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Development of a Risk Assessment and Countermeasure Audit Methodology for potential terrorist attacks on mass transit systems (RACAM)

‘By establishing a framework for risk assessment and developing countermeasure options, the RACAM project reduced the vulnerability of mass railway transit systems to terrorist attacks.

Project dates 01/02/2009 - 01/02/2011
TopicCIP | Crisis Management
Total budget€610 393
EU contribution65%
Project CoordinatorBooz & Company (Italy)
Project Partners
  • Fondazione Link Campus University of Malta (Italy)
  • Italian Railway Network (Italy)
  • Ministry of Interior (Italy)
  • State Police – Railway Police (Italy)

Project Description

EU regulation requires countries to have in place structured security risk management capabilities for the protection and security of critical infrastructure. In response to these EU regulatory requirements and an increased threat to transportation systems, the RACAM project developed a risk assessment framework and a countermeasure auditing methodology to assess and mitigate vulnerabilities of mass railway transit systems against potential terrorist attacks.

EU Directive 2008/114/EC establishes a European process for identifying and designating European critical infrastructures, and sets out a common approach to assess whether their protection needs improving. In light of this Directive, and as part of the “Prevention, Preparedness & Consequence Management of Terrorism & Other Security-Related Risks” Programme, this project was a valuable starting point for mass transit system operators needing to develop their operator security plans (OSPs) to comply with EU requirements.

To ensure that the project was as effective as possible, a wide range of stakeholders were involved: relevant actors from the Italian Government, international academia, an international consulting firm and a primary European railway operator.

Benefits and results

RACAM provided EU countries and railways operators with a common approach to mass railway transit risk assessment and countermeasure audit activities specific to terrorist threats. The final report detailed the following: a methodology to evaluate terrorist threats, a methodology to evaluate risk and develop countermeasure options, and an approach to implement pilot testing and military simulation exercises.

As the project work was shared with some of the most important actors in the Italian transport community (transport police and group Ferrovie dello Stato), the RACAM project helped to create a strong awareness of the need to build a robust security risk assessment in the transport community. The methodology developed in this project can also be applied to other similar transportation systems due to its comprehensive, flexible and structured approach.

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