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However, a variety of intergovernmental organisations include the promotion of these forms of alternative dispute resolution in their working programmes, often leading to non-mandatory legal instruments (soft law):
Alternative dispute resolution in connection with e-commerce is also discussed by the Organisation for Cooperation and Development in Europe (OECD) (guidelines for consumer protection in the context of electronic commerce).
- In 1998 the Council of Europe adopted a recommendation on family mediation, and a recommendation on civil mediation In 2007 the Council of Europe's European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ) adopted guidelines for a better implementation of the existing recommendation concerning family mediation and mediation in civil matters.
- The United Nations Commission for International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) adopted a model law on international commercial conciliation.
Recommendations concerning alternative dispute resolution in electronic commerce have also come out of a variety of intergovernmental international organisations such as the Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe), the Transatlantic Business Dialogue (TABD) and the Transatlantic Consumer Dialogue (TACD).
A convention was adopted by the UN Conference in New York on 10 June 1958 and has been ratified by more than 120 states. It aims to secure the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in commercial matters.
Regarding the substantive law of arbitration in commercial matters, two instruments are noteworthy:
Last update: 04-11-2009