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Glossary

Employment

The exercise of activities covering whatever form of labour or work regulated under national law or in accordance with established practice for or under the direction and/or supervision of an employer.

Source: Directive 2009/52/EC

Entry

Any entrance of a person from one country to another, whether voluntary or involuntary, authorised or unauthorised.

Source: International Organization for Migration

EU agency

There are two broad types of agency, each with different characteristics and raising different issues. "Regulatory" or "traditional" agencies have a variety of specific roles, set out in their own legal basis, case-by-case (e.g. European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders - FRONTEX). Executive agencies are set up under a Council regulation adopted in 2002 with the much more narrowly defined task of helping to manage EU programmes (e.g. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency - EACEA).

Source: Communication COM(2008) 135 final

EU Blue Card

Gives highly-qualified non-EU workers the right to live and work in an EU State, provided that they have higher professional qualifications, such as a university degree, and an employment contract or a binding job offer with a high salary compared to the average in the EU State where the job is. The EU Blue Card applies in 24 of the 27 EU States. It does not apply in Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Source: Council Directive 2009/50/EC

Eurodac

An informatics (IT) system, the purpose of which, via the collection, transmission and comparison of fingerprints, is to assist in determining which EU State is to be responsible pursuant to the Dublin Regulation for examining an application for asylum lodged in an EU State, and otherwise to facilitate the application of the Dublin Regulation.

Source: Council Regulation (EC) No 2725/2000

European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (FRONTEX)

A specialised and independent body tasked to coordinate EU States' operational cooperation in the management of the EU's external borders.

FRONTEX complements and provides particular added value to the national border management systems of EU States. Its tasks include carrying out risk analysis, coordinating operational cooperation between EU Sates in the field of management of external borders, assisting EU States in the training of national border guards, following up the development of research relevant for the control and surveillance of external borders, assisting EU States in circumstances requiring increased technical and operational assistance at external borders and providing EU States with the necessary support in organising joint return operations.

Source: Council Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004, FRONTEX

European Asylum Support Office (EASO)

An Agency established to help improve the implementation of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), to strengthen practical cooperation among EU States on asylum and to provide and/or coordinate the provision of operational support to EU States subject to particular pressure on their asylum and reception systems.

Its purpose is to:

  • facilitate, coordinate and strengthen practical cooperation among EU States on the many aspects of asylum and help improve the implementation of the Common European Asylum System,
  • provide effective operational support to EU States subject to particular pressure on their asylum and reception systems, drawing upon all useful resources at its disposal which may include the coordination of resources provided for by EU States,
  • provide scientific and technical assistance in regard to the policy and legislation of the Union in all areas having a direct or indirect impact on asylum so that it is in a position to lend its full support to practical cooperation on asylum and to carry out its duties effectively. It shall be an independent source of information on all issues in those areas,
  • carry out its tasks in conditions that enable it to serve as a reference point by virtue of its independence, the scientific and technical quality of the assistance it provides and the information it disseminates, the transparency of its operating procedures and methods, its diligence in performing the duties assigned to it, and the information technology support needed to fulfil its mandate,
  • work closely with EU States' asylum authorities, with national immigration and asylum services and other national services and with the Commission. The Office shall carry out its duties without prejudice to those assigned to other relevant bodies of the Union and shall work closely with these bodies and with the UNHCR.

The Office does not have any powers in relation to the taking of decisions by EU States' asylum authorities on individual applications for international protection.

Source: Regulation (EU) No 439/2010

European Border Guard Team

Teams deployed during FRONTEX operations, such as joint operations, pilot projects and rapid border interventions.

Source: Regulation (EU) No 1168/2011

European Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR)

Establishes a common framework for the exchange of information and for the cooperation between EU States and Frontex to improve situational awareness and to increase reaction capability at the external borders for the purpose of detecting, preventing and combating irregular immigration and cross-border crime and contributing to ensuring the protection and saving the lives of migrants.

Source: Regulation (EU) No 1052/2013

European Critical Infrastructure (ECI)

“European critical infrastructure” or “ECI” means critical infrastructure located in EU States, the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact on at least two EU States.

Source: Council Directive 2008/114/EC

European Fund for the Integration of third-country nationals

A financial instrument for the period 2007 to 2013, which supports national and EU initiatives that facilitate the integration of non-EU immigrants into European societies. Together with three other Funds, it forms part of the General Programme "Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows".

Source: Council Decision 2007/435/EC

European Migration Network (EMN)

A body established by Decision 2008/381/EC that serves to meet the information needs of Union institutions and of EU States’ authorities and institutions by providing up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information on migration and asylum, with a view to supporting policymaking in the EU in these areas. It also serves to provide the general public with information on these subjects.

Source: Council Decision 2008/381/EC, European Migration Network

European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP)

In its EPCIP Communication of 12 December 2006, the Commission set out an overall policy approach and framework for critical infrastructure protection (CIP) activities in the EU.

Source: Communication COM(2006) 786 finalCommission Staff Working Document SWD(2012) 190 final

European Refugee Fund

A financial instrument for the period 2008 to 2013, which supports national and EU efforts in receiving refugees and displaced persons and in guaranteeing access to consistent, fair and effective asylum procedures. Together with three other Funds, it forms part of the General Programme "Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows".

Source: Decision No 573/2007/EC

European Relocation from Malta (EUREMA)

Solidarity project running since 2010, whereby EU States relocate beneficiaries of international protection from Malta.

Source: DG Home Affairs

European Return Fund

A financial instrument for the period 2008 to 2013, which supports EU States in the management of return. Together with three other Funds, it forms part of the General Programme "Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows".

Source: Decision No 575/2007/EC

Eurostat

The Statistical Office of the EU within the European Commission.

  • Its task is to provide the EU with statistics at European level.
  • By harmonising statistics from the European Statistical System (ESS) to a single methodology, the statistics are made comparable.

Source: Eurostat

Examination of an asylum application

Any examination of, or decision or ruling concerning, an application for asylum by the competent authorities in accordance with national law, except for procedures for determining the EU State responsible in accordance with Regulation 343/2003.

Source: Council Regulation (EC) 343/2003

Exploitation

The act of taking advantage of something or someone, in particular the act of taking unjust advantage of another for one’s own benefit (e.g. sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs).

According to Directive 2011/36/EU, "exploitation" includes, as a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, including begging, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the exploitation of criminal activities, or the removal of organs.

Source: International Organization for Migration , Directive 2011/36/EU

Expulsion

The removal of:

  • a non-EU national subject to an expulsion decision based on a serious and present threat to public order or to national security and safety, taken in the following cases:
    • conviction of a non-EU national by the issuing EU State for an offence punishable by a penalty involving deprivation of liberty of at least one year,
    • the existence of serious grounds for believing that a non-EU national has committed serious criminal offences or the existence of solid evidence of his/her intention to commit such offences within the territory of an EU State.
    • a non-EU national subject to an expulsion decision based on failure to comply with national rules on the entry or residence of aliens.

Source: Council Directive 2001/40/EC

Expulsion decision

Any decision that orders an expulsion taken by a competent administrative (or judicial) authority of an issuing EU State.

Source: Council Directive 2001/40/EC

Extended confiscation

The ability to confiscate assets that go beyond the direct proceeds of a crime so that there is no need to establish a connection between suspected criminal assets and a specific criminal conduct.

Source: Communication COM(2010) 673 final

External Borders Fund

A financial instrument for the period 2007 to 2013, which supports EU States in the management of external borders. Together with three other Funds, it forms part of the General Programme "Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows".

Source: Decision No 574/2007/EC

External EU border

An EU States’ land borders, including river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports, provided that they are not internal borders.

Source: Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006

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