Urban sprawl, population growth, and climate change are all well-known threats to our water. But how many people know about the effect of pharmaceutical products on water quality? How is their disposal being regulated, how big a threat to wildlife does it pose, and what can be done to clean up affected areas? Scarcity is another problem: can wastewater be transformed into clean water to help Europe’s most arid regions tackle shortages? And should irrigation practices change? A new VNR examines the issues surrounding water quality and quantity.