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Bali Process

AT/DE/LU: Bali-Prozess
BG: Процесът „Бали”
EE: Bali protsess
ES: Proceso de Bali
FI: Balin prosessi
FR/BE/LU: Processus de Bali
GR: Διαδικασία του Μπαλί
HU: Bali Folyamat
IE: Próiseas Bali
IT: Processo di Bali
LT: Balio procesas
LV: Bali process
MT: Proċess (il-) ta' Bali
NL/BE: Bali proces
NO: Bali-prosessen
PL: Proces Bali
PT: Processo de Bali
RO: Procesul Bali
SE: Baliprocessen
SI: Proces z Balija
SK: Proces z Bali

A collaborative effort participated in by over fifty countries and numerous international agencies working together on practical measures to help combat people smuggling, trafficking in persons and related transnational crimes in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond.


Related Term: Global Approach to Migration

Note:
This process was initiated at the "Regional Ministerial Conference on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime" held in Bali in February 2002.

Source:http://www.baliprocess.net/

Border (External EU)

AT/DE/LU: EU-Außengrenze
DK: ydre grænse
EE: välispiir
ES: frontera exterior (UE)
FI: EU:n ulkoraja
FR/BE/LU: frontière extérieure de l’UE
GR: εξωτερικά σύνορα
HU: külső határ
IE: teorainn sheachtrach an AE
IT: frontiera esterna UE
LT: ES išorės siena
LV: ārējā ES robeža
MT: Fruntiera (il-) Esterna tal-UE
NL/BE: EU buitengrens
NO: ytre grense
PL: granica zewnętrzna UE
PT: fronteira externa
RO: frontieră externă
SE: yttre gräns
SI: zunanja meja EU
SK: vonkajšia hranica EÚ

A Member States’ land borders, including river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports, provided that they are not internal borders.


Related Terms: Schengen Borders Code, Internal EU Border, Border Control, Illegal Entry, Legal Entry, Refusal of Entry

Source:Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Border (Internal EU)

AT/DE/LU: EU-Binnengrenze
BG: Граница (вътрешна за ЕС)
DK: indre grænse
EE: sisepiir
ES: frontera interior (UE)
FI: EU:n sisäraja
FR/BE/LU: frontière intérieure de l’UE
GR: εσωτερικά σύνορα
HU: belső határ
IE: teorainn inmheánach an AE
IT: frontiera interna UE
LT: ES vidaus siena
LV: iekšējā ES robeža
MT: Fruntiera (il-) Interna tal-UE
NL/BE: EU binnengrens
NO: indre grense
PL: granica wewnętrzna UE
PT: fronteira interna
RO: frontieră internă
SE: inre gräns
SI: notranja meja EU
SK: vnútorná hranica EÚ

(a) the common land borders, including river and lake borders, of the Member States;
(b) the airports of the Member States for internal flights;
(c) sea, river and lake ports of the Member States for regular ferry connections.


Related Terms: Schengen Borders Code, External EU Border, Border Control, Illegal Entry, Legal Entry, Refusal of Entry

Source:Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Border (Temporary External)

AT/DE/LU: vorläufige Außengrenze
EE: ajutine välispiir
ES: frontera temporal exterior
FI: väliaikainen ulkoraja
FR/BE/LU: frontière extérieure temporaire
GR: σύνορα (προσωρινώς εξωτερικά)
HU: ideiglenes külső határ
IE: teorainn sheachtrach shealadach
IT: frontiera esterna temporanea
LT: laikinoji išorės siena
LV: pagaidu ārējā robeža
MT: Fruntiera Esterna Temporanja
NL/BE: tijdelijke buitengrens
NO: midlertidig ytre grense
PL: tymczasowa granica zewnętrzna
PT: fronteira externa temporária
RO: frontieră externă temporară
SE: tillfälliga yttre gränser
SI: začasna zunanja meja EU
SK: dočasná vonkajšia hranica

(a) the common border between a Member State fully implementing the Schengen acquis and a Member State bound to apply the Schengen acquis in full, in conformity with its Act of Accession, but for which the relevant Council Decision authorising it to fully apply that acquis has not entered into force;


(b) the common border between two Member States bound to apply the Schengen acquis in full, in conformity with their respective Acts of Accession, but for which the relevant Council Decision authorising them to fully apply that acquis has not yet entered into force.

Source:Council Decision 574/2007/EC (External Border Fund)

Border Area

AT/DE/LU: Grenzgebiet, Grenzregion
BG: Гранична зона
EE: piiriala
ES: zona fronteriza
FI: raja-alue
FR/BE/LU: zone frontalière
GR: συνοριακή ζώνη
HU: határmenti terület
IE: ceantar teorann
IT: zona di frontiera
LT: pasienio teritorija
LV: pierobeža
MT: Żona ta' mal-Fruntiera
NL/BE: grensgebied
NO: grenseområde
PL: strefa przygraniczna
PT: zona fronteiriça
RO: zonă de frontieră
SE: gränsområde
SI: obmejno območje
SK: pohraničná oblasť

An area that extends no more than 30 kilometres from the border. The local administrative districts that are to be considered as the border area is specified by Member States concerned in their bilateral Agreements with a neighbouring third country. If part of any such district lies between 30 and 50 kilometres from the border line, it shall nevertheless be considered as part of the border area.

Source:Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic)

Border Control

AT/DE/LU: Grenzkontrolle
BG: Граничен контрол
CZ: ochrana hranic
DK: grænsekontrol
ES: control fronterizo
EE: piirikontroll
FI: rajavalvonta
FR/BE/LU: contrôle aux frontières
GR: συνοριακός έλεγχος / έλεγχος των συνόρων
HU: határellenőrzés
IE: rialú teorann
IT: controllo di frontiera
LT: sienos apsauga/kontrolė
LV: robežkontrole
MT: Kontroll mal-Fruntiera
NL/BE: grenstoezicht (Syn.: grensbewaking, grenscontrole)
NO: grensekontroll
PL: kontrola graniczna
PT: controlo de fronteira
RO: control de frontieră
SE: gränskontroll
SI: nadzor meje
SK: kontrola hraníc

The activity carried out at a border, in accordance with and for the purposes of Regulation 562/2006, in response exclusively to an intention to cross or the act of crossing that border, regardless of any other consideration, consisting of border checks and border surveillance.


Related Terms: Schengen Borders Code, External EU Border, Internal EU Border, Illegal Entry, Legal Entry, Refusal of Entry, EUROSUR


Note:
In December 2011, the European Commission published a proposal for a Regulation establishing a European Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR) [COM(2011) 873].

Source:Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Border Crossing

AT/DE/LU: Grenzübertritt
DK: grænsepassant
EE: piiriületus
ES: cruce de frontera
FI: rajanylitys
FR/BE/LU: franchissement de la frontière
GR: συνοριακή διέλευση
HU: határátlépés
IE: trasnú teorann
IT: attraversamento della frontiera
LT: sienos kirtimas
LV: robežšķērsošana
MT: Qsim il-Fruntiera / tal-Fruntiera
NL/BE: grensoverschrijding
NO: grensepassering
PL: przekraczanie granicy
PT: passagem de fronteira
RO: trecerea frontierei
SE: gränspassage
SI: prečkanje meje
SK: prekračovanie štátnych hraníc

The physical act of crossing a border either at a Border Crossing Point or another point along the border.

Source:Derived by EMN from terms mentioned in definition.

Border Crossing Point

AT/DE/LU: Grenzübergang, Grenzübergangsstelle
DK: grænseovergangssted
ES: paso fronterizo
EE: piiripunkt
FI: rajanylityspaikka
FR/BE/LU: point de passage frontalier
GR: σημείο συνοριακής διέλευσης
HU: határátkelőhely
IE: pointe trasnaithe teorann
IT: valico di frontiera autorizzato
LT: sienos kirtimo punktas
LV: robežšķērsošanas vieta
MT: (il-Punt / il-Post) ta' Qsim il-Fruntiera
NL/BE: grensovergang (Syn.: grensdoorlaatpost, grenspost)
NO: grensepasseringssted
PL: przejście graniczne
PT: ponto de passagem fronteiriço
RO: punct de trecere a frontierei
SE: gränsövergångsställe
SI: mejni prehod
SK: hraničný priechod

Any crossing point authorised by the competent authorities for crossing external borders.

Source:Council Directive 2004/82/EC

Border Resident

AT/DE/LU: Grenzbewohner; Anwohner der Grenzregion (LU)
DK: grænsegænger
EE: piiriala elanik
ES: residente fronterizo
FI: raja-alueen asukas
FR/BE/LU: frontalier
GR: κάτοικος της μεθορίου
HU: határ menti lakos
IE: cónaitheoir teorann
IT: frontaliero
LT: pasienio gyventojas
LV: pierobežas iedzīvotājs
MT: Resident(a) ta' mal-Fruntiera
NL/BE: grensbewoner (Syn: inwoner van een grensgebied)
NO: grenseboer
PL: mieszkaniec strefy przygranicznej
PT: residente fronteiriço
RO: locuitor din zona de frontieră
SE: gränsboende
SI: obmejni prebivalec
SK: obyvateľ pohraničnej oblasti

In the EU migration context, a third–country national who has been lawfully resident in the Border Area of a country neighbouring a Member State for a period specified in a bilateral Agreement between a Member State(s) and neighbouring third country, which shall be at least one year.

Source:Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic)

Border Traffic (Local)

AT/DE/LU: kleiner Grenzverkehr
DK: lokal grænsetrafik
EE: kohalik piiriliiklus
ES: tráfico fronterizo local
FI: paikallinen rajaliikenne
FR/BE/LU: trafic frontalier local
GR: τοπική διασυνοριακή κυκλοφορία
HU: kishatárforgalom
IE: trácht teorann áitiúil
IT: traffico frontaliero locale
LT: vietinis eismas per sieną
LV: vietējā pierobežas satiksme
MT: Traffiku Lokali mal-Fruntiera
NL/BE: klein grensverkeer
NO: lokal grensetrafikk
PL: mały ruch graniczny
PT: pequeno tráfego fronteiriço
RO: mic trafic de frontieră
SE: lokal gränstrafik
SI: (ob)mejni promet
SK: malý pohraničný styk

The regular crossing of an external land border by border residents in order to stay in a border area, for example for social, cultural or substantiated economic reasons, or for family reasons, for a period not exceeding three months.


Related Term: Frontier Worker

Source:Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic)

Brain Circulation

AT/DE/LU: Brain Circulation
EE: oskustööjõu ringlus
ES: circulación de cerebros
FI: osaamiskierto
FR/BE/LU: circulation des cerveaux
GR: κυκλοφορία εγκεφάλων (είναι μεταφορικό)
HU: there is no widely accepted term: "agykörforgás" is used in some documents
IE: ciorclaíocht lucht éirime
IT: circolazione di cervelli
LT: protų apykaita
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka cirkulācija
MT: Ċirkolazzjoni ta' Mħuħ / ta' Nies bi Kwalifiki Għolja
NL/BE: mobiliteit van hoogopgeleide personen (Syn.: brain circulation)
NO: kunnskapsmobilitet / kunnskapssirkulasjon
PL: cyrkulacja mózgów
PT: circulação de cérebros
RO: circulaţia creierelor
SE: kunskapsspridning
SI: kroženje možganov
SK: cirkulácia mozgov

The possibility for developing countries to draw on the skills, know-how and other forms of experience gained by their migrants – whether they have returned (to their country of origin) or not – and members of their diaspora.


Related Terms: Brain Drain, Brain Gain, Brain Waste, Circular Migration

Source:COM(2005)390 (Annex 5)

Brain Drain

AT/DE/LU: Brain Drain
EE: oskustööjõu äravool
ES: fuga de cerebros
FI: aivovuoto / aivovienti
FR/BE/LU: fuite des cerveaux
GR: απορρόφηση εγκεφάλων (είναι μεταφορικό)
HU: agyelszívás / brain drain
IE: eisimirce lucht éirime
IT: fuga di cervelli
LT: protų nutekėjimas
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka aizplūšana uz ārzemēm
MT: Tluq / Telf / Tnixxija ta' Mħuħ // ta' Nies bi Kwalifiki Għolja
NL/BE: brain drain
NO: kunnskapsflukt / ekspertflukt
PL: drenaż mózgów
PT: fuga de cérebros/brain drain
RO: exodul creierelor/"brain drain"
SE: "brain drain"
SI: beg možganov
SK: únik mozgov

The loss suffered by a country as a result of the emigration of a (highly) qualified person.


Related Terms: Brain Gain, Brain Waste, Brain Circulation, Circular Migration

Source:ILO Thesaurus

Brain Gain

AT/DE/LU: Brain Gain
EE: oskustööjõu sissevool
ES: captación de cerebros
FI: aivotuonti
FR/BE/LU: afflux de cerveaux
GR: κέρδος εγκεφάλων (είναι μεταφορικό) -
HU: there is no widely accepted term, several can be used: agyvisszaszívás / tudásnyerés / brain gain
IE: gnóthú lucht éirime
IT: acquisizione di cervelli
LT: protų pritraukimas
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka pieplūdums
MT: Akkwist / Ksib ta' Mħuħ // ta' Nies bi Kwalifiki Għolja
NL/BE: brain gain
NO: kunnskapsgevinst
PL: pozyskiwanie mózgów
PT: brain gain
RO: atragerea creierelor/"brain gain"
SE: "brain gain"
SI: pridobitev možganov
SK: prílev mozgov

The benefit to a country as a result of the immigration of a highly qualified person.


Synonym: Reverse brain drain


Related Terms: Brain Drain, Brain Waste, Brain Circulation, Circular Migration

Note:
This can apply to, for example, a EU Member State receiving a highly qualified third-country national, as well as a third-country national returning to their country of origin.

Source:Derived by EMN from Brain Drain

Brain Waste

AT/DE/LU: Brain Waste
EE: oskustööjõu alarakendatus
ES: subempleo
FI: aivotuhlaus
FR/BE/LU: gaspillage des cerveaux
GR: διαρροή εγκεφάλων
HU: képességek elpazarlása
IE: diomailt lucht éirime
IT: spreco di cervelli
LT: protų švaistymas
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka nodarbināšana zemākas kvalifikācijas darbā
MT: Ħela ta' Mħuħ / ta' Nies bi Kwalifiki Għolja
NL/BE: brain waste
NO: kunnskapssløsing
PL: marnotrawstwo mózgów
PT: brain waste
RO: "brain waste"
SE: "brain waste"
SI: budimpeštanski proces
SK: mrhanie mozgov

The non-recognition of the skills acquired (and qualifications) by a migrant outside of the EU, which prevents them from fully using their potential.


Related Terms: Brain Drain, Brain Gain, Brain Circulation

Source:COM(2005) 390 (Footnote 28)

Budapest Process

AT/DE/LU: Budapest-Prozess
BG: Будапещенски процес
EE: Budapesti protsess
ES: Proceso de Budapest
FI: Budapestin prosessi
FR/BE/LU: Processus de Budapest
GR: Διαδικασία της Βουδαπέστης
HU: Budapest Folyamat
IE: Próiseas Bhúdaipeist
IT: Processo di Budapest
LT: Budapešto procesas
LV: Budapeštas process
MT: Proċess (il-) ta' Budapest
NL/BE: Budapest proces
NO: Budapest-prosessen
PL: Proces Budapesztański
PT: Processo de Budapeste
RO: Procesul Budapesta
SE: Budapestprocessen
SI: budimpeštanski proces
SK: Budapeštiansky proces

A consultative forum of more than fifty Governments from the wider European region and ten international organisations, which aims to promote good governance in the field of migration, a harmonised approach in dealing with irregular migration challenges and support for the transfer and common understanding of migration concepts and policies.


Related Term: Global Approach to Migration

Source:ICMPD - Budapest Process

Burden of Proof

AT/DE/LU: Beweislast
EE: tõendamiskohustus
ES: carga de la prueba
FI: todistustaakka
FR/BE/LU: charge de la preuve
GR: υποχρέωση της απόδειξης της βασιμότητας του ισχυρισμού
HU: bizonyítási teher
IE: dualgas cruthúnais
IT: onere della prova
LT: įrodinėjimo pareiga
LV: pierādīšanas pienākums
MT: Piż (il-) tal-Prova / Obbligu (l-) li Jinġiebu l-Provi
NL/BE: bewijslast
NO: bevisbyrde
PL: ciężar dowodu
PT: ónus da prova
RO: sarcina dovezii
SE: bevisbörda
SI: dokazno breme
SK: dôkazné bremeno

In the migration context, a non-national seeking entry into a foreign State must prove that he or she is entitled to enter and is not inadmissible under the laws of that State.


In refugee status procedures, where an applicant must establish his or her case, i.e. show on the evidence that he or she has well-founded fear of persecution.


Note:
A broader definition may be found in the Oxford Dictionary of Law.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration (with slight modifcation to phrase)

UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

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