framework of the ACP-EU Partnership.
3. For more information, see the description of the Agreement on the EuropeAid website.

Source:Cotonou Agreement

country of birth

AT/DE/LU: Geburtsland
BG: страна на раждане
CS: země narození
EE: sünniriik
ES: país de nacimiento
FI: syntymämaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de naissance
GR: χώρα γέννησης
HU: születés helye szerinti ország
IE: tír bhreithe
IT: paese di nascita
LT: valstybė, kurioje gimė
LV: dzimšanas valsts
MT:  Art twelidek / Pajjiżek
NL/BE: geboorteland
NO: fødeland
PL: kraj urodzenia
PT: país de nascimento
RO: ţara de naştere
SE: födelseland
SI: država rojstva
SK: krajina narodenia

The country of residence (in its current borders, if the information is available) of the mother at the time of the birth or, in default, the country (in its current borders, if the information is available) in which the birth took place.


Related Term: country of nationality, country of origin

Source:Art.2 (e) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

country of destination

AT/DE/LU: Zielland
BG: страна на дестинация
CS: cílová země
EE: sihtriik
ES: país de destino
FI: kohdemaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de destination
GR: χώρα προορισμού
HU: célország
IE: tír cheann scríbe (iolra: tíortha ceann scríbe)
IT: paese di destinazione
LT: tikslo valstybė
LV: mērķa valsts
MT: Pajjiż fid-destinazzjoni
NL/BE: land van bestemming
NO: destinasjonsland
PL: kraj docelowy
PT: país de destino
RO: ţara de destinaţie
SE: destinationsland
SI: ciljna država
SK: cieľová krajina

The country that is a destination for migratory flows (regular or irregular).


Related Term: country of origin, country of transit

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011

country of nationality

AT/DE/LU: Land der Staatsangehörigkeit/Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: страна на гражданство
CS: země státní příslušnosti
EE: kodakondsusjärgne riik
ES: país de nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuusvaltio
FR/BE/LU: pays de nationalité
HU: állampolgárság szerinti ország
IE: tír náisiúntachta
IT: paese di cittadinanza
LT: pilietybės valstybė
LV: pilsonības valsts
MT: Pajjiż tan-nazzjonalità
NL/BE: land waarvan iemand onderdaan is (syn.: land waarvan iemand het staatsburgerschap heeft)
NO: statsborgerskapsland (b) / statsborgarskapsland (n)
PL: państwo, którego obywatelem jest cudzoziemiec
PT: país de nacionalidade
RO:  ţara de cetăţenie
SE: medborgarskapsland
SI: država katere oseba je državljan
SK: krajina štátneho občianstva / krajina štátnej príslušnosti

The country (or countries) of which a person holds citizenship.


Synonym(s): state of nationality

Related Term: citizenship, country of birth, country of origin


Note :
1. A person may have a different country of nationality from their country of origin and/or country of birth owing, for example, to the acquisition of citizenship in a country different from their country of birth.
2. In some Member States, this term is used in the context of return.

Source: Developed by EMN

country of origin

AT/DE/LU: Herkunftsland, Herkunftsstaat
BG: страна на произход
CS: země původu
EE: päritoluriik
ES: país de origen
FI: alkuperämaa/lähtömaa
FR/BE/LU: pays d'origine
GR: χώρα προέλευσης
HU: származási ország
IE: tír bhunaidh
IT: paese di origine
LT: kilmės valstybė
LV: izcelsmes valsts
MT: Pajjiż tal-oriġini
NL/BE: land van herkomst
NO: opprinnelseslandd (b) / opphavsland (n)
PL: kraj pochodzenia
PT: país de origem
RO: ţara de origine
SE: ursprungsland
SI: izvorna država
SK: krajina pôvodu

The country of nationality or, for stateless persons, of former habitual residence.


Narrower Term: country of origin information, safe country of origin

Related Term: country of birth, country of nationality

Note :
A person may have more than one country of origin.

Source:Art. 2(n) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

country of origin information

AT/DE/LU: Herkunftsländerinformation (EU acquis, DE, LU)
BG: информация за страни на произход
CS: informace o zemích původu
EE: päritoluriigi info
ES: información del país de origen
FI: alkuperämaita koskeva tieto/lähtömaatieto
FR/BE/LU: information sur le pays d’origine
GR: πληροφορίες για τις χώρες καταγωγής
HU: származási országinformáció
IE: eolas faoin tír bhunaidh
IT: informazioni sul paese di origine
LT: informacija apie kilmės valstybę
LV: izcelsmes valsts informācija
MT: Informazzjoni dwar il-pajjiż tal-oriġini
NL/BE: landeninformatie
NO: landinformasjon
PL: informacje o kraju pochodzenia
PT: informação sobre países de origem
RO: informaţii din ţara de origine
SE: landinformation
SI: podatki o izvorni državi
SK: informácie o krajine pôvodu

Information used by the Member States authorities to analyse the socio-political situation in countries of origin of applicants for international protection (and, where necessary, in countries through which they have transited) in the assessment, carried out on an individual basis, of an application for international protection.



Synonym(s): COI, country information

Broader Term: country of origin

Related Term: European Asylum Support Office

Note :
1. All relevant facts as they relate to the country of origin at the time of taking a decision on the application are used. The relevant facts are obtained from various sources, such as the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), UNHCR and relevant international human rights organisations, general public sources such as reports from (inter)national organisations, governmental and non-governmental organisations, media, bi-lateral contacts in countries of origin, embassy reports including the laws and regulations of the country of origin and the manner in which they are applied.
2. The information used by the Member States authorities is made available to the personnel responsible for examining applications and taking decisions.
3. This information is also used inter alia for taking decisions on other migration issues, e.g. on return, as well as by researchers.
4. According to Art. 4 of Council Regulation (EU) No 439/2010 , the EASO has taken over responsibility for collecting, preparing, analysing and disseminating this information. For more information, see and the website of EASO.

Source:Derived by EMN from Annex C of COM(2006) 67 final, Art. 4 (3a) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Art. 10 (3b) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

country of return

AT/DE/LU: Rückkehrland
BG: страна на връщане
CS: země návratu
EE: vastuvõttev riik
ES: país de retorno
FI: paluumaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de retour
GR: χώρα επιστροφής
HU:  visszatérési ország
IE: tír fhillidh
IT: paese di ritorno
LT: valstybė, į kurią grįžta
LV: atgriešanas valsts (EU acquis) / izraidīšanas valsts (national)
MT: Pajjiż fejn wieħed jirritorna /fejn w. imur lura
NL/BE: terugkeerland
NO: returland
PL: kraj powrotu
PT: país de retorno
RO: ţara de returnare
SE: återvändandeland
SI: država povratka/vrnitve
SK: krajina návratu

In the EU context, a third country to which a third-country national returns.


Related Term: country of origin, country of transit

Note:
1. This is not defined in legal terms.
2. In most cases, it is the country of origin to which a return is made, but this definition is used here in order to indicate other (possible) destinations, e.g. country of transit or another third country.

Source:EMN study on Return migration, 2007 pdf - 168 KB [168 KB]

country of transit

AT/DE/LU: Transitland
BG: страна на транзит
CS: tranzitní země
EE: transiitriik
ES: país de tránsito
FI: kauttakulkumaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de transit
GR: χώρα διέλευσης
HU: tranzitország
IE: tír idirthurais
IT: paese di transito
LT: tranzito valstybė
LV: tranzītvalsts
MT: Pajjiż ta' tranżitu // Pajjiż li wieħed jgħaddi minnu
NL/BE: transitland (syn.: doorreisland)
NO: transittland
PL: kraj tranzytowy
PT: país de trânsito
RO: ţara de tranzit
SE: transitland
SI: tranzitna država
SK: tranzitná krajina

The country through which migratory flows (regular or irregular) move; this means the country (or countries), different from the country of origin, which a migrant passes through in order to enter a country of destination.


Related Term: country of destination, country of origin, country of return

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011

credibility assessment

AT/DE/LU: Glaubwürdigkeitsprü-fung, Prüfung der Glaubwürdigkeit
BG: оценка на достоверността
CS: posouzení věrohodnosti; ověření věrohodnosti
EE: usaldusväärsuse (usutavuse) hindamine
ES: evaluación de la credibilidad
FI: uskottavuusarviointi
FR/BE/LU: évaluation de la crédibilité
HU: szavahihetőség értékelése
IE: measúnú creidiúnachta
IT: valutazione di credibilità
LT: patikimumo vertinimas
LV: ticamības novērtējums
MT: Evalwazzjoni tal-kredibilità
NL/BE: beoordeling van de geloofwaardigheid
NO: vurdering av troverdighet (b) / vurdering av truverd (n)
PL: ocena wiarygodności
RO: evaluarea credibilitatii
SE: trovärdighetsbedömning
SI: ocena zanesljivosti
SK: preukazovanie dôveryhodnosti

The process of gathering relevant information from the applicant, examining it in the light of all the information available to the case worker, for the purpose of the determination of qualification for refugee status and/or subsidiary protection status.


Related Term: real risk of suffering serious harm, well-founded fear of persecution

Note:
1. The credibility assessment is also a step taken in adjudicating an application for a visa or other immigration status, in order to determine whether the information presented by the applicant is consistent and believable (see IOM definition of 'credibility assessment', IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011 )
2. Credibility is established where the applicant has presented a claim which is coherent and plausible, not contradicting generally known facts, and therefore is, on balance, capable of being believed.

Source:UNHCR: Beyond proof - credibility assessment in EU asylum systems, 2013

crime against humanity

AT/DE/LU: Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit
BG: престъпление срещу човечеството
CS: zločin proti lidskoti
EE: inimsusevastane kuritegu
ES: crimen contra la humanidad
FI: rikos ihmiskuntaa/ihmisyyttä vastaan
FR/BE/LU: crime contre l’humanité
GR: έγκλημα κατά της ανθρωπότητας
HU: emberiség elleni bűncselekmény
IE: coir i gcoinne an chine dhaonna
IT: crimine contro l'umanità
LT: nusikaltimas žmoniškumui
LV: noziegums pret cilvēci
MT: Reat kontra l-umanità
NL/BE: misdrijf tegen de menselijkheid
NO: forbrytelse mot menneskeheten (b) / brotsverk mot menneskeslekta (n)
PL: zbrodnia przeciwko ludzkości
PT: crimes contra a humanidade
RO: crimă împotriva umanităţii
SE:  brott mot mänskligheten
SI: zločin proti človeštvu
SK: zločin proti ľudskosti

Act committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack.


Related Term: exclusion clause, war crime

Note:
Crimes against humanity include:

  1. murder;
  2. extermination;
  3. enslavement;
  4. deportation or forcible transfer of population;
  5. imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;
  6. torture;
  7. rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilisation, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;
  8. persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognised as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;
  9. enforced disappearance of persons;
  10. the crime of apartheid;
  11. other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.

Source:Art. 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

cross-border worker

AT/DE/LU: Grenzgänger
BG: трансграничен работник
CS: přeshraniční pracovník; příhraniční pracovník
EE: piiriülene töötaja
ES: trabajador transfronterizo
FI: rajatyöntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur transfrontalier
HU: határ menti ingázó munkavállaló
IE: oibrí trasteorann
IT: lavoratore frontaliero
LT: darbuotojas, kertantis vidaus sienas
LV: pārrobežu darba ņēmējs
MT: Ħaddiem transkonfinali / jaqsam fruntiera
NL/BE: grensarbeider
NO: grensependler (b) / grensependlar (n)
PL: pracownik transgraniczny
RO: lucrator transfrontalier
SE: gränsarbetare
SI: čezmejni delavec
SK: cezhraničný pracovník

A person who works as an employee or self-employed person in one Member State but is recognised as residing in another (neighbouring) Member State.


Synonym(s): cross-border commuter

Related Term: frontier worker

Note:
1. In dealing with cross-border issues a multitude of definitions for the term 'cross-border worker/commuter' exists.
2. The concept of cross-border workers covers different circumstances, depending on whether one takes the Community meaning (set out, in particular, in connection with social security) or the various definitions included in bilateral double-taxation agreements.
3. Where tax is concerned, bilateral double-taxation agreements determining the tax arrangements applicable to frontier workers use more restrictive definitions which additionally impose a spatial criterion: the fact of living and working in a frontier zone.
4. Often 'cross-border workers' and 'frontier workers' are considered as synonyms. However, cross-border workers are distinct from frontier workers to the extent that they do not necessarily work in the frontier zone of the host country.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'cross-border workers' by DG Taxation and Customs Union (DG TAXUD)

crude rate of net migration

AT/DE/LU: rohe Netto-Migrationsrate
BG: общ коефициент на нетна миграция
CS: hrubá míra migračního salda
EE: rändesaldo määr
ES: tasa neta de migración
FI: nettomaahanmuutto tuhatta henkeä kohden
FR/BE/LU:  taux brut de solde migratoire
GR: το ποσοστό της καθαρής μετανάστευσης
HU: nemzetközi migráció nettó különbözete
IE: garbhráta glanimirce
IT: tasso grezzo di migrazione netta (o saldo migratorio)
LT: neto migracija tūkstančiui gyventojų
LV: migrācijas saldo vispārīgais koeficients
MT: Rata bejn wieħed u ieħor ta’ migrazzjoni netta // Rata netta ta’ migrazzjoni
NL/BE: bruto cijfer migratiesaldo
NO: summarisk nettomigrasjonsrate
PL: współczynnik salda migracji
PT: taxa bruta do saldo migratório
RO: ata brută de migraţie
SE: flyttningsnetto
SI: splošna stopnja neto migracije
SK: hrubá miera čistej migrácie / hrubá miera migračného salda

The ratio of net migration plus adjustment during the year to the average population in that year.


Related Term: migration flow, net migration, population stock, total migration

Note:
The value is expressed per 1,000 inhabitants. The crude rate of net migration is equal to the difference between the crude rate of increase and the crude rate of natural increase (that is, net migration is considered as the part of population change not attributable to births and deaths). It is calculated in this way because immigration or emigration flows are either unknown or the figures are not sufficiently precise.

Source:Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database

cultural diversity

AT/DE/LU:  kulturelle Vielfalt
BG: културно многообразие
CS: kulturní diverzita
EE: kultuuriline mitmekesisus
ES: diversidad cultural
FI: kulttuurinen moninaisuus/diversitetti
FR/BE/LU: diversité culturelle
GR: πολιτιστική ποικιλομορφία
HU: kulturális sokféleség
IE: ilchineálacht chultúrtha
IT: diversità culturale
LT: kultūrinė įvairovė
LV: kultūras daudzveidība
MT: Diversità kulturali
NL/BE: culturele diversiteit
NO: kulturelt mangfold (b) / kulturelt mangfald (n)
PL: różnorodność kulturowa
PT: diversidade cultural
RO: diversitate culturală
SE: kulturell mångfald
SI: kulturna raznolikost
SK: kultúrna rozmanitosť / kultúrna diverzita

The diversity of forms of culture in a society composed of groups of people from many different cultural backgrounds.


Related Term: cultural pluralism

Note:
1. The UNESCO Declaration on Cultural Diversity reflects the diverse and pluralist understanding of culture and defines cultural diversity in Art. 1 as follows: 'Diverse forms of culture across time and space which is embodied in the uniqueness and plurality of the identities of the groups and societies making up humankind and is a source of exchange, innovation and creativity.' The scope and definition agreed on in the UNESCO declaration were partly retained in the 2005 UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression), the successive legally binding Convention, which is a landmark agreement in modern international law of culture and which sets out common rules, principles and points of reference for cultural diversity at the global level.
2. On 18 December 2006, the European Community ratified the UNESCO Convention. Preserving and promoting cultural diversity are among the Community’s founding principles: they are enshrined in the Treaty, under Art. 151, and in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, under Art. 22.3.
3.For more information, see the European Cultural Portal

Source: Developed by EMN

cultural pluralism

AT/DE/LU: kultureller Pluralismus
BG: културен плурализъм
CS: kulturní pluralismus
EE: kultuuride paljusus
ES: pluralismo cultural
FI: kulttuurinen monimuotoisuus/pluralismi
FR/BE/LU: pluralisme culturel
GR: πολιτιστικός πλουραλισμός
HU: kulturális sokszínűség
IE: iolrachas cultúrtha
IT: pluralismo culturale
LT: kultūrinis pliuralizmas
LV: kultūras plurālisms
MT: Pluraliżmu kulturali
NL/BE: multiculturalisme
NO: kulturell pluralisme
PL: pluralizm kulturowy
PT: pluralismo cultural
RO: pluralism cultural/multiculturalitate
SE: kulturell mångfald
SI: kulturni pluralizem
SK: kultúrny pluralizmus

A policy aimed at the ensuring of harmonious interaction among people and groups with plural, varied and dynamic cultural identities as well as their willingness to live together.


Related Term: culture, cultural diversity

Note:
1. According to the UNESCO definition, policies for the inclusion and participation of all citizens are guarantees of social cohesion, the vitality of civil society and peace. Thus defined, cultural pluralism gives policy expression to the reality of cultural diversity.
2. See also the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of Cultural Expressions (2005).

Source:Art. 2 of UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity

culture

AT/DE/LU: Kultur
BG: култура
CS: kultura
EE: kultuur
ES: cultura
FI: kulttuuri
FR/BE/LU: culture
GR: πολιτισμός; κουλτούρα
HU: kultúra
IE: cultúr
IT: cultura
LT: kultūra
LV: kultūra
MT: Kultura
NL/BE: cultuur
NO: kultur
PL: kultura
PT: cultura
RO: cultura
SE: kultur
SI: kultura
SK: kultúra

The set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society or a social group encompassing, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs.


Related Term: cultural pluralism

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity

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