La réforme de la PAC de 2013 a introduit un nouveau système de paiements directs
Mise en application des paiements directs
La réforme a conçu des régimes obligatoires et volontaires. Cela a donné une flexibilité considérable aux États membres dans la façon dont ils mettent en œuvre le système de soutien direct tout en les obligeant à notifier à la Commission les principaux choix politiques..
Cette synthèse reflète le contenu des notifications des États membres à la disposition des services de la Commission au 23/01/2015. Elle est disponible sans préjudice de toute conclusion à l'égard de leur conformité avec le cadre réglementaire.
(le texte ci-dessous sera bientôt disponible en français)
What is greening?
Greening is a component of direct payments adopted to achieve a new CAP objective in order to enhance environmental performance of the European agriculture. The green payment applies in addition to the Basic Payment Scheme/SAPS and, in this sense, each holding will receive a payment per hectare. The green payment represents 30% of the available national envelope for direct payments and is linked to a number of sustainable agricultural practices beneficial for climate and environment. Those practices should take the form of simple, generalized, non-contractual and annual actions that go beyond cross-compliance and that are linked to agriculture, such as crop diversification, the maintenance of permanent grassland and the establishment of ecological focus areas. Such agricultural green practices apply to the whole eligible area of the holding.
This payment is compulsory and in case of non-compliance of greening conditions the green payment could be reduced until 100%. Moreover in order to make the green payment really compulsory a supplementary penalty of the Basic Payment is necessary. This will be in place after a three years phasing in period (0% in 2015-2016, 20% in 2017) at the end of which 25% penalty will apply.
How greening is implemented?
The 3 basic measures foreseen are:
- maintaining permanent grassland;
- crop diversification: a farmer must cultivate at least 2 crops when his arable land exceeds 10 hectares and at least 3 crops when his arable land exceeds 30 hectares. The main crop may cover at most 75% of arable land, and the two main crops at most 95% of the arable area;
- maintaining an “ecological focus area” of at least 5% of the arable area of the holding for farms with an area larger than 15 hectares (excluding permanent grassland) – i.e. fallow land, landscape features, buffer strips, afforested area, catch crops and nitrogen fixing crops. Member States have to establish a list of eligible EFA in their territories before 1st August 2014. This figure will rise to 7% in 2017 after the Commission publishes a report including a legislative proposal.
Member States may decide to apply equivalent practices of the 3 greening basic measures. These equivalent practices shall be based on agri-environment schemes and certification schemes. In the basic Regulation there is a non-exhaustive list of such equivalent measures which can be considered.