European Commission - Culture

Education & culture DG
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Past European Capitals of Culture

• In 2010, Essen for the Ruhr (Germany), Pécs (Hungary) and Istanbul (Turkey) shared the title European Capital of Culture.

• In 2009, Linz 2009 (Austria) and Vilnius 2009 (Lithuania) were the European Capitals of Culture.

• European Capitals of Culture: from the very beginning


1985: Athens

1990: Glasgow

1995: Luxembourg

1986: Florence

1991: Dublin

1996: Copenhagen

1987: Amsterdam

1992: Madrid

1997: Thessaloniki

1988: Berlin

1993: Antwerp

1998: Stockholm

1989: Paris

1994: Lisbon

1999: Weimar



2000: Avignon, Bergen, Bologna, Brussels, Helsinki, Krakow, Reykjavik, Prague, Santiago de Compostela. (final report)

2001: Porto and Rotterdam

2005: Cork

2002: Bruges and Salamanca

2006: Patras (final report)

2003: Graz

2007: Luxembourg and Sibiu

2004: Genoa and Lille

2008: Liverpool and Stavanger



European Cultural Months
Between 1992 and 2003, some European cities were chosen by the Council to host a cultural event similar to but shorter than the European Capital of Culture event. This initiative was called the European Cultural Month.


1992: Krakow

1995: Nicosia

1998: Linz and Valetta

1993: Graz

1996: St. Petersburg

1999: Plovdiv

1994: Budapest

1997: Ljubljana

2000:   ———

2001: Basel and Riga

2002:   ———

2003: St. Petersburg

In depth

Summary of the 25 year anniversary conference on the European Capitals of Culture

Turku, European Capital of Culture 2011

Tallinn, Turku, European Capital of Culture 2011


The brochure: the road to success from 1985 to 2010

European Capitals of Culture: the road to success


Official documents

European Capital of Culture for the years 2007 to 2019


Study on the European Cities and Capitals of Culture and the European Cultural Months
(1995-2004)
Palmer report