ILO, 2008, 60 pages
The paper is based on ILO research carried out between 2003 and 2007 and summarises qualitative research from ten European source, transit and destination countries. The main purpose of this paper is to shed light on coercive labour practices in mainstream economic sectors, while not neglecting the sexual exploitation of particularly women and children.
The paper aims at shifting the focus from organised crime to labour market dynamics and stresses that irregular migration is big business for smuggling and trafficking networks.
Note that the date is indicative.