The road to Paris
The Paris Agreement is the culmination of years of efforts by the international community to bring about a universal multilateral agreement on climate change.
Copenhagen – 2009
- The Copenhagen Accord is a non-binding document negotiated by the leaders of some 30 countries in the final hours of the conference.
- The Accord was not adopted as a UN decision but has been endorsed by over 140 UNFCCC Parties. All key elements were subsequently formalised in Cancún.
Cancún – 2010
- Acknowledged for the first time in a formal UN decision that global warming must be kept below 2°C compared to pre-industrial temperatures.
- Agreed on stronger rules for the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of emissions and of climate finance.
- Formalised developed countries' commitment to provide nearly US$30 billion in 'fast start finance' over the years 2010-2012 to help developing countries.
- Established the Green Climate Fund and new structures and institutions to enhance support to developing countries – e.g. on technology transfer, adaptation and tropical deforestation (REDD+).
Durban – 2011
- Set up the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action to negotiate a new global legal framework covering all countries by 2015.
- Made the Cancún Agreements operational and built on them – e.g. a new market-based mechanism to enhance cost-effective emissions cuts, a process to consider climate issues related to agriculture.
Doha – 2012
- Finalised details of the 2nd period of the Kyoto Protocol.
- Agreed a work plan for negotiations on the new global agreement.
- Operationalised the technology mechanism established in Cancún and launched a work programme on the market mechanism established in Durban.
Warsaw – 2013
- Agreed a timeplan for countries to table their intended contributions for the new global climate agreement and on ways to accelerate efforts before 2020.
- Set up a mechanism to address losses and damage caused by climate change in vulnerable developing countries.
- Enhanced the implementation of measures already agreed – e.g. on climate finance, REDD+, and transparency of reporting on emissions.
Lima – 2014
- Required all countries to describe their intended contributions for the 2015 agreement clearly, transparently and understandably.
- Agreed on draft elements for the agreement and on accelerating pre-2020 action.