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Seeds are produced in almost all Member States. Denmark, France, Germany, Spain and Italy are among the largest producers.

Seeds are generally classified in groups of varieties. The 4 groups are:

  1. "Ceres" seeds ("triticum spelta", (spelt) and "Oriza sativa l.", (rice))
  2. "Oleagineae" seeds (flax, hemp)
  3. "Graminae" seeds (timothy, meadow fescue, cocksfoot, rye grass)
  4. "Leguminosae" seeds (peas, clover, beans)


Basic Regulations

Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)hrvatski (bg)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv) establishing a common organisation of the markets in agricultural products and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) No 922/72, (EEC) No 234/79, (EC) No 1037/2001 and (EC) No 1234/2007 (CMO Regulation)


Marketing of seeds and GMO issues

Certified seeds for the internal market and imported into the EU, including the GMO issues are subject to marketing standards and rules defined by Directives and Regulations under the responsability of the Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE).




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