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Glossary

Passenger Name Record (PNR)

A record of each passenger’s travel requirements that contains information necessary to enable reservations to be processed and controlled by the booking and participating air carriers for each journey booked by or on behalf of any person, whether it is contained in reservation systems, Departure Control Systems (DCS) or equivalent systems providing the same functionalities.

Source: Proposal COM(2011) 32 final

Passive bribery

The deliberate action of an official, who, directly or through an intermediary, requests or receives advantages of any kind whatsoever, for himself or for a third party, or accepts a promise of such an advantage, to act or refrain from acting in accordance with his duty or in the exercise of his functions in breach of his official duties

Source: Convention drawn up on the basis of Article K.3 (2) (c) of the Treaty on European Union on the fight against corruption involving officials of the European Communities or officials of Member States of the European Union

Persecution

Human rights abuses or other serious harm, often, but not always, with a systematic or repetitive element.

Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Phishing

Use of unsolicited e-mails that lure end users into giving up sensitive data via imitation websites purporting to represent genuine companies.

Source: Communication COM(2006) 688 final

Piracy

Unauthorised copying of materials protected by intellectual property rights (such as copyrights, trademarks, patents, geographical indications, etc.) for commercial purposes and unauthorised commercial dealing in copied materials.

Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Prague process

A process to strengthen cooperation in migration management between the EU and 19 partner countries to the East (the Western Balkans, Eastern Europe, Turkey, Russia, Central Asia and Southern Caucasus), following a comprehensive, balanced, pragmatic and operational approach and respecting the rights and human dignity of migrants and their family members and of refugees.

Source: Joint Declaration from Prague Ministerial Conference

Principle of equal treatment

There shall be no direct or indirect discrimination based on racial or ethnic origin, where:

  • direct discrimination shall be taken to occur when one person is, has been or would be treated less favourably than another in a comparable situation on grounds of racial or ethnic origin,
  • indirect discrimination shall be taken to occur when an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of a racial or ethnic origin at a particular disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.

Source: Council Directive 2000/43/EC

Principle of equivalent access

EU law enforcement authorities and officials are given equivalent rights of access to data and databases within other EU States on comparable conditions as law enforcement authorities in that EU State.

Source: Communication COM(2004) 429 final

Principle of non-punishment

EU States' competent national authorities may decide not to prosecute or impose penalties on victims of trafficking in human beings for their involvement in criminal activities, which they were compelled to commit as a direct consequence of being a victim of trafficking.

Source: Directive 2011/36/EU

Principle of non-refoulement

As a core principle of international refugee law, it provides that no one shall expel or return (“refouler”) a refugee against his or her will, in any manner whatsoever, to a territory where he or she fears threats to life or freedom.

Source: Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees

Principle of proportionality

Regulates the exercise of powers by the EU. It seeks to set actions taken by the institutions of the Union within specified bounds. Under this rule, the involvement of the institutions must be limited to what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Treaties. In other words, the content and form of the action must be in keeping with the aim pursued.

Source: Summaries of EU legislation

Principle of subsidiarity

It ensures that decisions are taken as closely as possible to the citizen and that constant checks are made to verify that action at EU level is justified in light of the possibilities available at national, regional or local level. Specifically, it is the principle whereby the EU does not take action (except in the areas that fall within its exclusive competence), unless it is more effective than action taken at national, regional or local level. It is closely bound up with the principle of proportionality, which requires that any action by the EU should not go beyond what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Treaties.

The Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality requires the principle of subsidiarity to be respected in all draft legislative acts and allows national parliaments to object to a proposal on the grounds that it breaches the principle, as a result of which the proposal may be maintained, amended or withdrawn by the Commission, or blocked by the European Parliament or the Council. In the case of a breach of the principle of subsidiarity, the Committee of the Regions may also refer directly to the Court of Justice of the EU.

Source: Summaries of EU legislation

Protection

A concept that encompasses all activities aimed at obtaining full respect for the rights of the individual in accordance with the letter and spirit of human rights, refugee and international humanitarian law. Protection involves creating an environment conducive to respect for human beings, preventing and/or alleviating the immediate effects of a specific pattern of abuse, and restoring dignified conditions of life through reparation, restitution and rehabilitation.

Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Push method

Method of transmission of data whereby, for example, PNR data are transmitted by the carrier to the national authority instead of the national authority obtaining access to the reservation system of the air carrier and taking the data (pull method).

Source: Proposal COM(2007) 654 final

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