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Table 2: Defoliation of all species (1989-1996)

Participating countries
All species
  Defoliation classes 2-4*
  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Austria 10.8 9.1 7.5 6.9 8.2 7.8 6.6 7.9
Belgium 14.6 16.2 17.9 16.9 14.8 16.9 24.5 21.2
Denmark 26.0 21.2 29.9 25.9 33.4 36.5 36.6 28.0
Finland 18.0 17.3 16.0 14.5 15.2 13.0 13.3 13.2
France 5.6 7.3 7.1 8.0 8.3 8.4 12.5 17.8
Germany, 1) 15.9 15.9 25.2 26.0 24.2 24.4 22.1 20.4
Greece, 2) 12.0 17.5 16.9 18.1 21.2 23.2 25.1 23.9
Ireland Only conifers assessed
Italy 9.1 14.8 16.4 18.2 17.6 19.5 18.9 29.9
Luxembourg 12.3   20.8 20.4 23.8 34.8 38.3 37.5
Netherlands 16.1 17.8 17.2 33.4 25.0 19.4 32.0 34.1
Portugal 9.1 30.7 29.6 22.5 7.3 5.7 9.1 7.3
Spain 4.5 4.6 7.3 12.3 13.0 19.4 23.5 19.4
Sweden Only conifers assessed 14.2   17.4
UK, 3) 28.0 39.0 56.7 58.3 16.9 13.9 13.6 14.3

*Class 2 corresponds to a moderate degree of defoliation, with leaf or needle loss between 25% and 60%,
Class 3 corresponds to a severe degree of defoliation, with a percentage of leaf or needle loss >60 -<100% ,
Class 4 refers to trees with 100% defoliation and dead trees.

Source: Forest Condition in Europe, 1997 Executive Report, UNECE and EU

Footnotes:
 
1) For 1989-1990, only data for former Federal Republic of Germany.
2) Excluding maquis
3) The difference between 1992 and subsequent years is mainly due to a change of assessment method in line with that used in other States.