Europol, 2005, 23 pages
The report examines how an adequate legal framework at a national level is a requirement for effective measures against human trafficking and smuggling.
It emphasises that trafficking and smuggling are two different crimes and both should be dealt with through separate and specific legislation. The difference in penalties for trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the Member States is significant. The penalties for smugglers also vary between countries.
The report finds that lack of a legal framework, or loopholes in legislation, provides traffickers and smugglers with the possibility to focus their activities on countries where penalties are low and the risk of being caught is minimal or non-existent.
Note that the date of publication is indicative.