Competition is a basic mechanism of the market economy which encourages companies to offer consumers goods and services at the most favourable terms. It encourages efficiency and innovation and reduces prices. In order to be effective, competition requires companies to act independently of each other, but subject to the competitive pressure exerted by the others.
European antitrust policy was developed from the two central rules set out in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
- First, agreements between two or more independent market operators which restrict competition are prohibited by Article 101 of the Treaty. This provision covers both horizontal agreements (between actual or potential competitors operating at the same level of the supply chain) and vertical agreements (between firms operating at different levels, i.e. agreement between a manufacturer and its distributor). Only limited exceptions are foreseen in the general prohibition. The most flagrant example of illegal conduct infringing Article 101 is the creation of a cartel between competitors (which may involve price-fixing and/or market sharing).
- Second, Article 102 of the Treaty prohibits firms holding a dominant position on a determined market to abuse that position, for example by charging unfair prices, by limiting production, or by refusing to innovate to the prejudice of consumers.
The Commission is empowered by the Treaty to apply these prohibition rules and holds a number of investigative powers to that end (e.g. inspection at business and non-business premises, written requests for information, etc.). It may also impose fines on undertakings which violate the EU antitrust rules (see factsheet on fines). The main rules on procedures are set out in Council Regulation (EC) 1/2003. Read more about:
Since 1 May 2004 all National Competition Authorities have also been empowered to fully apply Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty in order to ensure that competition is not distorted or restricted. National courts may also apply these provisions in order to protect the individual rights conferred on citizens by the Treaty.
As part of the overall enforcement of EU competition law, the Commission has also developed and implemented a policy on the application of EU competition law to actions for damages before national courts. It also cooperates with national courts in order to ensure the coherent application of the EU competition rules within the Member States.