1. GENERAL INFORMATION
As a country of source, transit and destination for human trafficking, the Netherlands has long recognised the fight against this phenomenon as a priority, and has taken a victim-centred approach. The Netherlands was one of the first European countries to appoint a National Rapporteur, as early as 2000.
Registered victims of human trafficking are mostly women who have been trafficked for sexual exploitation. However, the broadened scope of the trafficking clause, which since 2005 encompasses exploitation in all economic sectors, has led to an increase in the number of men among registered trafficking victims.
During 2008, the majority of identified sex trafficking victims were from the Netherlands. Other common countries of origin were Bulgaria, Romania and Nigeria. Male victims were trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation as well as into forced labour, especially in the catering, cleaning, agriculture and construction sectors. The main countries of origin for male victims were China, India, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.
Groups vulnerable to trafficking included single underage asylum seekers, women with dependent residence status obtained through fraudulent marriages, and women recruited in Africa, China, and Thailand for work in massage parlours.
In 2010 almost thousand (possible) victims of human trafficking were registered, an increase of about 10 percent. 799 victims were exploited in the sex industry, and 139 in various labour exploitation situations. Main countries of origin: the Netherlands, Nigeria, Eastern European countries. The increase of the number of victims must be considered as the result of improved observation, reporting and registration rather then as a deterioration of the trafficking situation in the Netherlands.
From January – November 2011, 1003 (possible) victims of trafficking were registered: 800 (of which 144 are minors) women and 203 men (9 minors). Of the men, 57 were victims of THB for sexual exploitation and 127 of “other forms of exploitation”, mainly labour exploitation. Of the women, 592 were victims of THB for sexual exploitation and 98 were victims of other forms of exploitation. The number of victims from Hungary and Poland seems to be increasing, due to groups of them being found during searches of agricultural businesses.
The government has doubled the target concerning the number of criminal networks to be eliminated. This will require an overall effort, concerning an increased prosecution effort, as well as a further development of the administrative approach and of a victim care approach that encourages victims to report.
In January 2012, the Dutch Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings published an update report on the prosecution and trial of trafficking in human beings (THB) cases in The Netherlands. See 6. Resources the document: "Prosecution and trial of trafficking in human beings".
The total number of (potential) victims encountered in 2011 was 1222. Of these, around 1,000 were women and around 200 were men. Of the women, 716 were (potential) victims of sexual exploitation and 115 of labour or other kinds of exploitation. Of the men, 66 were sexually exploited and 141 were exploited through labour or otherwise. (Figures from Comensha).
In 2012, up to and including August, 622 (potential) victims were identified, of which 529 are women and 93 are men. (Figures from Comensha).
2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK
The Netherlands prohibits all forms of trafficking in human beings. The offence of trafficking in persons was created in the Netherlands in 1911. However, the previous Article (250a) of the Dutch Criminal Code was replaced by a new and extended Article (273a) on 1 January 2005, to include all forms of trafficking.
The maximum penalties for human trafficking were increased with effect from 1 July 2009. Persons convicted of any aggravated form of human trafficking face a sentence of imprisonment for up to twelve years. When the offence is committed under the most severe aggravating circumstances the sentence can go up to a maximum of eighteen years. These penalties are commensurate with those prescribed for other grave crimes.
As of 1 April 2010 the jurisdiction rules with regard to trafficking comply in the broadest sense with the provision on jurisdiction in the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. These rules apply when the offence is committed:
- by a national or by a stateless person who has his or her habitual residence in its territory, if the offence is punishable under criminal law where it was committed or if the offence is committed outside the territorial jurisdiction of any State;
- when the offence is committed against one of its nationals.
Legislation relating to victims
Under Chapter B9 of the Aliens Act Implementation Guidelines (the B9 regulation), victims or presumed victims of trafficking are offered a three months reflection period, during which they can decide whether or not to cooperate in criminal proceedings. Furthermore, the B9 regulation allows foreign nationals who are, or might be, victims of trafficking to be granted a residence permit for a period of one year (renewable for up to three years) during the investigation and prosecution period if they decide to cooperate in criminal proceedings.
The B-9 Regulation has been amended in several ways. In April 2009 a new description of target groups was inserted, which intends to reflect more clearly that the B9 regulation applies identically to possible victims of human trafficking who work or have worked in the sex industry and possible victims of human trafficking subjected to other forms of exploitation (article 273f of the Dutch Criminal Code).
To get a temporary residence permit, the victim needs to cooperate with the authorities to identify and prosecute the traffickers. Cooperation with the authorities does not necessarily entail the need to give a statement to the police. The regulation has been redrafted in such a way that when cooperation with the police in the human trafficking case leads to a conviction on any of the charges, the victim may remain in the Netherlands. If the victim has a B9 permit for longer than 3 years, the victim may apply for continued stay, even if the criminal case is still pending or the charges are eventually dropped.
In other cases, for example when the cooperation of the victim with the authorities has not led to a court case or a conviction, individual facts and circumstances determine whether there are sufficient humanitarian reasons to be granted a residence permit in the Netherlands.
Non-victim witnesses of trafficking of human beings who reside illegally in the Netherlands might also be entitled to a B9-residence permit if their presence is deemed necessary for the criminal proceedings.
The reflection period is now also available to victims and possible victims who enter the country through Amsterdam Schiphol airport. These most recent amendments to the B9 scheme apply with retroactive force from 1 January 2009. Victims will not be prosecuted for violation of immigration laws, or for illegal activities in which they are involved as a direct consequence of their situation as a trafficked person. Proposed legislation on prostitution
In December 2009, the Interior and Justice Ministers released a draft Act containing new regulations for legalised prostitution. Under the terms of this bill, every sex business must be licensed and every prostitute must be registered.
National Strategy/National Action Plan
Task force on Human Trafficking
A high level Task Force on Human Trafficking was set up in 2008. It is chaired by the chief public prosecutor of Amsterdam and was created to identify bottlenecks in the methods of tackling human trafficking and to come up with solutions according to an Action Plan (2009). The Task force prioritizes the combat of human trafficking and encourages innovative methods. The Task Force brings together representatives of the ministries involved (Justice, Interior and Kingdom Affairs, Social Affairs and Employment, Health, Welfare and Sports, Education, Culture and Science and Foreign Affairs), the police, the Royal Constabulary (KMar), two mayors (Alkmaar, Utrecht) and one deputy mayor (Rotterdam), the judiciary and the National Rapporteur. The NGO Comensha takes part in Task Force meetings, but is not a member. The Task force reports every year to de Minister of Justice.
Early 2011, the mandate of the Task Force on Human Trafficking was extended for another 3 years, until 2014. The Task Force has adopted a new Plan of Action, which focuses among other things on:
- the use of the internet to recruit victims or to offer the services of victims;
- further development of the administrative approach to trafficking and
- a structural solution for shelters and assistance for victims.
In July 2011 the Task Force on Human Trafficking approved its action plan 2011-2014. See below 6.2 National Action Plans.
Co-ordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level
The Minister of Justice has overall responsibility for coordinating anti-trafficking policies and is responsible for the areas of law enforcement, crime prevention and immigration. Local policy matters fall under the responsibility of the Ministry of the Interior. Other competent ministries are the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, which have all appointed a coordinator for human trafficking. They meet regularly in interdepartmental meetings. Twice a year, all ministries meet with relevant NGOs and the National Rapporteur.
National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms
The National Rapporteur (NR) on Human Trafficking was appointed in the Netherlands in 2000. The function of the National Rapporteur is exercised by an independent agency (the Bureau National Rapporteur Mensenhandel, one National Rapporteur with a team of six persons). One of the main tasks of the National Rapporteur is to analyse trends in the field of human trafficking and reflect on Dutch efforts to address them. The NR collects statistical data from various stakeholders on human trafficking and disseminates the information in a yearly report to the government. Every other year, a report with concrete recommendations is submitted to the government and made available to the public. Since April 2000 the National Rapporteur has published seven reports. The government sends its reaction to the recommendations to Parliament.
3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY
Efforts to prevent human trafficking in the Netherlands have included regular projects and awareness-raising campaigns. For example:
- In February 2009, the government introduced an information card entitled 'Exploitation in the Workplace', which was made available to all municipalities and social welfare agencies. The card provided examples of labour exploitation, information on where to seek help, and details on victims’ rights, in several languages.
- The Justice Ministry funded the 'Meld M' multimedia campaign (Crime Stoppers) targeting the general public to report suspicions of trafficking to an anonymous hotline in 2006 and 2008.
- The Ministry of Foreign Affairs website includes travel information warning Dutch travellers that sex with children is prosecutable in the country of destination as well as in the Netherlands. The government funds several initiatives to prevent child sex tourism including a project to assist tour operators in Cambodia, Thailand, and the Philippines to adopt and implement a code of conduct aimed at preventing child sex tourism.
- The Dutch military provide training to all military personnel on the prevention of trafficking. Additional training on recognizing trafficking victims is provided for Dutch troops being deployed abroad for duty as international peacekeepers.
Assistance and support provided to victims
In the Netherlands, the Coordination Centre for Human Trafficking (CoMensha) is the focal point for initial assistance to and registration of possible victims of trafficking. CoMensha is an NGO that receives government funding, and closely collaborates with police and other national authorities. As soon as these partners suspect a person is a victim of trafficking, they have to notify CoMensha. Victims can also approach CoMensha directly. The responsibility for keeping a national register of suspected victims has also been delegated to CoMensha. According to the Dutch Rapporteur, CoMensha identified and registered 826 trafficking victims, 46 of whom were male, in 2008. According to CoMensha Report (in Dutch), 909 victims were registered, 138 of whom were male, in 2009.
In 2008, the government opened a number of shelters specifically aimed at male victims of violence, including human trafficking. In June 2010, the government started a pilot project of three new shelters specifically equipped to assist female and male victims of human trafficking.
In addition, victims of trafficking may claim compensation from the perpetrator within the criminal proceedings. They can be entitled to state financed compensation under the Violent Offences Compensation Fund Act. The Fund is a division of the Ministry of Justice and is financed by general tax revenues.
As set out under section 2.1, Dutch authorities provide a temporary residence mechanism to allow foreign trafficking victims to stay in the Netherlands for a reflection period of three months, during which they can decide whether or not to cooperate in criminal proceedings. If a victim chooses to do so, a temporary residence permit may initially be granted for a year, and is renewable for up to three years. During both these periods, the government provides victims with the necessary legal, financial, and psychological assistance, including shelter, medical care, social security benefits, and education financing.
According to the 2010 report of the National Rapporteur, 235 victims of human trafficking have received a temporary residence permit (as compared with 143 in 2007).
Special protective measures for children
The Netherlands has developed a policy plan for dealing with all manifestations of child abuse (including child prostitution and child trafficking).
Since January 2008, the government has provided single underage asylum seekers with awareness training in secure shelters to protect them against traffickers.
The Dutch criminal procedure contains specific provisions for under aged victims. The judge can order the testimony of the victim in court to take place behind closed doors to protect the personal privacy of the young victim. This can also be requested by the victim who is called as a witness (Article 269 of the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure). The Dutch criminal procedure is also structured in such a way that a direct confrontation between the victim and the suspect in the public hearing can be avoided. If the judge feels that the victim needs to be interviewed further, s/he will usually refer the case to the examining judge, who will not interview the victim during a public hearing, but will do so in the presence of the defence lawyer(s), who will be given the opportunity to ask the victim questions. In serious cases, it is possible for a young victim to write a statement about the effects of the crime. This statement is added to the file. It is common practice for the judge to read such a statement during the hearing. In addition, it is possible to exercise the right to speak during the hearing.
Investigation and prosecution
Human trafficking is also one of the selected themes in the Programme on Strengthening the Fight against Organised Crime of December 2007, with the result that many preventive, administrative and criminal law initiatives have been implemented. This approach has local as well as regional, national and international aspects and requires intensive collaboration between all the parties involved, including private parties and local administrations.
In 2008, the Justice Ministry took measures to prevent victims from being punished for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, including through training prison staff on proactive victim identification. Police and prosecutors provide specialised training to assist judges, labour inspectors and immigration officers in identifying and assisting trafficking victims.
In the Netherlands, local governments are responsible for regulating legalised prostitution sectors and for conducting anti-trafficking inspections of brothels. Brothels are inspected at regular intervals by the police, local health authorities, the Labour Inspectorate, and fire prevention authorities. Guidelines drawn up by the National Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings (LEM) (see also under Established multidisciplinary groups, special units and police groups etc.) suggest that sex establishments should be checked at least six times a year. The Dutch Government is preparing new legislation with regard to licensing requirements, under which any type of sex establishment would be subject to the licensing system. This will include ensuring that prostitutes who want to work independently will have to register as such, and will be punishable if they have not done so. Clients that circumvent the new system will also be punishable.
Latest number of prosecutions and convictions
According to the 2009 Report of the National Rapporteur, Dutch law enforcement authorities prosecuted 221 persons for human trafficking offences in 2007. Verdicts were handed down in 120 cases, 81 per cent of which resulted in convictions, 12 per cent of which resulted in acquittals, and 7 per cent of which were dismissed.
The United States State Department Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report 2010 reports that in 2009, eleven regional human trafficking prosecutors were appointed to handle complicated human trafficking cases. Police completed and referred for prosecution 215 human trafficking investigations in 2008, the last year for which trafficking statistics were available, compared with 281 in 2007. In 2008, verdicts were handed down in 116 cases, of which 79 were convictions, compared with 73 convictions in 2007. There were 33 acquittals, and 4 dismissals in 2008, compared with 14 acquittals and 2 dismissals in 2007.
According to the National Rapporteur’s office, average prison sentences imposed in 2007 ranged from 20 to 23 months.
Established multidisciplinary groups, special units and police groups etc.
An Expertise Centre for Human Trafficking and Smuggling was established in May 2005, consisting of employees from the National Crime Squad (NR), Royal Military Constabulary (Kmar), Immigration and Naturalisation Service (IND) and the Social Security Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD). Information is collected, analysed and disseminated to all partners.
The National Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings (LEM) was established within the National Police Project on prostitution and trafficking in human beings in 1997. Experts on human trafficking and smuggling from all police regions address operational problems and share experiences. Coordination meetings between human trafficking and smuggling prosecutors also take place on a regular basis.
Other latest initiatives/activities
Early February 2012 a bill will be sent to Parliament which contains a proposal to increase the sentences for THB even further (they were already increased in 2009). The maximum penalty for the basic crime will go from 8 to 12 years of imprisonment; from 12 to 15 years if two or more persons are acting in concert; from 15 to 18 years if serious bodily injury has been caused; and from 18 years to 30 years or life imprisonment in case of death.
In February 2012 a letter will be sent to Parliament, detailing plans for the further development of shelter for victims. The pilot project for specialized shelter for victims of trafficking will become permanent and the number of specialized places will be increased from 50 to 70. In order to ensure that when victims are ready to move on to (semi-) independent housing, such housing is available, municipalities now have an obligation to provide them with housing. This will free up places in the shelters that are now often occupied by victims who no longer need them. Also, within the specialized shelters, psycho-social diagnostics will be introduced, to make certain that victims receive tailor-made care and assistance, also after they leave the shelter. For the victims of labour exploitation, who often do not need care and assistance, but instead prefer to find another job or to return home, the NGO Comensha will be given a budget to organize temporary shelter. Should any of these victims need care after all, they can go to the specialized shelters. Finally, for Dutch victims, who are often victims of “loverboys”, the general women’s shelters and youth care facilities will remain available. Measures will be taken to further improve the care given to victims of trafficking in women’s shelters and youth care facilities.
In December 2011 a comprehensive action plan was launched, addressing the issue of “loverboys”. Loverboys are young men who utilize persuasive techniques to force vulnerable girls into the prostitution sector. The action plan focuses on raising awareness, empowering girls, improving the comprehensive fight against loverboys and improving the system of care and shelter for victims of loverboys.
In October 2011 a bulletin was published to inform airline personnel about the signs of THB. The bulletin was drawn up by the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (the border guards) and the NGO Comensha. Airline personnel are given this bulletin when they receive training from the Marechaussee.
- In July 2012, the Court of Leeuwarden awarded a victim of trafficking for sexual exploitation € 950.000,- in damages. She had been forced to work as a prostitute for seven years. The damages were based on the money she earned for her trafficker during those years. The trafficker was sentenced to six years in prison.
- At the end of August 2012, Comensha/La Strada Netherlands launched a leaflet and website for trafficked persons (www.fromhereon.eu) in five languages: Dutch, English, Hungarian, Polish and Bulgarian. The aim of the leaflet and website is to inform trafficked persons about their rights as victims. The leaflet and website have been especially developed at the request of the Ministry of Security and Justice for trafficked persons who have had contact with the police and those who are considering to do so. Readers can find information about a range of issues that trafficked people face and useful tips, such as police contacts and Dutch legal provisions related to the reflection period, residence permit, financial and medical support, compensation, shelter and return. The leaflets will be distributed to all police stations and counselling centres in the Netherlands so that trafficked persons can be informed about their rights at an early stage.
- Two things are worth mentioning regarding the fight against “loverboys” or “pimp boyfriends”. First of all, an educational short movie about “loverboys” was made called “The Most Beautiful Chick of the Web” (‘De mooiste chick van het web’: see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CY9-Ql4UvIU (the movie is in Dutch)). The movie is meant to educate young people about the risks of using social media, which is increasingly being used by loverboys as a work (recruitment) area. In addition, the movie is meant for victims, friends, parents and teachers: how to make your daughter, friend or student aware that something wrong is going on? Second, a guideline for the approach to loverboys has been drawn up (‘Handreiking aanpak loverboys problematiek’: http://www.hetccv.nl/dossiers/ loverboys (also in Dutch)). The guideline was developed involving all relevant stakeholders. The guideline supports the action plan of the Ministry of Public Security and Justice (launched in December 2011) to address loverboys more fully, effectively and innovatively.
It has been a busy year for the Dutch National Rapporteur. In 2012 the cabinet has decided to broaden the mandate of the National Rapporteur. Starting June 2012 the National Rapporteur reports on human trafficking and on sexual violence against children.
On the 6th of June the National Rapporteur presented the first report on Child Pornography at the United Nations to Ms. Marta Santos Pais, Special Representative of the UN Secretary General on violence against children. The report can be found on our website www.bnrm.nl.
In 2012 the National Rapporteur published the following reports:
- A survey of prosecution and judgments on human trafficking cases in the period 2006-2010. Available in Dutch.
- A survey of the National Rapporteur of cases under the B9 article (a protective measure for victims of human trafficking that work with the police in order to prepare a case). Available in Dutch.
- A survey of the National Rapporteur on organ removal and forced commercial surrogacy. Available in Dutch and will be available in English in 1 or 2 weeks on our website www.bnrm.nl
- A survey on al human trafficking cases in the period 2009-2012 will be presented on 18 October. It will be available in Dutch and a summary will probably be translated into English.
- A survey on the approach of municipalities, the police, the prosecutors office and the tax officers to THB is pending. We expect to finalize this survey in November. It will be available in Dutch.
- The 9th report of the National Rapporteur on Human Traccking in the Netherlands is pending. We expect to present it in the first months of 2013.
- The first report of the National Rapporteur on Sexual Violence against Children is expected to be published in the last months of 2013.
National Referral Mechanism
The NGO Comensha receives a subsidy from the central government to register all possible victims of trafficking and refer them to shelters if necessary. They receive reports from all 26 police forces, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (border guards), the Inspectorate SZW (labour inspectorate), shelters, lawyers, NGOs, IOM, social workers and so on. The THB guideline of the Public Prosecution Service, which tells prosecutors and detectives how to handle cases of THB, obliges police chiefs to report victims to Comensha. When new organizations dealing with THB spring up, Comensha contacts them and tries to convince them to report any victims they come across.
4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
International cooperation both at the global and at the European level is essential to combat human trafficking effectively.
The Netherlands has ratified UNTOC and its protocols (including the TIP protocol) and other relevant UN and ILO conventions. During its chairmanship of the OSCE in 2003, the Netherlands initiated the OSCE Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings, which remains a key document to this day. In 2005 the Council of Europe finalised the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. In April 2010 the Netherlands ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.
In February 2010 the Dutch Social Security Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD) organised a conference on labour trafficking in which EU countries exchanged best practices with regard to investigating and prosecuting labour exploitation.
Dutch authorities seek to work closely on a bilateral basis with the source countries of human trafficking that have relevance for the Netherlands. In the context of these cooperative efforts, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands funds projects for technical assistance in a number of source countries, notably in Bulgaria, Romania and Nigeria. These projects aim to provide technical assistance and training to law enforcement authorities and to establish or improve referral mechanisms and shelter facilities for victims. With regard to Croatia, the Netherlands funds an ICMPD project for the training of labour inspectors and police officers in spotting and investigating labour exploitation. In Syria, the Dutch embassy gave financial support to the first women's shelter in the country. In Oman an ILO project is currently being funded that helps the authorities to set up structures to combat human trafficking and monitor employment agencies for foreign workers.
Conducting joint investigations with source countries is not only necessary to prosecute transnational trafficking networks, but can also be a very effective way to transfer investigative skills to source countries. Thus in 2007 the Netherlands police and prosecution services conducted an extensive investigation of human trafficking from Nigeria towards the Netherlands and other European destinations. This investigation, with the code name “Operation Koolvis”, was conducted in close cooperation with other European destination countries and with the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP) of Nigeria. The investigation led to simultaneous arrests in October 2007 of traffickers in the Netherlands, in other European countries (Belgium, United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany and Italy), in the United States and in Nigeria itself (see also under section 5). A large number of victims were recovered. Building on this successful police operation, the Netherlands set up a programme for training and technical assistance to NAPTIP and other relevant Nigerian agencies. It included training for Nigerian detectives and prosecutors as well as training for Nigerian border police in detecting passport fraud at airports and spotting victims that were being sent abroad by traffickers.
In January 2009 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Ministers of Justice of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba to strengthen cooperation in combating human trafficking and smuggling within these three countries.
The Government of the Netherlands is in close contact with Dutch companies that operate internationally to ensure that their global supply chains are free from exploitative practices. The Netherlands supports the Decent Work Agenda of the ILO for the period 2006 - 2010. The Dutch contribution is used to fund Decent Work Country Programmes in 10 developing countries. Some activities are specifically directed at combating forced labour and child labour, some at broader labour issues. Bilateral Dutch aid to Bangladesh and Indonesia included programmes to take children away from debilitating working conditions and back to school. Forced child labour is an especially reprehensible phenomenon. The fight against it is a focal point of the human rights strategy of the Netherlands.
The Netherlands funds projects to combat child sex tourism. In 2008 the Netherlands pledged support for an ongoing UNICEF programme for technical assistance to Cambodian law enforcement authorities (notably the Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Protection Police) to fight abuse of children as a consequence of child sex tourism. Activities regarding prevention and victim care are also part of the project. Since 2008, the Netherlands has furthermore funded a three-year project of Terre des Hommes aimed at providing legal support to victims of child sex tourism, encouraging them to act as witnesses and developing the capacity of local NGOs to pressure law enforcement authorities to take action when needed. Moreover the Netherlands supports an 18 month ECPAT project aimed at getting tour operators to approve and implement a code of conduct to prevent and discourage child sex tourism. ECPAT helps local NGOs in Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines, Gambia and the Dominican Republic to build capacity for awareness campaigns and lobbying tour operators, hotels etc.
Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU
The bill to implement the Directive was sent to the Council of State for advice just before Christmas. The bill includes some changes to the Criminal Code, such as on the definition of trafficking in human beings and on extraterritorial jurisdiction
A first, written response was received from Parliament (the Lower House) to the legislation implementing the Directive. The government is working on a reply to the questions asked by Parliament in this response.
5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Cases, various forms of trafficking etc.
Human Trafficking for removal of organs
According to the Dutch National Rapporteur, there is particular media interest in the subject of organ removal in the Netherlands. However, there is hardly any official information available about this phenomenon. The National Rapporteur highlighted in her Fifth Report that there is evidence that persons from the Netherlands travel to other countries for the purpose of obtaining organs. The Rapporteur stressed the possible abuses in relation to human trafficking and consequently the importance of executive agencies, such as medical personnel and health insurers, to remain alert to the origins of organs for organ donations, particularly in the case of medical tourism.
- Penal Code, Article 273f valid from 1 July 2009 (Artikel 273f Wetboek van Strafrecht geldend vanaf 1 juli 2009) (in English and Dutch)
- Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation, Article 273f
- Trafficking in Human Beings for Labour Exploitation, Article 273f
- Trafficking in Children, Article 273f
- Trafficking in Organs, Article 273f
- Aliens Circular 2000 (Vreemdelingencirculaire 2000) (in Dutch)
- B-9 Regulation(Hoofdstuk B 9 - de B 9-regeling) (in Dutch)
- Penal Code, Article 273f valid from 1 July 2009 (Artikel 273f Wetboek van Strafrecht geldend vanaf 1 juli 2009) (in English and Dutch)
6.2 National Action Plans
6.3.1 National Reports from the Dutch National Rapporteur
- Seventh report of the Dutch National Rapporteur on THB 2009_en.pdf
- Sixth report of the Dutch National Rapporteur 2008_en.pdf
- Fifth report of the Dutch National Rapporteur on THB 2007_nl.pdf
- Sixth report of the Dutch National Rapporteur 2008_nl.pdf
- Fifth report of the Dutch National Rapporteur on THB 2007_en.pdf
- Seventh report of the Dutch National Rapporteur on THB 2009_nl.pdf
- Rapport vervolging en berechting van mensenhandel in de periode 2006-2010_nl.pdf
- Eight Report of the Dutch National Rapporteur on THB 2010_nl.pdf
- Eight Report of the Dutch National Rapporteur on THB 2010_en.pdf
- Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of the removal of organs and forced commercial surrogacy (2012).pdf
- Mensenhandel in en uit beeld - Cijfermatige rapportage 2007-2011.pdf
- Factsheet Trafficking in Human Beings - Visible and Invisible. A quantitative report (2007-2011) (2012).pdf
- Rapportage 2013 Statistics on the prosecution and trial of suspects.pdf
- Rapportage 2012 Trafficking in Human Beings - Visible and Invisible. A quantitative report.pdf
6.3.2 Other reports and publications
- ICMPD Study on the assessment of extent of different types of trafficking in EU countries_en.pdf
- UNODC 2009 Global report on trafficking in persons_en.pdf
- US Trafficking in Persons Report 2010_en.pdf
- US Trafficking in Persons Report 2011_Netherlands_en
- Comensha figures of 2011.pdf
- US Trafficking in Persons 2012 Netherlands_en.pdf
- 6.3.1 National Reports from the Dutch National Rapporteur
Dutch National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings
PO Box 20301 (TN4C03)
2500 EH The Hague, the Netherlands
2511 EM The Hague, the Netherlands
Telephone: +31 (0) 70 370 45 14
Ministry of Security and Justice
Postal address: Postbus 20301, 2500 EH Den Haag
Telephone: +31 (0)70 3 70 79 11
NGOs and Foundations
Comensha (Coordinating Centre for Human Trafficking)
Johan van Oldenbarneveltlaan 34-36, 3818 HB Amersfoort
Telephone: + 31 33 4481186
Website: http://www.comensha.nl (in Dutch)
Defence for Children-ECPAT Netherlands
Hooglandse Kerkgracht 17 G, 2312 HS Leiden
Telephone: +31 71 516 09 80
Dutch Foundation of Religious against Trafficking in Women
Sint Janssingel 92, 5211 DA 's-Hertogenbosch
Telephone: +31 73 615 44 44
Nienoord 5, 1112 XE Diemen
Telephone: (31) (0)20 - 840 76 76
Fax: (31) (0)20 - 625 35 89
Foundation Federation of Shelters
Regenteselaan 31, Amersfoort
Telephone: +31 33 461 50 29
Hotline: +31 33 448 11 86
La Strada International
De Wittenstraat 25
1052 AK Amsterdam
Telephone: +31 (0) 20 6881414
8936 AS Leeuwarden
8900 CB Leeuwarden
Wibautstraat 133 d
1097 DN Amsterdam
telefoon (020) 561 90 90
fax (020) 561 90 91
Telefoon: 050 – 31 80 741
9712 JG Groningen
Prostitutie & Gezondheidscentrum
Prostitutie en Gezondheidscentrum, 292
Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal 292
1012 RT Amsterdam
Tel: (020) 531 86 00
Fax: (020) 531 86 01
Nederlands Rode Kruis
2521 CV Den Haag
Tel: 070 - 44 55 678
Fax: 070 - 44 55 777
Not For Sale
Oudezijds Voorburgwal 63
Stichting Religieuzen tegen Vrouwenhandel
SRTV • Sint Janssingel 92• NL • 5211 DA Den Bosch
Tel. 073 - 615 44 44
F. 073 - 615 44 49
- 6.1 Legislation
Table of Contents
- 1. GENERAL INFORMATION
- 2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK
- 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY
- 4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION