Reports, studies and handbooks
Published in the last three years
The contents of external reports do not necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the European Commission.
- Study on the Passing-On of Overcharges
(published October 2016)
EU Directive 2014/104 on antitrust damages actions establishes that anyone who has suffered harm caused by an infringement of EU antitrust rules can claim full compensation. This includes claims by indirect purchasers (e.g. consumers who bought a product from a retailer who is a cartelist's direct customer) if the direct customer fully or partially "passed on" the cartel overcharge to them. Drawing on relevant economic theory and quantitative methods, as well as relevant legal practice and rules, the Study provides judges, legal practitioners and parties to antitrust damages actions with a practical framework for assessing and quantifying such passing-on effects. A French Executive summary is available.
- Support study for impact assessment concerning the review of Merger Regulation regarding minority shareholdings
(published October 2016)
The purpose of the study is to provide DG Competition with additional information on the topic of acquisitions of non-controlling minority shareholdings from the point of view of both competition and corporate law and practice in different jurisdictions. In particular, the study provides factual information in order to form a well-informed and comprehensive view on the current practice in jurisdictions where acquisitions of non-controlling minority shareholdings are subject to merger review, as well as on the different levels of rights usually attached to non-controlling minority shareholdings in several countries.
- Study on the financing models for public services in the EU and their impact on competition (published October 2016)
In order to ensure that certain ‘public services’ are guaranteed and available for the public, Member States can impose specific obligations on public or private service providers. The objective of this study is to assess how public services are financed and when those arrangements may create competition problems. There is an Executive summary available.
- Study on judges’ training needs in the field of European competition law (June 2016)
This study maps the jurisdictions at national level for the application of European Union competition law. It analyses the needs and demand for training among judges and proposes specific training profiles. It highlights the important role of the specialisation of courts in concentrating cases, developing expertise and enabling training to be targeted efficiently. The study also evaluates DG Competition’s “Training of National Judges” programme, proposes performance indicators and makes concrete recommendations for ensuring that the programme meets the needs of judges dealing with EU competition law in the future. Executive summaries are available in EN, DE and FR.
- Geographic Market Definition in European Commission Merger Control (February 2016)
On the Commission’s request, Professors Bruce Lyons and Amelia Fletcher from the University of East Anglia have prepared an independent economic report on the topic of "Geographic Market Definition in European Commission Merger Control". Professors Lyons and Fletcher have evaluated the Commission approach to geographic market definition on the basis of a sample of recent merger cases where this topic played an important role in the assessment. This study also examines how the Commission incorporates constraints from outside the geographic market in its competitive assessment of mergers. This study also examines how the Commission incorporates constraints from outside the geographic market in its competitive assessment of mergers. The Commission's practice regarding market definition was already the focus of the Competition Policy Brief Market definition in a globalised world published in March 2015 and Commissioner Vestager's speech at the Studienvereinigung Kartellrecht on 12 March 2015.
- Ex-post economic evaluation of competition policy enforcement: A review of the literature (June 2015)
- Eurobarometer - DG Competition Stakeholder Survey 2014
- Survey on merchants' costs of processing cash and card payments (March 2015)
- The economic impact of modern retail on choice and innovation in the EU food sector (September 2014)
- Report: Assessing efficiencies generated by agricultural Producer Organisations (August 2014)
- Guide on the application of the EU rules on state aid, public procurement and the internal market to services of general economic interest, and in particular to social services of general interest, February 2013
- Study on co(re)insurance pools and on ad-hoc co(re)insurance agreements on the subscription market, 2013
- Ex post evaluation of the Regional Aid Guidelines 2007-2013 . December 2012
- The role and effectiveness of regional investment aid . The point of view of the academic literature. Study for the European Commission, 2012
- Short term trade finance and credit insurance in the European Union, 2012.
This report examines the functioning of the trade finance and credit insurance market. It analyses how well the existing instruments meet the needs of both exporters and finance and insurance providers. The study also looks at the appropriate role for the state to play in the business, in the context of the financial crisis and beyond.
- Guidance Paper on state aid-compliant financing, restructuring and privatisation of State-owned enterprises, 2012
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- The effects of temporary State aid rules adopted in the context of the financial and economic crisis. Commission staff working paper, 2011
- Assessment of potential anticompetitive conduct in the field of intellectual property rights and assessment of the interplay between competition policy and IPR protection, 2011.
- Enforcement of EU State aid law by national courts, 2010
This Handbook gathers the main EU notices and regulations regarding State aid of relevance to national judges. It includes the Commission's Enforcement Notice, which aims at offering national courts practical support in their individual cases and explaining their role as defined by the EU Court. It also provides guidance on the principles concerning recovery of unlawful aid and the rules for the application of Article 108 TFEU.
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