In 2007, the European Commission (Directorate General Education and Culture) commissioned a quantitative Eurobarometer study to measure public opinion on culture and values within Europe, in order to ascertain both opinions and behaviour in this area.
The survey was carried out by TNS Opinion & Social, interviewing 26,755 citizens in the 27 Member States between the 14th of February and the 18th of March 2007. The methodology used is that of Eurobarometer surveys as carried out by the Directorate General for Communication (Unit for Public Opinion and Media Monitoring).
A technical note on the manner in which interviews were conducted by the Institutes within the TNS Opinion & Social network is appended as an annex to the full report.
The objectives of the study were in particular to analyze:
- How Europeans conceive of the idea of culture and its importance to them.
- Europeans’ involvement in cultural and artistic activities, the role of the Internet in this, barriers to cultural access and views on the trend towards free cultural access
- Issues of cultural exchange, specifically its value to society, the extent to which cross-cultural contact already occurs, the willingness of Europeans to meet people from other countries and to learn a new language, ways in which cross-cultural understanding can be enhanced and actors best placed to implement these measures.
- Interest in culture both in Europe and beyond; views on whether there is indeed a European culture, its characteristics and the effects upon it of globalisation.
- Opinion on key values to be preserved and reinforced in society as well as whether these are seen as particularly European in nature.
For each of these points, the study analyses the results in terms of the European average, before also noting results by country and by socio-demographic variables where relevant.
In 2006, the European Commission (Directorate General Education and Culture) commissioned a qualitative Eurobarometer study to learn more about the perceptions Europeans have on culture and its contribution to developing a sense of community and belonging to a shared European area.
The survey was carried out in the current 27 Member States of the EU. It was based on the methodology of group discussions. It means that in each country, two groups, including about 25 participants aged between 20 and 55, were asked about their perceptions on aspects linked with "culture" and "European culture":
- One group of higher-middle social and educational level: socio-professional categories of business owners, liberal professions and top managers and middle-level managers; mostly university level of education.
- One group of lower-middle social and educational level: socio-professional categories of self-employed craftsmen and small shop owners, lower-level managers, (non managerial) office employees and manual workers; mostly secondary level of education.
The objectives of the study were in particular to analyze :
- The meaning or meanings, for the Europeans, of the notion of culture in a wide sense of the term – not limited to classical culture and fine arts – and the importance of culture in their life.
- Their perceptions of European culture and its components that make it specific and different from other cultures.
- The link between culture and values shared by the Europeans.
- The interest for the European cultural diversity and for the cultures of other Europeans.
- The perceived and the expected role of Europe in the domain of culture
We invite you to read the summary report, which is based on the results of the surveys carried out in the 27 countries covered by the study :