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EMN Glossary & Thesaurus

The EMN Glossary improves comparability by enabling a common understanding and use of terms and definitions relating to asylum and migration. The Glossary draws on a variety of sources, primarily those given in the EU asylum and immigration acquis, and makes these available in the majority of Member State languages. The Glossary has subsequently been used to develop an EMN Thesaurus, which will permit the structured documenting and searching of documents.

 

The EMN Glossary has been published in a number of languages and also in Arabic. It contains an introduction explaining how the Glossary was developed by the EMN. The following language versions are currently available: Deutsch pdf - 4 MB [4 MB] , English pdf - 7 MB [7 MB] , Español pdf - 4 MB [4 MB] , Français pdf - 4 MB [4 MB] , Italiano pdf - 3 MB [3 MB] , Português pdf - 4 MB [4 MB] and Arabic pdf - 7 MB [7 MB]

The terms included in EMN Glossary are directly available below.

absconding

AT/DE/LU: Untertauchen
BG: укриване
CS: skrývání se
EE: kõrvalehoidumine
ES: fuga
FI: pakeneminen
FR/BE/LU: fuite
GR: απόδραση
HU: megszökik
IE: éalú s.; éalaitheach a.
IT: fuga
LT: pasislėpimas
LV: aizbēgšana
MT: Ħarba / Ħrib / Kontumaċja
NL/BE: onderduiken
NO: unndragelse (b) / unndraging (n)
PL: ucieczka
PT: fuga/evasão
RO: sustragere
SE: avvikande
SI: pobeg
SK: útek

Action by which a person seeks to avoid legal proceedings by not remaining available to the relevant authorities or to the court.


Narrower Term: risk of absconding

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of ‘risk of absconding’, Art. 3(7) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

accelerated international protection procedure

AT/DE/LU: beschleunigtes Verfahren für internationalen Schutz
BG: ускорено производство за предоставяне на международна закрила
CS: zrychlené řízení o mezinárodní ochraně
EE: kiirendatud rahvusvahelise kaitse menetlus
ES: tramitación de urgencia
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskeva nopeutettu menettely
FR/BE/LU: procédure accélérée de traitement d'une demande de protection internationale
HU: gyorsított menedékkérelmi eljárás
IE: Nós Imeachta Luathaithe um Chosaint Idirnáisiúnta
IT: procedura accelerata di protezione internazionale
LT: paspartinta prieglobsčio procedūra
LV: paātrināta starptautiskās aizsardzības piešķiršanas procedūra
MT: Proċedura aċċellerata għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: versnelde asielprocedure
NO: hurtigprosedyre for behandling av asylsøknader (b) / hurtigprosedyre for handsaming av asylsøknader (n)
PL: procedura przyspieszona w sprawie o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
RO: procedura accelerata
SE: påskyndat prövningsförfarande av ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: pospešen postopek za pridobitev statusa mednarodne zaščite
SK: zrýchlený postup posudzovania žiadosti o medzinárodnú ochranu

An expedited procedure to examine an which is either already deemed manifestly unfounded, which involves serious national security or public order concerns, or which is a subsequent application.


Synonym(s): accelerated procedure for international protection, speedy asylum procedure, speedy international protection procedure


Note :
1. As per the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe's guidelines on human rights protection in the context of accelerated asylum procedures of 1 July 2009, the procedure derogates from normally applicable procedural timescales and/or procedural guarantees with a view to expediting decision-making. For more information see https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1469829&Site=CM
2. Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) recognises, in Recital 18 of the Preamble and in Art. 31(2) that it is in the interest of both Member States and applicants for international protection for decisions to be taken as soon as possible. This Directive does not provide for minimum or maximum time limits for taking a decision on applications for international protection nor does it define the term ‘accelerated procedure'. However, Art. 31(2) does make clear that the speed of the asylum procedure may not prejudice ‘an adequate and complete examination’ of the asylum claim.
3. Accelerated procedures must comply with the basic principles and guarantees laid down in Chapter II of Directive 2013/32/EU and may be conducted only in limited cases laid down in Art. 31(8) of the Directive.

Source:Derived by EMN from the Council of Europe's Guidelines on human rights protection in the context of accelerated asylum procedures 2009

access to healthcare

AT/DE/LU: Zugang zu medizinischer Versorgung
BG: достъп до здравни гриижи
CS: přístup ke zdravotní péči
EE: ligipääs tervishoiule
ES: acceso a la asistencia sanitaria
FI: oikeus terveydenhuoltoon
FR/BE/LU: accès aux soins de santé
HU: a migránsok társadalombiztosítási és egészségügyi ellátásokhoz való hozzáférése
IE: Rochtain ar Chúram Sláinte
IT: accesso all'assistenza sanitaria
LT: sveikatos priežiūros paslaugų prieinamumas
LV: piekļuve veselības aprūpei
MT: Aċċess għas-servizzi tas-saħħa/ għall-kura sanitarja
NL/BE: toegang tot gezondheidszorg
NO: tilgang til helsetjenester (b) / tilgang til helsetenester (n)
PL: dostęp do opieki zdrowotnej
RO: acces la ingrijirea sanatatii/acces la sistemul medical
SE: tillgång till hälso- och sjukvård
SI: dostop do zdravstvenega varstva
SK: prístup k zdravotnej starostlivosti

Healthcare entitlements enjoyed by third-country nationals (migrants, applicants for international protection and Refugees) in EU Member States and in their countries of origin.


Synonym(s): healthcare benefits, medical benefits

Broader Term: social protection benefits

Note:
1. In EU Member States, the scope of healthcare to which a third-country national has access depends on their residence or employment status. For further information see EMN: Migrants access to social security and healthcare: policies and practice, 2013 pdf - 2 MB [2 MB] .
2. According to Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive), long-term residents enjoy the same access to healthcare as nationals as defined by national law.
3. Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) grants access to adequate healthcare, including treatment of mental disorders when needed, to beneficiaries of international protection under the same eligibility conditions as nationals of the Member State that has granted such protection.
4. Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive) establishes minimum standards for access to healthcare for applicants of international protection during the asylum procedure. Asylum seekers are entitled to a basic treatment for emergency care and essential treatment of illnesses and of serious mental disorder at no cost in most countries. However, the entitlement of asylum seekers to healthcare services depends on national legislation and varies among Member Statese. See for example, EMN: Ad-Hoc Query on System of medical treatment of asylum seekers in Member States .
5. Access to healthcare can be a key factor in the process of decision-making on applications for international protection. Subsidiary protection may apply if the asylum-seeker contends that a return to the country of origin is impossible for health reasons, as the return of a sick person which is often connected with the medical standards in the country of return could constitute a breach of Art. 3 ECHR. Thus case workers have to take into account whether medical treatment is available in the country of origin and whether the available medical treatment would also be (e.g. financially) accessible to the concerned person upon return. For further information see the description of the MedCOI project in the List of projects funded by the European Refugee Fund in 2011 pdf - 30 KB [30 KB] .

Source: Derived by EMN from Art. 11 of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive) and Art. 30 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

accommodation centre

AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmeeinrichtung
BG: център за настаняване
CS: pobytové středisko
EE: majutuskeskus
ES: centro de acogida
FI: vastaanottokeskus
FR/BE/LU: centre d'hébergement
GR: κέντρο φιλοξενίας
HU: befogadó állomás
IE: lárionad cóiríochta (gu & ai: lárionaid chóiríochta)
IT: struttura alloggiativa (per richiedenti asilo)
LT: apgyvendinimo centras
LV: izmitināšanas centrs
MT: Ċentru ta' akkomodazzjoni
NL/BE: opvangcentrum (syn: asielzoekerscentrum)
NO: asylmottak/mottakssenter
PL: ośrodek dla osób ubiegających się o status uchodźcy
PT: centro de acolhimento
RO: centru de cazare şi proceduri
SE: förläggning
SI: nastanitveni center
SK: pobytový tábor (national law) / ubytovacie zariadenie

acculturation

AT/DE/LU: Akkulturation
BG: акултурация
CS: akulturace
EE: kultuuriline kohanemine
ES: aculturación
FI: akkulturaatio, sopeutuminen vieraaseen kulttuuriin
FR/BE/LU: acculturation
HU: akkulturáció
IE: athchultúrú
IT: acculturazione
LT: akultūracija
LV: akulturācija
MT: Akkulturazzjoni
NL/BE: acculturatie
NO: assimilasjon
PL: akulturacja
RO: aculturalizare
SE: ackulturation
SI: akulturacija
SK: akulturácia

A series of changes in cultural mores (ideas, words, values, norms, behaviour, institutions) resulting from direct and continuous contact and interaction between groups of different cultures, particularly through migratory movements or economic exchange, the media and other channels.



Synonym(s): inculturation

Narrower Term: assimiliation, integration, marginalisation, separation.

Source: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011 and IOM Glossary on Migration, 1st ed., 2004

acquisition of citizenship

AT/DE/LU: Erwerb der Staatsangehörigkeit/Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: придобиване на гражданство
CS: nabytí státního občanství
EE: kodakondsuse omandamine/kodakondsuse saamine
ES: adquisición y atribución de nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuuden saaminen
FR/BE/LU: acquisition de la citoyenneté
GR: κτήση ιθαγένειας
HU: állampolgárság megszerzése
IE: saoránacht a fháil
IT: acquisizione di cittadinanza
LT: pilietybės įgijimas
LV: pilsonības iegūšana
MT: Ksib ta' ċittadinanza
NL/BE: verkrijging van het staatsburgerschap
NO: erverv av statsborgerskap (b) / erverv av statsborgarskap (n)
PL: nabywanie obywatelstwa
PT: aquisição de nacionalidade
RO: obtinerea cetateniei/dobandirea cetateniei
SE: förvärv av medborgarskap
SI: pridobitev državljanstva
SK: nadobudnutie štátneho občianstva / získanie štátneho občianstva

Any mode of becoming a national, i.e. by birth or at any time after birth, automatic or non-automatic, based on attribution, declaration, option or application.


Narrower Term: naturalisation

Broader Term: citizenship

Related Term: Ius sanguinis, Ius soli

Note :
1. For migration statistical analysis, Art. 3(d) of Regulation (EC) No. 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation) refers or relates to the acquisition of citizenship to those persons having their usual residence in the territory of the Member State and having acquired during the reference year the citizenship of the Member State and having formerly held the citizenship of another Member State or a third country or having formerly been a stateless person.
2. One of the possible ways of acquiring citizenship is through naturalisation, which refers more to the decision/administrative process by the relevant authorities for the granting of nationality.

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

act of persecution

AT/DE/LU: Verfolgungshandlung
BG: действие на преследване
CS: akt pronásledování
EE: tagakiusamisakt
ES: actos de persecución
FI: vainoksi katsottavat teot
FR/BE/LU: actes de persécution
GR: πράξεις δίωξης
HU: üldöz(tet)ésnek minősülő cselekmények
IE: gníomh géarleanúna (iolra: gníomhartha géarleanúna)
IT: atti di persecuzione
LT: persekiojimo veiksmas
LV: vajāšanas darbība
MT: Att ta' persekuzzjoni
NL/BE: daden van vervolging
NO: forfølgelseshandlinger (b) / forfølgingshandlingar (n)
PL: prześladowanie
PT: actos de perseguição
RO: act de persecutie
SE: förföljelse
SI: dejanje preganjanja
SK: čin prenasledovania / akt prenasledovania

In the global context, acts of human rights abuses or other serious harm, often, but not always, with a systematic or repetitive element.

In the EU context and within the meaning of Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951, acts which are:

  1. sufficiently serious by their nature or repetition as to constitute a severe violation of basic human rights, in particular the rights from which derogation cannot be made under Art. 15(2) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); or
  2. an accumulation of various measures, including violation of human rights which is sufficiently severe as to affect an individual in a similar manner as mentioned in (a).


Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: actor of persecution, group persecution, serious harm

Note:
According to Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive), acts of persecution acan, inter alia, take the form of:

  1. acts of physical or mental violence, including acts of sexual violence;
  2. legal, administrative, police, and/or judicial measures which are in themselves discriminatory or which are implemented in a discriminatory manner;
  3. prosecution or punishment which is disproportionate or discriminatory;
  4. denial of judicial redress resulting in a disproportionate or discriminatory punishment;
  5. prosecution or punishment for refusal to perform military service in a conflict, where performing military service would include crimes or acts falling within the scope of the grounds for exclusion as set out in Art. 12(2);
  6. acts of a gender-specific or child-specific nature.

Source: Global context: UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms
EU context: Art. 9 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

actor of persecution

AT/DE/LU: Akteur, von dem eine Verfolgung oder ein ernsthafter Schaden ausgehen kann
BG: субект на преследване
CS: původce pronásledování
EE: tagakiusaja
ES: agentes de persecución
FI: vainon harjoittajat
FR/BE/LU: acteur de la persécution
GR: φορείς δίωξης
HU: üldöz(tet)és forrásai / alanyai
IE: gníomhaí géarleanúna (iolra: gníomhaithe géarleanúna)
IT: responsabili di persecuzione
LT: persekiojimo vykdytojas
LV: vajāšanas dalībnieks
MT: Aġent / Awtur t'att ta' persekuzzjoni
NL/BE: daders van vervolging
NO: aktører som er ansvarlig for forfølgelse / aktører som utøver forfølgelse (b) / aktørar som er ansvarlege for forfølging / aktørar som utøver forfølging (n)
PL: prześladowca
PT: agentes de perseguição
RO: agent de persecutie
SE: aktörer som utövar förföljelse
SI: storilec preganjanja
SK: pôvodca prenasledovania / aktér prenasledovania

Any person causing persecution, such as:

  1. the State;
  2. parties or organisations controlling the State or a substantial part of the territory of the State;
  3. non-State actors, if it can be demonstrated that the actors mentioned in (a) and (b), including international organisations, are unable or unwilling to provide protection against persecution or serious harm as defined in Art. 7 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Qualification Directive)


Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: act of persecution, group persecution

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 6 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

actor of protection

AT/DE/LU: Akteur, der Schutz bieten kann
BG: субект на закрила
CS: no translation
EE: kaitset tagav isik
ES: agentes de protección
FI: suojelun tarjoajat
FR/BE/LU: acteur de la protection
GR: φορείς προστασίας
HU: a védelem szereplői
IE: gníomhaí cosanta (iolra: gníomhaithe cosanta)
IT: soggetto che offre protezione
LT: apsaugos teikėjas
LV: aizsardzības dalībnieks
MT: Aġent t'att ta' protezzjoni
NL/BE: actoren van bescherming
NO: aktører som gir beskyttelse (b) / aktørar som gjev vern (n)
PL: podmiot udzielający ochrony
PT: agentes de protecção
RO: agent de protectie
SE: aktörer som ger skydd
SI: akter nudenja zaščite
SK: aktéri ochrany

Any person (individual or legal) providing effective and non-temporary protection against persecution or serious harm – i.e. the State or parties or organisations, including international organisations, controlling the State or a substantial part of the territory of the State provided they are willing and able to offer protection.


Broader Term: protection

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 7 of Directive 2011/95/EC (Recast Qualification Directive)

adaptation

AT/DE/LU: Anpassung, Adaptation
BG: приспособяване
CS: adaptace
EE: kohanemine
ES: adaptación
FI: sopeutuminen
FR/BE/LU: adaptation
GR: προσαρμογή
HU: adaptáció / alkalmazkodás
IE: oiriúnú
IT: adattamento
LT: adaptacija
LV: pielāgošanās
MT: Addattament
NL/BE: aanpassing
NO: tilpasning (b) / tilpassing (n)
PL: adaptacja
PT: adaptação
RO: adaptare
SE: anpassning
SI: prilagajanje/adaptacija
SK: prispôsobenie / adaptácia

Process of modifying some or all of one's beliefs and/or attitudes so as to suit new conditions of life.


Narrower Term: economic adaptation, linguistic adaptation, occupational adaptation, school adaptation

Related Term: integration

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

admission onto the territory

AT/DE/LU: Zulassung zum Hoheitsgebiet
BG: допускане на територията
CS: povolení vstupu na území
EE: riiki lubamine
ES: entrada legal al territorio
FI: maahantulon salliminen
FR/BE/LU: admission sur le territoire
HU: egy állam területére történő beutazás
IE: cead isteach sa chríoch
IT: ammissione sul territorio
LT: įleidimas į teritoriją
LV: uzņemšana teritorijā
MT: Dħul fit-territorju
NL/BE: toegang tot het grondgebied
NO: adgang til riket (b) / tilgjenge til riket (n)
PL: przyjęcie / dopuszczenie na terytorium
RO: admisie pe teritoriu
SE: tillstånd att resa in i landet
SI: (zakoniti) vstop na ozemlje
SK: povolenie vstupu na územie štátu

In the global context, a person who is not a national (native or citizen) of a given State.

In the EU context, a person who is not a national of a Member State of the European Union.


Synonym(s): foreigner , non-citizen, non-national

Related Terms: non-EU national, third-country national

Note :
The more frequently used term in the EU context is third-country national.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011
EU context: Schengen acquis

adoption (of a child)

AT/DE/LU: Adoption
BG: осиновяване
CS: osvojení
EE: lapsendamine
ES: adopción
FI: adoptio
FR/BE/LU: adoption
GR: υιοθεσία
HU: örökbefogadás 
IE: uchtú; uchtáil 
IT: adozione
LT: įvaikinimas
LV: adopcija 
MT: Addozzjoni
NL/BE: adoptie
NO: adopsjon
PL: adopcja
PT: adopção
RO: adoptare
SE: adoption
SI: posvojitev
SK: osvojenie / adopcia

In the context of dependants, the statutory process of terminating legal rights and duties between the child and the natural parents, and substituting similar rights and duties between the child and the adoptive parents.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

adoption (of legal acts)

AT/DE/LU: Adoption
BG: приемане
CS: přijetí
EE: (õigusakti) vastuvõtmine
ES: adopción
FI: adoptio
FR/BE/LU: adoption
GR: υιοθεσία
HU: elfogadás 
IE: glacadh 
IT: adozione
LT: (susitarimo) priėmimas
LV: pieņemšana 
MT: Aċċettazzjoni
NL/BE: goedkeuring
NO: godkjenning
PL: przyjęcie
PT: adopção
RO: adoptie
SE: antagande
SI: sprejetje
SK: prijatie

In the context of accords, in public international law, the formal act by which negotiating parties establish the form and content of a treaty. The treaty is adopted through a specific act expressing the will of the States and the international organisations participating in the negotiation of that treaty, e.g. by voting on the text, initialling, signing, etc. Adoption may also be the mechanism used to establish the form and content of amendments to a treaty, or regulations under a treaty.


Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

adoption of convenience

AT/DE/LU: Scheinadoption
BG: no translation
CS: účelové osvojení
EE: mugavuslapsendamine
ES: adopción de conveniencia
FI: harhautustarkoituksessa toteutettu adoptio
FR/BE/LU: adoption de complaisance
HU: névleges örökbefogadás
IE: uchtú áise
IT: adozione fittizia
LT: fiktyvus įvaikinimas
LV: fiktīva adopcija
MT: Addozzjoni ta’ konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnadoptie
NO: proformaadopsjon
PL: adopcja fikcyjna
RO: adoptie de convenienta
SE: skenadoption
SI: posvojitev iz koristoljubja
SK: účelové osvojenie

An adoption (of a child) contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person adopted to enter or reside in a Member State.


Broader Term: adoption (family law)

Related Term: civil partnership of convenience, marriage of convenience,partnership of convenience

Source:Art. 16(2b) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

adult

AT/DE/LU: Erwachsener
BG: възрастен
CS: dospelá osoba
EE: täisealine
ES: adulto
FI: aikuinen
FR/BE/LU: adulte
GR: ενήλικας
HU: felnőtt
IE: aosach
IT: adulto/ maggiorenne
LT: pilnametis
LV: pieaugušais
MT: Adult(a)
NL/BE: volwassene
NO: voksen (b) / vaksen (n)
PL: osoba pełnoletnia
PT: adulto/ maior de idade
RO: adult
SE: vuxen
SI: odrasel
SK: dospelá osoba

Every human being aged 18 years or more unless, under the law applicable to the adult, majority is attained later.


Related Terms: child, Minor

Note :
Adulthood can be defined in terms of biology, psychological adult development, law, personal character or social status. For the purposes of this glossary, a more legal definition is used.

Source: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'child' in EMN Glossary

Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration

AT/DE/LU: Beobachtungs-stelle für Migration in Afrika, in der Karibik und im pazifischen Raum
BG: Обсерватория по миграция за страните от Африка, Карибите и Тихоокенския басейн
CS: Observatoř pro migraci států AKT (Afriky, Karibiku a Pacifiku)
EE: Aafrika, Kariibi mere ja Vaikse ookeani piirkonna (ACP) riikide rände vaatluskeskus
ES: Observatorio sobre Migraciones Africa Caribe Pacífico
FI: Afrikan, Karibian ja Tyynenmeren alueen muuttoliikkeiden seurantakeskus
FR/BE/LU: Observatoire Afrique, Caraïbes, Pacifique (ACP) sur les migrations
HU: Afrikai, Karibi és Csendes-óceáni Migrációs Megfigyelő Központ
IE: Faireachlann Stáit na hAfraice, Mhuir Chairib agus an Aigéin Chiúin um Imirce, Faireachlann ACC um Imirce
IT: Osservatorio ACP (Africa, Caraibi e Pacifico) sulle migrazioni
LT: Afrikos, Karibų ir Ramiojo vandenyno regiono migracijos stebėsenos tinklas
LV: Āfrikas, Karību jūras reģiona un Klusā okeāna valstu migrācijas novērošanas centrs
MT: Osservatorju (L-) tal-Afrika, Karibew u Paċifiku fuq il-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: ACP Obervatory on Migration (no usual translation)
NO: Africa Carribean Pacific (ACP) Observatory on Migration
PL: Obserwatorium Migracji państw Afryki, Karaibów i Pacyfiku (AKP)
RO: Observator cu privire la migratie Africa Caraibe Pacific
SE: No usual translation
SI: Afriško - Karibsko - Pacifiški observatorij za migracije
SK: Observatórium AKT (Skupiny afrických, karibských a tichomorských štátov) pre migráciu

A reference network of migration research institutions and governmental entities dealing with migration in the six regions of the Africa Caribbean Pacific (ACP) Group of States, namely West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific, designed to produce data on South-South ACP migration flows for civil society and policy-makers, and enhance research capacities in ACP countries through networking and cooperation among organisations.


Synonym(s): ACP, ACP Observatory on Migration

Related Term: European Migration Network, Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note :
1. The ACP was established in 2010 on the initiative of the Secretariat of the ACP Group of States, empowered by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and funded by the European Union with the financial support of Switzerland.
2. Activities are undertaken in 12 pilot countries (Angola, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Tanzania, Timor-Leste and Trinidad and Tobago).
3. For more information see: http://www.acpmigration-obs.org/

Source:Website of the ACP Observatory on Migration

Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment Partnership

AT/DE/LU: Afrika-EU Partnerschaft in den Bereichen Migration, Mobilität und Beschäftigung
BG: Партньорство за миграция, мобилност и заетост между страните на Африка и ЕС
CS: Partnerství EU-Afrika pro migraci, mobilitu a zaměstnanost
EE: Aafrika-EL migratsiooni, mobiilsuse ja tööhõive partnerlus
ES: Asociación África-UE sobre migración, movilidad y empleo (MME)
FI: Afrikan ja EU:n kumppanuus muuttoliikkeen, liikkuvuuden ja työllisyyden aloilla
FR/BE/LU: Partenariat Afrique-UE sur les migrations, la mobilité et l'emploi
HU: Afrika-EU közötti Migrációs, Mobilitási és Foglalkoztatási Partnerség (MME)
IE: Comhpháirtíocht an AE agus na hAfraice maidir le hImirce, Soghluaisteacht agus Fostaíocht
IT: Partenariato Africa-UE in materia di Migrazione, Mobilità e Occupazione (MME)
LT: ES-Afrikos partnerystė migracijos, mobilumo ir užimtumo srityse
LV: Āfrikas un ES Migrācijas, mobilitātes un nodarbinātības partnerība
MT: Sħubija bejn l-Afrika u l-UE dwar Migrazzjoni, Mobilità u Impiegi (MMI)
NL/BE: Afrika-EU-Partnerschap inzake migratie, mobiliteit en werkgelegenheid
NO: Afrika–EU migrasjons-, mobilitets- og sysselsettingspartnerskap (MME) (b) / Afrika–EU migrasjons-, mobilitets- og sysselsetjingspartnarskap (MME)
PL: Partnerstwo UE-Afryka na rzecz migracji, mobilności i zatrudnienia (MME)
PT: Parceria Africa-UE para as migrações, mobilidade e emprego
RO: Parteneriatul Africa-EU cu privire la migraţie. mobilitate şi angajare
SE: MME-partnerskapet (migration, rörlighet och sysselsättning)
SI: Afrika - EU Partnerstvo za migracije, mobilnost in zaposlovanje
SK: Partnesrtvo Afrika - EÚ v oblasti migrácie, mobility a zamestnanosti

A partnership that provides comprehensive responses to the issues of migration, mobility and employment, in the interest of all partners, with the particular objectives to create more and better jobs for Africa and to better manage migration flows.


Synonym(s): Africa-EU MME Partnership, MME Partnership

Broader Term: Africa-EU Partnership

Related Term: Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration, Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note :
1. The MME Partnership was launched during the 2nd Africa-EU Summit of Heads of State and Government in December 2007 in Lisbon, where the Joint EU-Africa Strategy and the First Action Plan (2008-2010) were adopted.
2. The partnership aims to ensure sustainable development and the implementation of relevant international agreements and declarations, relying in particular on the Tripoli Declaration on Migration and Development , the Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, especially Women and Children and the Ouagadougou Declaration and Plan of Action for Promotion of Employment and Poverty Alleviation .
3. It covers one of the eight areas of cooperation of the Africa-EU (Strategic) Partnership, which is the formal channel through which the European Union and the African Union work together, and which provides the overarching long-term framework for Africa-EU relations.
4. For more information, see: http://www.africa-eu-partnership.org/

Source:Website of the Africa-EU Partnership

age assessment

AT/DE/LU: Altersfest-stellung
BG: оценка на възрастта
CS: určení věku
EE: vanuse määramine
ES: determinación de la edad
FI: iän määrittäminen, iän selvittäminen
FR/BE/LU: détermination de l'âge
HU: kormeghatározás
IE: measúnú aoise
IT: accertamento dell'età
LT: amžiaus nustatymas
LV: vecuma noteikšana
MT: Valutazzjoni/Stima tal-età
NL/BE: leeftijdsonderzoek
NO: aldersvurdering
PL: ustalenie/ocena wieku
RO: evaluarea varstei
SE: åldersbedömning
SI: ocenjevanje starosti
SK: posúdenie veku

Process by which authorities seek to establish the chronological age, or range of age, of a person in order to determine whether an individual is a child or not.


Related Terms: child, Minor

Note :
1. Art. 4 (2b) of Council Resolution of 26 June 1997 on unaccompanied minors states that in principle, unaccompanied asylum-seekers claiming to be minors must produce evidence of their age. If such evidence is not available or serious doubt persists, Member States may carry out an age assessment. Age assessment should be carried out objectively. For such purposes, Member States may have a medical age-test carried out by qualified medical personnel, with the consent of the minor, a specially appointed adult representative or institution.
2.According to UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 6, the identification of a child as an unaccompanied and separated child (UASC) includes age assessment, which should take into account physical appearance, but also psychological maturity. The assessment must be conducted in a scientific, safe, child and gender-sensitive and fair manner, avoiding any risk of violation of the physical integrity of the child, giving due respect to human dignity.
3. Age assessment can include a variety of processes or procedures either undertaken singularly or in combination, such as: analysis of documentary evidence, interview, X-ray, physical or other form of medical examination.

Source:Derived by EMN from EASO: Age assessment practice in Europe, 2013

airport transit visa

AT/DE/LU: Visum für den Flughafentransit
BG: виза за летищен транзит
CS: letištní průjezdní vízum
EE: lennujaama transiidiviisa
ES: visado de tránsito aeroportuario
FI: lentokentän kauttakulkuviisumi
FR/BE/LU: visa de transit aéroportuaire
HU: repülőtéri tranzit vízum
IE: víosa idirthurais aerfoirt
IT: visto di transito aeroportuale
LT: oro uosto tranzitinė viza
LV: lidostas tranzītvīza
MT: Viża għat-transitu fl-ajruport
NL/BE: luchthaventransitvisum
NO: transittvisum for lufthavn (b) / transittvisum for lufthamn (b)
PL: lotniskowa wiza tranzytowa
RO: viza de tranzit aeroportuar
SE: visering för flygplatstransitering
SI: letališki tranzitni vizum
SK: letiskové tranzitné vízum

A visa valid for transit through the international transit areas of one or more airports of the Member States.


Broader Term: visa

Related Term: long-stay visa, short-stay visa

Source:Art. 2(m) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

alien

AT/DE/LU: Ausländer
BG: чужденец
CS: cizinec; cizinec ze třetí země
EE: välismaalane
ES: extranjero
FI: ulkomaalainen
FR/BE/LU: étranger
GR: αλλοδαπός
HU: külföldi
IE: eachtrannach
IT: straniero
LT: užsienietis
LV: ārzemnieks
MT: Persuna barranija / għariba
NL/BE: vreemdeling
NO: utlending / utenlandsk borger (b) / utlending / utanlandsk borgar (n)
PL: cudzoziemiec
PT: estrangeiro
RO: străin
SE: utlänning
SI: tujec
SK: cudzinec

In the global context, a person who is not a national (native or citizen) of a given State.

In the EU context, a person who is not a national of a Member State of the European Union.


Synonym(s): foreigner , non-citizen, non-national

Related Terms: non-EU national, third-country national

Note :
The more frequently used term in the EU context is third-country national.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011
EU context: Schengen acquis

alternative to detention

AT/DE/LU: Alternative zur Inhaftierung/In-haftnahme, Haftalternative; Alternative zur Schubhaft/gelinderes Mittel (AT)
BG: алтернатива на задържане
CS: alternativa k zajištění
EE: kinnipidamise alternatiivid
ES: alternativas al internamiento
FI: säilöönotolle vaihtoehtoiset turvaamistoimet
FR/BE/LU: alternative à la détention/rétention
HU: a fogvatartás alternatívái
IE: malairt ar choinneáil (iolra: malairtí ar choinneáil)
IT: disposizione alternativa al trattenimento
LT: alternatyvi sulaikymui priemonė
LV: alternatīva aizturēšanai
MT: Alternattiva għad-detenzjoni
NL/BE: alternatief voor bewaring
NO: alternativ til forvaring
PL: alternatywa wobec zatrzymania
RO: alternativa la masura detentiei
SE: alternativ till förvar
SI: alternativa k pridržanju/ alternativa k omejitvi gibanja
SK: alternatíva k zaisteniu / alternatíva zaistenia

Non-custodial measures used to monitor and/or limit the movement of third-country nationals in advance of compulsory return or deciding on the individual’s right to remain in the Member State, such as regular reporting, the surrender of a financial guarantee or travel documents, electronic monitoring.



Related Terms: detention

Note :
1. Alternatives to detention usually provide more favourable ("less coercive") conditions for the potential detainee, and may also be more cost-efficient. They are still subject to human rights standards.
2. Reception facilities can be considered an alternative to detention only in cases where the individual concerned has to report regularly to the competent authorities, or if there are residency requirements.
3. For further information see EMN: Use of detention and alternatives to detention in the context of immigration policies, 2014.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 8(4) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

applicant for international protection

AT/DE/LU: Antragsteller auf internationalen Schutz
BG: кандидат за международна закрила
CS: žadatel o mezinárodní ochranu
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse taotleja
ES: solicitante de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua hakeva
FR/BE/LU: demandeur de protection internationale
HU: menedékkérő
IE: iarratasóir ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: richiedente protezione internazionale
LT: prieglobsčio prašytojas
LV: pieteikuma iesniedzējs, kas lūdz starptautisko aizsardzību
MT: Applikant(a) għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: persoon die om internationale bescherming verzoekt
NO: person som søker om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / person som søkjer om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: wnioskodawca o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
RO: solicitant al protectiei internationale
SE: sökande av internationellt skydd
SI: prosilec za mednarodno zaščito
SK: žiadateľ o medzinárodnú ochranu (EU acquis)

A third-country national or a stateless person who has made an application for international protection in respect of which a final decision has not yet been taken.


Narrower Term: asylum seeker

Source:Art. 2(i) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

applicant in need of special procedural guarantees

AT/DE/LU: Antragsteller, der besondere Verfahrensgarantien benötigt
BG: кандидат, който се нуждае от специални процедурни гаранции
CS: žadatel, který potřebuje zvláštní procesní záruky
EE: spetsiaalseid menetlustagatisi vajav taotleja
ES: solicitante que necesita garantías procedimentales especiales
FI: hakija, joka tarvitsee erityisiä menettelyllisiä takeita
FR/BE/LU: demandeur nécessitant des garanties procédurales spéciales
HU: különleges eljárási garanciákat igénylő kérelmező
IE: iarratasóir a bhfuil sainráthaíochtaí nós imeachta de dhíth air
IT: richiedente che necessita di garanzie procedurali particolari
LT: prašytojas, kuriam reikia specialių procedūrinių garantijų
LV: pieteikuma iesniedzējs, kuram nepieciešamas īpašas procesuālās garantijas
MT: Applikant(a) bi ħtieġa / fil-bżonn ta’ garanziji proċedurali speċjali
NL/BE: verzoeker die bijzondere procedurele waarborgen behoeft
NO: søker som har behov for særskilt saksbehandlingsprosedyre (b) / søkjar som treng særskild sakshandsamingsprosedyre (n)
PL: wnioskodawca wymagający specjalnych gwarancji proceduralnych
RO: solicitant care mecesita garantii procedurale speciale
SE: sökande i behov av särskilda förfarandegarantier
SI: prosilec, ki potrebuje posebna postopkovna jamstva
SK: žiadateľ, ktorý potrebuje osobitné procesné záruky (EU acquis)

An applicant whose ability to benefit from the rights and obligations provided for in Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) is limited due to individual circumstances.


Broader Term: applicant for international protection

Related Term: applicant with special reception needs

Source:Art. 2(d) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

applicant with special reception needs

AT/DE/LU: Antragsteller mit besonderen Bedürfnissen bei der Aufnahme
BG: кандидат със специални потребности за приемане
CS: žadatel se zvláštními potřebami při přijetí
EE: taotleja, kes vajab vastuvõtu eritingimusi
ES: solicitante con necesidades de acogida particulares
FI: hakija, jolla on erityisiä vastaanottotarpeita
FR/BE/LU: demandeur ayant des besoins particuliers en matière d'accueil
HU: különleges befogadási igényekkel rendelkező kérelmező
IE: iarratasóir a bhfuil sainriachtanais fáiltithe aige
IT: richiedente con esigenze di accoglienza particolari
LT: specialių priėmimo poreikių turintis prašytojas
LV: pieteikuma iesniedzējs ar īpašām uzņemšanas vajadzībām
MT: Applikant(a) bi bżonnijiet speċjali ta’ akkoljenza
NL/BE: persoon met bijzondere opvangbehoeften
NO: søker som har behov for særskilte innkvarteringsforhold (b) / søkjar som treng særskilde innkvarteringstilhøve (n)
PL: wnioskodawca o szczególnych potrzebach w zakresie przyjmowania
RO: solicitant cu nevoi speciale de primire
SE: sökande med särskilda mottagandebehov
SI: prosilec s posebnimi sprejemnimi potrebami
SK: žiadateľ s osobitnými potrebami pri prijímaní (EU acquis)

Avulnerable person, in accordance with Art. 21 of Directive 2013/33/EU, who is in need of special guarantees in order to benefit from the rights and obligations provided for in Directive 2013/33/EU.


Broader Term: vulnerable person

Related Term: applicant in need of special procedural guarantees


Source:Art. 2(k) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

application for asylum

AT/DE/LU: Asylantrag
BG: молба за убежище
CS: žádost o azyl
EE: varjupaigataotlus
ES: solicitud de asilo
FI: turvapaikkahakemus
FR/BE/LU: demande d'asile
GR: αίτηση ασύλου
HU: menedékjog iránti kérelem
IE: iarratas ar thearmann
IT: domanda d'asilo
LT: prašymas suteikti prieglobstį
LV: patvēruma pieteikums
MT: Talba / Applikazzjoni għall-ażil
NL/BE: asielverzoek (syn.: asielaanvraag)
NO: asylsøknad
PL: wniosek o azyl
PT: pedido de asilo
RO: cerere de azil
SE: asylansökan
SI: prošnja za azil
SK: žiadosť o udelenie azylu / žiadosť o azyl

An application made by a foreigner or a stateless person which can be understood as a request for protection under the Geneva Convention of 1951 or national refugee law.


Synonym(s): asylum application

Broader Term: application for international protection

Narrower Term: unfounded application for international protection

Note :
1. In most Member States this term is understood as a synonym to application for international protection following the adoption of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive). However, UK and IE, which have not adopted the single procedure, continue to use the term 'application for asylum' for an application for protection under the Geneva Convention only. In DE the term is still used to include, in addition to the application for international protection according the Qualification Directive, also the application according to the national legislation, Art. 16a Basic Law.
2. In everyday use, the terms 'asylum application' and 'application for asylum' are often used more frequently than 'application for international protection'.
3. In practice, non-EU countries can receive applications for asylum from EU Member States.
4. According to Protocol 29 of TFEU on asylum for nationals of Member States of the European Union (1997), EU Member States shall be regarded as constituting safe countries of origin in respect of each other for all legal and practical purposes in relation to asylum matters. Accordingly, any application for asylum made by a national of a Member State is normally not taken into consideration.


Source:Derived by EMN from the definition in Art. 2 (b) of Council Directive 2003/9/EC (Reception Conditions Directive)

application for international protection

AT/DE/LU: Antrag auf internationalen Schutz
BG: молба за международна закрила
CS: žádost o mezinárodní ochranu
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse taotlus
ES: solicitud de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskeva hakemus
FR/BE/LU: demande de protection internationale
GR: αίτηση για διεθνή προστασία
HU: nemzetközi védelem iránti kérelem
IE: iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: domanda di protezione internazionale
LT: prašymas suteikti prieglobstį
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikums
MT: Talba għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: verzoek om internationale bescherming
NO: søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / søknad om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: wniosek o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
PT: pedido de protecção internacional
RO: cerere de protectie internationala
SE: ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: prošnja za mednarodno zaščito
SK: žiadosť o medzinárodnú ochranu (EU acquis)

A request made by a third-country national or a stateless person for protection from a Member State, who can be understood to seek refugee status or subsidiary protection status, and who does not explicitly request another kind of protection, outside the scope of Directive 2011/95/EU, that can be applied for separately.


Narrower Term: application for asylum

Note:
1. In most Member States this term is understood as a synonym to application for international protection following the adoption of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive).
2. In everyday use, the terms 'asylum application' and 'application for asylum' are often used more frequently than 'application for international protection'.
3. According to Protocol 29 of TFEU on asylum for nationals of Member States of the European Union (1997), EU Member States shall be regarded as constituting safe countries of origin in respect of each other for all legal and practical purposes in relation to asylum matters. Accordingly, any application for asylum made by a national of a Member State is normally not taken into consideration.

Source:Art. 2(h) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

apprehension

AT/DE/LU: Aufgriff, Ergreifung, Festnahme
BG: задържане
CS: zadržení
EE: kinnipidamine
ES: aprehensión
FI: kiinniottaminen, pidättäminen
FR/BE/LU: appréhension, arrestation
HU: őrizetbe vétel
IE: gabháil
IT: arresto
LT: sulaikymas
LV: aizturēšana
MT: Qbid / Arrest
NL/BE: aanhouding
NO: pågripelse (b) / pågriping (n)
PL: zatrzymanie
PT: Detecção
RO: luare in custodie publica
SE: kvarhållande
SI: prijetje/aretacija
SK: zadržanie (EU acquis) / predvedenie (national law)

In the EU migration context, any legal action by the relevant national authority(ies) to limit the freedom of movement of a third-country national found to be illegally present.


Related Terms: irregular migrant, Third-Country National found to be illegally present

 

Source: Developed by EMN

Asia-Europe Meeting

AT/DE/LU: Asien-Europa-Treffen
BG: Среща Азия-Европа
CS: Asijsko-evropské setkání
EE: Aasia-Euroopa kohtumine
ES: Conferencia Asia-Europa (ASEM)
FI: ASEM (Aasian ja Euroopan yhteistyöfoorumi)
FR/BE/LU: Réunion Asie-Europe (ASEM)
GR: Διάσκεψη Ασίας – Ευρώπης
HU: Ázsia-Európa Találkozó
IE: Cruinniú an Áise -an Eoraip (ASEM)
IT: Meeting Asia-Europa (ASEM)
LT: Azijos ir Europos susitikimas
LV: Āzijas un Eiropas sanāksme
MT: Inkontru (L-) Asja-Ewropa (IAsE)
NL/BE: ASEM (Asia Europe Meeting)
NO: ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting)
PL: ASEM (Asia Europe Meeting)
PT: Cimeira ASEM
RO: ASEM (Reuniunea Asia Europa)
SE: ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting)
SI: Azijsko - Evropski sestanek
SK: Fórum Ázia - Európa / ASEM

An informal process of dialogue and cooperation bringing together countries of the two regions (27 EU Member States, two other European countries and 20 Asian countries), the European Commission and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat which addresses political, economic and cultural issues, with the objective of strengthening the relationship between the two regions, in a spirit of mutual respect and equal partnership.



Synonym(s): ASEM

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note :
1. ASEM was initiated in 1996 in Bangkok.
2. In the political field, areas of common interest include the fight against terrorism or the management of migration flows; discussions on human rights, on the protection of children, and on the impact of globalisation.
3. For more information, see: http://www.aseminfoboard.org/

Source:Website of the ASEM

assimilation

AT/DE/LU: Assimilation
BG: асимилация
CS: asimilace
EE: assimileeruma
ES: asimilación
FI: assimilaatio
FR/BE/LU: assimilation
HU: asszimiláció
IE: asamhlú
IT: assimilazione
LT: asimiliacija
LV: asimilācija
MT: Assimilazzjoni
NL/BE: assimilatie
NO: assimilering
PL: asymilacja
RO: asimilare
SE: assimilering
SI: asimilacija
SK: asimilácia

The gradual process by which a minority group adopts the patterns of behaviour of a majority group or host society and eventually is absorbed by the majority group/host society.


Synonym(s): cultural assimiliation

Broader Term: acculturation

Source: Malgesini and Giménez: Guía de conceptos sobre migraciones racismo e inteculturalidad, 2000

assisted voluntary return

AT/DE/LU: unterstützte freiwillige Rückkehr
BG: подпомогнато/ асистирано доброволно връщане
CS: asistovaný dobrovolný návrat
EE: toetatud vabatahtlik lahkumine
ES: retorno (voluntario asistido)
FI: tuettu vapaaehtoinen paluu
FR/BE/LU: aide au retour volontaire 
GR: υποβοηθούμενη εθελούσια επιστροφή
HU: támogatott önkéntes hazatérés
IE: filleadh deonach cuidithe
IT: ritorno volontario assistito
LT: savanoriškas grįžimas (remiamas)
LV: atbalstīta brīvprātīga atgriešanās
MT: Ritorn volontarju assistit
NL/BE: gefaciliteerde vrijwillige terugkeer
NO: assistert retur
PL: wspomagany dobrowolny powrót
PT: regresso voluntário
RO: returnare voluntară asistată
SE: självmant återvändande
SI: prostovoljno vračanje s pomočjo
SK: asistovaný dobrovoľný návrat

Voluntary return or voluntary departure supported by logistical, financial and/or other material assistance.


Broader Term: voluntary departure, Voluntary return

Source: Developed by EMN

asylum

AT/DE/LU: Asyl
BG: убежище *The literal translation of this term in Bulgarian (the word „убежище“) refers to a specific kind of protection which is granted by the President of the Republic of Bulgaria and differs from the protection granted on the basis of the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951).
CS: azyl
EE: varjupaik
ES: asilo
FI: turvapaikka
FR/BE/LU: asile
GR: άσυλο
HU: menedékjog
IE: tearmann
IT: asilo
LT: prieglobstis
LV: patvērums
MT: Ażil
NL/BE: asiel
NO: asyl
PL: azyl
PT: asilo
RO: azil
SE: asyl
SI: azil
SK: azyl

A form of protection given by a State on its territory, based on the principle of non-refoulement and internationally or nationally recognised refugee rights and which is granted to a person who is unable to seek protection in their country of citizenship and/or residence, in particular for fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.


Broader Term: international protection

Narrower Term: right of asylum

Related Term: international protection, refugee

Source:Developed by EMN

asylum seeker

AT/DE/LU: Asylbewerber (EU acquis
BG: търсещ убежище
CS: žadatel o azyl
EE: varjupaigataotleja
ES: solicitante de asilo
FI: turvapaikanhakija
FR/BE/LU: demandeur d'asile
GR:  αιτών άσυλο
HU: menedékkérő
IE: iarratasóir ar thearmann
IT: richiedente asilo
LT: prieglobsčio prašytojas
LV: patvēruma meklētājs
MT: Applikant(a) għall-ażil
NL/BE: asielzoeker
NO: asylsøker (b) / asylsøkjar (n)
PL: osoba ubiegająca się o nadanie statusu uchodźcy (azyl)
PT: requerente de asilo
RO: solicitant de azil
SE: asylsökande
SI: prosilec za azil
SK: žiadateľ o udelenie azylu / žiadateľ o azyl

In the global context, a person who seeks safety from persecution or serious harm in a country other than their own and awaits a decision on the application for refugee status under relevant international and national instruments.

In the EU context, a person who has made an application for protection under the Geneva Convention in respect of which a final decision has not yet been taken.


Synonym(s): asylum applicant

Broader Term: applicant for international protection

Related Terms: beneficiary of international protection, Convention refugee, person eligible for subsidary protection

Note :
1. This definition generally refers to all who apply for protection on an individual basis, irrespective of whether they lodge their application on arrival at an airport or land border, or from inside the country, and irrespective of whether they entered the territory legally or illegally.
2. In most Member States this term is understood as a synonym to applicant for international protection following the adoption of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive). However, other Member States, such as the UK and IE which have not adopted the single procedure, continue to use the term 'asylum seeker' for an applicant who requests protection under the Geneva Convention only. In DE the term is still used to include, in addition to the provisions of Directive 2011/95/EU, those of the national legislation, Art. 16a Basic Law.
3. The terms 'asylum seeker' or 'asylum applicant' are often used more frequently than 'applicant for international protection' in the everyday use of the term.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from IOM glossary on migration, 2nd ed. 2011
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2003/9/EC (Asylum Procedures Directive)

asylum shopping

AT/DE/LU: Asyl-Shopping
BG: пазаруване на убежище
CS: asylum shopping
EE: varjupaigaostlemine
ES: compra de asilo
FI: turvapaikkashoppailu, edullisimman kohtelun tarjoavan maan etsintä
FR/BE/LU: No usual translation
GR: υποβολή πολλών αιτήσεων ασύλου σε περισσότερα από ένα κ-μ
HU: No usual translation
IE: siopadóireacht tearmainn
IT: asylum shopping
LT: ieškojimas, kur geriau gauti prieglobstį
LV:  izdevīgāko patvēruma noteikumu meklēšana
MT: Sajda għall-ażil
NL/BE: asielshoppen
NO: asylshopping
PL: asylum shopping /no usual translation
PT: asylum shopping
RO: "asylum shopping"
SE: No usual translation
SI: Azilni “šoping”
SK: zneužívanie azylového systému / azylový turizmus

In the context of the Dublin Regulation, the phenomenon where third-country nationals apply for international protection in more than one Member State with or without having already received in one of those Member States.


Broader Term: secondary movement of migrants

Related Term: Dublin Regulation

Note :
1. The term 'asylum-shopping' has no legal definition, but is used in an informal sense and also in Commission Communications. It is often used with a negative connotation, as it implies an abuse of the asylum procedure through the lodging of more than one application for international protection in different Member States (choosing the Member State which may grant the most appealing social, humanitarian and economic standards).
2. A second meaning understands asylum shopping as a comparison and selection of one asylum rule among several (see European University Institute: the Development of the EU Asylum Policy: Revisiting the Venue-shopping Argument ).
3. Commission Staff Working Document SEC/2008/2029 provides not only some examples of what 'asylum shopping' means but also an assessment of the impacts of the Dublin system (which comprises the Dublin Regulation and Eurodac Regulation and their implementing regulations).

Source:Derived by EMN from Commission Staff Working Document SEC/2008/2029

au pair

AT/DE/LU: Au-pair
BG: детегледачка
CS: au pair
EE: au pair lapsehoidja
ES: au pair
FI: au pair
FR/BE/LU: au pair
HU: au pair
IE: au pair
IT: persona collocata alla pari
LT: au pair auklė
LV: viesaukle
MT: au pair
NL/BE: au pair
NO: au pair
PL: au pair
RO: lucrator "au pair"
SE: au pair
SI: varuška
SK: au pair / au-pair

A third-country national who is temporarily received by a family in the territory of a Member State in exchange for light housework and taking care of children in order to improve their linguistic skills and knowledge of the host country.

Source:Art. 2(i) of Proposal for a Directive on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, pupil exchange, remunerated and unremunerated training, voluntary service and au pairing, COM(2013) 151 final pdf - 298 KB [298 KB] Deutsch (de) français (fr)

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