DOCUMENT Rev. 2
of Genetically Modified Crops on the Agri-Food Sector
of the make-up of and interaction between genes in crops and combinatorial
to the draft Protocol on Biosafety, modern biotechnology means the application
i) in vitro nucleic acid
ii) fusion of cells beyond
the taxonomic family that overcomes natural physiological reproductive
or recombination barriers and that are not techniques used in traditional
breeding and selection.
Biotechnology is currently
applied in the health sector (antibiotics, insulin, interferon.), in the
agri-food system (micro-organisms, plants and animals), and in industrial
processes such as waste recycling.
Biotechnology and genetic
engineering are often used interchangeably (see below).
thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that produces toxins against insects
(mainly in the genera Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera). Bt preparations
are used in organic farming as an insecticide.
crops are genetically modified to carry genetic material from the soil
bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Crops containing the Bt genes are able
to produceBt-toxin, thereby providing protection against insects during
the growth-stage of the plant..
cotton is genetically modified to control budworms, and bollworms.
corn/maize is genetically modified to provide protection against the European
Corn Borer. The words Corn and Maize are used interchangeably in this report
is a type of rapeseed which has been developed and grown in Canada. Canola
is a registered trademark, corresponding to specified low contents in erucic
acid in oil and in glucosinolates in meals equivalent to double 0 in the
EU. It has initially been obtained by conventional breeding, but in recent
years, GM herbicide tolerant varieties have been developed.
Nucleic Acid) The molecule that encodes genetic information in the cells.
It is constructed of a double helix held together by weak bonds between
base pairs of four nucleotides (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine)
that are repeated ad infinitum in various sequences. These sequences combine
together into genes that allow for the production of proteins.
manipulation of an organism's genetic endowment by introducing or eliminating
specific genes through modern molecular biology techniques. A broad definition
of genetic engineering also includes selective breeding and other means
of artificial selection.
and food ingredients consisting of or containing genetically modified organisms,
or produced from such organisms.
Modified Organism (GMO)
organism produced from genetic engineering techniques that allow the transfer
of functional genes from one organism to another, including from one species
to another. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, plants, insects, fish, and mammals
are some examples of organisms the genetic material of which has been artificially
modified in order to change some physical property or capability. Living
modified organisms (LMOs), and transgenic organisms are other terms often
used in place of GMOs.
is living tissue from which new plants can be grown--seed or another plant
part such as a leaf, a piece of stem, pollen or even just a few cells that
can be cultured into a whole plant. Germplasm contains the genetic information
for the plant's heredity makeup.
insertion of a herbicide tolerant gene enables farmers to spray wide-spectrum
herbicides on their fields killing all the plants but the HT crop. . The
most common herbicide-tolerant crops (cotton, corn, soybeans, and canola)
are tolerant to glyphosateand to glufosinate-ammonium, which are the active
ingredients of common wide spectrum herbicides. There are also HT rapeseed
and cotton which are tolerant to bromoxynil.
of crop or raw material management which preserves the identity of the
source or nature of the materials.
according to Biosafety
living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material
obtained through modern biotechnology. A living organism is biological
entity capable of transferring or replicating genetic material.
food and other foods and food ingredients consisting of or isolated from
micro-organisms, fungi, algae, plants or animals, or which have been obtained
through new processes.
breeding is use of techniques involving crossing plants to produce varieties
with particular characteristics (traits) which are carried in the genes
of the plants and passed on to future generations. Conventional/traditional
plant breeding refers to techniques others than modern biotechnology, in
particular cross-breeding, back-crossing.
implies setting up and monitoring of separate production and marketing
channels for GM and non-GM products.
measures covering feed, food and their ingredients "include the obligation
for feed and food businesses to ensure that adequate procedures are in
place to withdraw feed and food from the market where a risk to the health
of the consumer is posed. Operators should keep adequate records of suppliers
of raw materials and ingredients so that the source of the problem can
plants result from the insertion of genetic material from another organism
so that the plant will exhibit a desired trait.
Based on various sources
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