In Slovakia a distinction is made between ordinary courts and the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic, which has a special status. Slovakia has a two-tier judiciary.
The Slovak Ministry of Justice is the central government body responsible for administration of the courts.
The Slovak judiciary comprises:
District courts act as courts of first instance in civil and criminal cases.
They also deal with electoral cases, where stipulated by law.
Regional courts act as courts of second instance in civil and criminal cases heard in the first instance by district courts.
Regional courts act as courts of first instance in administrative cases, save where otherwise stipulated by law.
The Supreme Court hears ordinary appeals against decisions by regional courts, the Special Court and the Higher Military Court, where stipulated by the rules governing court proceedings.
The Supreme Court hears extraordinary appeals against decisions by district courts, regional courts, the Special Court, the Supreme Court and the military courts, where stipulated by the rules governing court proceedings.
The Supreme Court resolves conflicts of competence between courts and bodies of central government administration.
The Supreme Court can also reassign a case to a court other than the competent court, where stipulated by the rules governing court proceedings.
The Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic is an independent judicial body that protects constitutionality. The fundamental status of the Constitutional Court is laid down in the Constitution of the Slovak Republic.
The Constitutional Court rules on compatibility as follows:
The Constitutional Court decides on disputes in matters of jurisdiction between central government bodies, except where the law stipulates that such disputes are to be ruled on by some other State body.
The Constitutional Court rules on complaints by individuals and legal entities alleging infringement of their fundamental rights and freedoms or human rights and basic freedoms laid down in an international treaty ratified by the Slovak Republic and promulgated in the legally stipulated manner, if the protection of these rights and freedoms is not a matter for another court.
The Constitutional Court rules on complaints by self-governing local authorities against an unconstitutional or unlawful decision or other unconstitutional or unlawful intervention in a matter falling within the scope of their self-governing powers, if this protection is not a matter for another court.
Where there is a matter of dispute, the Constitutional Court interprets the Constitution and constitutional acts. A decision by the Constitutional Court interpreting the Constitution or a constitutional act is promulgated in the same way as acts of law. The interpretation becomes generally binding from the date on which it is promulgated.Top
Last update: 19-04-2007